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Mathematics Mathematics Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity,[1] structure,[2] space,[1] and change.[3][4][5] It has no generally accepted definition.[6][7] Mathematicians seek out patterns[8][9] and use them to formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proof. When mathematical structures are good models of real phenomena, then mathematical reasoning can provide insight or predictions about nature. Through the use of abstraction and logic, mathematics developed from counting, calculation, measurement, and the systematic study of the shapes and motions of physical objects. Practical mathematics has been a human activity from as far back as written records exist [...More...]  "Mathematics" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Before Christ The terms anno Domini[a][1][2] (AD) and before Christ[b][3][4][5] (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin Medieval Latin and means "in the year of the Lord",[6] but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord",[7][8] taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus Jesus Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus Jesus of Nazareth, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch, and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC [...More...]  "Before Christ" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Prehistoric Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools c. 3.3 million years ago and the invention of writing systems. The earliest writing systems appeared c. 5,300 years ago, but writing was not used in some human cultures until the 19th century or even later. The end of prehistory therefore came at very different dates in different places, and the term is less often used in discussing societies where prehistory ended relatively recently. Sumer Sumer in Mesopotamia, the Indus valley civilisation Indus valley civilisation and ancient Egypt were the first civilisations to develop their own scripts, and to keep historical records; this took place already during the early Bronze Age. Neighbouring civilizations were the first to follow. Most other civilizations reached the end of prehistory during the Iron Iron Age [...More...]  "Prehistoric" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Calipers A caliper (British spelling also calliper, or in plurale tantum sense a pair of calipers) is a device used to measure the distance between two opposite sides of an object. A caliper can be as simple as a compass with inward or outwardfacing points [...More...]  "Calipers" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Raphael Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino[2] (Italian: [raffaˈɛllo ˈsantsjo da urˈbiːno]; March 28 or April 6, 1483 – April 6, 1520),[3] known as Raphael Raphael (/ˈræfeɪəl/, US: /ˈræfiəl, ˌrɑːfaɪˈɛl/), was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur.[4] Together with Michelangelo Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.[5] Raphael Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop and, despite his death at 37, leaving a large body of work. Many of his works are found in the Vatican Palace, where the frescoed Raphael Rooms were the central, and the largest, work of his career [...More...]  "Raphael" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

The School Of Athens The School of Athens The School of Athens (Italian: Scuola di Atene) is one of the most famous frescoes by the Italian Renaissance Italian Renaissance artist Raphael. It was painted between 1509 and 1511 as a part of Raphael's commission to decorate the rooms now known as the Stanze di Raffaello, in the Apostolic Palace Apostolic Palace in the Vatican [...More...]  "The School Of Athens" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Deductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.[1] Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning goes in the same direction as that of the conditionals, and links premises with conclusions. If all premises are true, the terms are clear, and the rules of deductive logic are followed, then the conclusion reached is necessarily true. Deductive reasoning Deductive reasoning ("topdown logic") contrasts with inductive reasoning ("bottomup logic") in the following way; in deductive reasoning, a conclusion is reached reductively by applying general rules which hold over the entirety of a closed domain of discourse, narrowing the range under consideration until only the conclusion(s) is left [...More...]  "Deductive Reasoning" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Motion (physics) In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time. Motion is described in terms of displacement, distance, velocity, acceleration, time, and speed. Motion of a body is observed by attaching a frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame. If the position of a body is not changing with respect to a given frame of reference, the body is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (timeinvariant) position. An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force, as described. Momentum Momentum is a quantity which is used for measuring the motion of an object [...More...]  "Motion (physics)" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Measurement Measurement Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.[1][2] The scope and application of a measurement is dependent on the context and discipline. In the natural sciences and engineering, measurements do not apply to nominal properties of objects or events, which is consistent with the guidelines of the International vocabulary of metrology published by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures.[2] However, in other fields such as statistics as well as the social and behavioral sciences, measurements can have multiple levels, which would include nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio scales.