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Martyr
A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, "witness"; stem μάρτυρ-, mártyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a belief or cause as demanded by an external party. This refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of the martyr by the oppressor. Originally applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people imprisoned[citation needed] or killed for espousing a political cause. Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming symbols of exceptional leadership and heroism in the face of difficult circumstances
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North Korea
Coordinates: 40°00′N 127°00′E / 40.000°N 127.000°E / 40.000; 127.000Democratic People's Republic of Korea 조선민주주의인민공화국 Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin KonghwagukFlagEmblemAnthem: "Aegukka" Korean: 애국가, The Patriotic SongArea controlled by the North Korean state are shown in dark green; North Korean-claimed but uncontrolled regions shown in light green.Status Sovereign stateCapital and largest city Pyongyang 39°2′N 125°45′E / 39.033°N 125.750°E / 39.033; 125.750Official languages Korean[1]Official script Chosŏn'gŭl[2]DemonymNorth Korean KoreanGovernment Unitary one-party Juche
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Republic Of China
Taiwan
Taiwan
(/ˌtaɪˈwɑːn/ ( listen)), officially the Republic of China
China
(ROC), is a state in East Asia.[15][16][17] Its neighbors include the People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) to the west, Japan
Japan
to the northeast, and the Philippines
Philippines
to the south. It is the most populous state and largest economy that is not a member of the United Nations. The island of Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, was inhabited by aborigines before the 17th century, when Dutch and Spanish colonies opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the last dynasty of China. The Qing ceded Taiwan
Taiwan
to Japan
Japan
in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War
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Tongmenghui
The Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
(or T'ung-meng Hui, variously translated Chinese United League, United League, Chinese Revolutionary Alliance, Chinese Alliance, United Allegiance Society) was a secret society and underground resistance movement founded by Sun Yat-sen, Song Jiaoren, and others in Tokyo, Japan, on 20 August 1905.[1][2] It was formed from the merger of many Chinese revolutionary groups in the late Qing dynasty.Contents1 History1.1 Revolutionary era 1.2 Republican era2 Slogan and motto 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksHistory[edit] Revolutionary era[edit]Credential of Tongmenghui.The Tongmenghui
Tongmenghui
was created through the unification of Sun Yat-sen's Xingzhonghui (Revive China Society), the Guangfuhui (Restoration Society) and many other Chinese revolutionary groups
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Vietnam
Coordinates: 16°10′N 107°50′E / 16.167°N 107.833°E / 16.167; 107.833Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam Cộng hòa xã hội chủ nghĩa Việt Nam  (Vietnamese)FlagEmblemMotto: Độc lập – Tự do – Hạnh phúc "Independence – Freedom – Happiness"Anthem: Tiến Quân Ca[a] (English: "Army March")Location of  Vietnam  (green) in ASEAN  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]Capital Hanoi 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.850°E / 21.033; 105.850Largest city
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Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
(/bəˈhɑːʊˌlɑː/; Arabic: بهاء الله‎, "Glory of God"; 12 November 1817 – 29 May 1892 and Muharram 2, 1233 - Dhu'l Qa'dah 2, 1309), born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Núrí (Persian: میرزا حسین‌علی نوری‎), was the founder of the Bahá'í
Bahá'í
Faith. He claimed to be the prophetic fulfilment of Bábism, a 19th-century outgrowth of Shaykhism,[1] and, in a broader sense to be a Manifestation of God. He also claimed he was the fulfillment of the eschatological expectations of Islam, Christianity, and other major religions.[2] Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
became a follower of the Báb
Báb
in Persia
Persia
in 1845
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Religion
There is no scholarly consensus over what precisely constitutes a religion.[1][2] It may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophesies, ethics, or organizations, that relate humanity to the supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine,[3] sacred things,[4] faith,[5] a supernatural being or supernatural beings[6] or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life".[7] Religious practices may include rituals, sermons, commemoration or veneration (of deities), sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trances, initiations, funerary services, matrimonial services, meditation, prayer, music, art, dance, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, and symbols and holy places, that aim mostly to give a
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Constantine I
Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(Latin: Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Augustus;[2] Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος ὁ Μέγας; 27 February c. 272 AD[1] – 22 May 337 AD), also known as Constantine I or Saint Constantine, in the Orthodox Church
Orthodox Church
as Saint Constantine the Great, Equal-to-the-Apostles,[3] was a Roman Emperor of Illyrian and Greek origin from 306 to 337 AD. He was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius, a Roman Army
Roman Army
officer, and his consort Helena. His father became Caesar, the deputy emperor in the west, in 293 AD. Constantine was sent east, where he rose through the ranks to become a military tribune under Emperors Diocletian
Diocletian
and Galerius
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Jesus
Jesus[e] (c. 4 BC – c. AD 30 / 33), also referred to as Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth
Nazareth
and Jesus
Jesus
Christ,[f] was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.[12] He is the central figure of Christianity
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Loanword
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation
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English Language
English is a West Germanic language
West Germanic language
that was first spoken in early medieval England
England
and is now a global lingua franca.[4][5] Named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England, it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea. It is closely related to the Frisian languages, but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages, particularly Norse (a North Germanic
North Germanic
language), as well as by Latin
Latin
and Romance languages, especially French.[6] English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English
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Theodosius I
Theodosius I
Theodosius I
(Latin: Flavius Theodosius Augustus;[1] Greek: Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths
Goths
and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. He failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War, they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders
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Josephus
Titus
Titus
Flavius Josephus
Josephus
(/dʒoʊˈsiːfəs/;[1] Greek: Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – c. 100),[2][page needed] born Yosef ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף הכהן בן מתתיהו‬, Yosef ben Matityahu; Greek: Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς),[3][4] was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry. He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasian
Vespasian
after the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus
Josephus
claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian
Vespasian
becoming Emperor of Rome
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Óscar Romero
Oscar or Oskar is a masculine given name derived from either Irish or Proto-Germanic.[1][2] Oscar is the third most popular name for males born in Sweden.[3] Oskar is ranked 51 in terms of the most popular male names in Sweden.[4]Contents1 Etymology 2 Cognates 3 People with the given name Oscar 4 People with the given name Oskar 5 People with the given name Oskari 6 People with the given name Oszkár 7 People with the given name Óscar 8 Fictional characters with the given name Oscar or Oskar 9 See also 10 ReferencesEtymology[edit] The name may be derived from two elements in Irish: the first, os, means "deer"; the second element, car, means "loving", thus deer-loving one or the like. The name is borne by a character in Irish mythology—Oscar, grandson of Fionn Mac Cumhaill
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Socrates
Socrates
Socrates
(/ˈsɒkrətiːz/;[2] Ancient Greek: Σωκρᾰ́της, translit. Sōkrátēs, [sɔːkrátɛːs]; c. 470 – 399 BC)[3][4] was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher,[5][6] of the Western ethical tradition of thought.[7][8][9] An enigmatic figure, he made no writings, and is known chiefly through the accounts of classical writers writing after his lifetime, particularly his students Plato
Plato
and Xenophon. Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos
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Ascetics
Asceticism
Asceticism
(/əˈsɛtɪsɪzəm/; from the Greek: ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their practices or continue to be part of their society, but typically adopt a frugal lifestyle, characterised by the renunciation of material possessions and physical pleasures, and time spent fasting while concentrating on the practice of religion or reflection upon spiritual matters.[3] Asceticism
Asceticism
is classified into two types
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