[1][3] Measurement Measurement is a cornerstone of trade, science, technology, and quantitative research in many disciplines. Historically, many measurement systems existed for the varied fields of human existence to facilitate comparisons in these fields [...More...]  "Measurement" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Counting Counting Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects. The traditional way of counting consists of continually increasing a (mental or spoken) counter by a unit for every element of the set, in some order, while marking (or displacing) those elements to avoid visiting the same element more than once, until no unmarked elements are left; if the counter was set to one after the first object, the value after visiting the final object gives the desired number of elements [...More...]  "Counting" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Ancient Greek The Ancient Greek language Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often roughly divided into the Archaic period (9th to 6th centuries BC), Classical period (5th and 4th centuries BC), and Hellenistic period Hellenistic period (Koine Greek, 3rd century BC to the 4th century AD). It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek and succeeded by medieval Greek. Koine is regarded as a separate historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek Attic Greek and in its latest form it approaches Medieval Greek [...More...]  "Ancient Greek" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Quantity Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude. Quantities can be compared in terms of "more", "less", or "equal", or by assigning a numerical value in terms of a unit of measurement. Quantity is among the basic classes of things along with quality, substance, change, and relation. Some quantities are such by their inner nature (as number), while others are functioning as states (properties, dimensions, attributes) of things such as heavy and light, long and short, broad and narrow, small and great, or much and little. Two basic divisions of quantity, magnitude and multitude, imply the principal distinction between continuity (continuum) and discontinuity. Under the name of multitude come what is discontinuous and discrete and divisible into indivisibles, all cases of collective nouns: army, fleet, flock, government, company, party, people, chorus, crowd, mess, and number [...More...]  "Quantity" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Timeline Of Scientific Discoveries The timeline below shows the date of publication of possible major scientific theories and discoveries, along with the discoverer. In many cases, the discoveries spanned several years.Contents1 4th century BCE 2 3rd century BCE 3 2nd century BCE 4 1st century 5 2nd century 6 3rd century 7 9th century 8 10th century 9 11th century 10 12th century 11 13th century 12 14th century 13 15th century 14 16th century 15 17th century 16 18th century 17 19th century 18 20th century 19 21st century 20 References 21 External links4th century BCE[edit]4th century BCE  Mandragora (containing atropin) was described by Theophrastus Theophrastus in the fourth century B.C.E. for treatment of wounds, gout, and sleeplessness, and as a love potion. By the first century C.E [...More...]  "Timeline Of Scientific Discoveries" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Tally Sticks A tally stick (or simply tally[1]) was an ancient memory aid device used to record and document numbers, quantities, or even messages. Tally sticks first appear as animal bones carved with notches during the Upper Paleolithic; a notable example is the Ishango Bone. Historical reference is made by Pliny the Elder Pliny the Elder (AD 23–79) about the best wood to use for tallies, and by Marco Polo Marco Polo (1254–1324) who mentions the use of the tally in China [...More...]  "Tally Sticks" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Mayan Numerals The Mayan numeral system was the system to represent numbers and calendar dates in the Maya civilization. It was a vigesimal (base20) positional numeral system. The numerals are made up of three symbols; zero (shell shape, with the plastron uppermost), one (a dot) and five (a bar). For example, thirteen is written as three dots in a horizontal row above two horizontal bars; sometimes it is also written as three vertical dots to the left of two vertical bars. With these three symbols each of the twenty vigesimal digits could be written.400s20s1s33 429 5125Numbers after 19 were written vertically in powers of twenty. The Mayan used powers of twenty, just as our HinduArabic numeral system uses powers of tens.[1] For example, thirtythree would be written as one dot, above three dots atop two bars. The first dot represents "one twenty" or "1×20", which is added to three dots and two bars, or thirteen. Therefore, (1×20) + 13 = 33 [...More...]  "Mayan Numerals" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 

Shape A shape is the form of an object or its external boundary, outline, or external surface, as opposed to other properties such as color, texture or material composition. Psychologists have theorized that humans mentally break down images into simple geometric shapes called geons.[1] Examples of geons include cones and spheres.Contents1 Classification of simple shapes 2 Shape Shape in geometry2.1 Equivalence of shapes 2.2 Congruence and similarity 2.3 Homeomorphism3 Shape Shape analysis 4 Similarity classes 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksClassification of simple shapes[edit] Main article: Lists of shapesA variety of polygonal shapes.Some simple shapes can be put into broad categories. For instance, polygons are classified according to their number of edges as triangles, quadrilaterals, pentagons, etc. Each of these is divided into smaller categories; triangles can be equilateral, isosceles, obtuse, acute, scalene, etc [...More...]  "Shape" on: Wikipedia Yahoo 