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Margrave
MARGRAVE was originally the medieval title for the military commander assigned to maintain the defense of one of the border provinces of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
or of a kingdom . That position became hereditary in certain feudal families in the Empire, and the title came to be borne by rulers of some Imperial principalities until the abolition of the Empire in 1806 (e.g., Margrave of Brandenburg , Margrave of Baden ). Thereafter, those domains were absorbed in larger realms or the titleholders adopted titles indicative of full sovereignty. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Rank * 3 Usage * 4 Translations * 5 Variations * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links HISTORYEtymologically, the word "margrave" (Latin: marchio ca
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Realm
A REALM /ˈrɛlm/ is a community or territory over which a sovereign rules; it is commonly used to describe a kingdom or other monarchical or dynastic state. The Old French word reaume, modern French royaume, was the word first adopted in English; the fixed modern spelling does not appear until the beginning of the 17th century. The word supposedly derives from medieval Latin regalimen, from regalis, of or belonging to a rex (king). The word rex itself is derived from the Latin verb regere, which means "to rule". Thus the literal meaning of the word realm is the territory of a ruler, traditionally a monarch (emperor, king, grand duke, prince, etc.). "Realm" is particularly used for those states whose name includes the word kingdom (for example, the United Kingdom ), as elegant variation , to avoid clumsy repetition of the word in a sentence (for example, "The Queen's realm, the United Kingdom...")
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Vassal
A VASSAL is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch , in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including land held as a tenant or fief . The term is applied to similar arrangements in other feudal societies. In contrast, a fidelity , or fidelitas, was a sworn, unconditional loyalty to a monarch. CONTENTS * 1 Western vassalage * 2 Difference between "vassal" and "vassal state" * 3 Feudal Japanese equivalents * 4 See also * 5 Compare * 6 Notes * 7 References * 8 External links WESTERN VASSALAGEIn fully developed VASSALAGE, the lord and the vassal would take part in a commendation ceremony composed of two parts, the homage and the fealty , including the use of Christian sacraments to show its sacred importance
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Lord
LORD is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority , control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler . The
The
appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the peerage in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, or are entitled to courtesy titles . The
The
collective "Lords" can refer to a group or body of peers
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Carolingian
Non-agnatic lines: * Robertian dynasty * House of Capet * Bosonid dynasty CAROLINGIAN DYNASTY PIPPINIDS * Pippin the Elder (c. 580–640) * Grimoald (616–656) * Childebert the Adopted (d. 662) ARNULFINGS * Arnulf of Metz (582–640) * Ansegisel
Ansegisel
(d. 662 or 679) * Chlodulf of Metz (d. 696 or 697) * Pepin of Herstal (635-714) * Grimoald II (d. 714) * Drogo of Champagne (670–708) * Theudoald (d. 741) CAROLINGIANS * Charles Martel
Charles Martel
(686–741) * Carloman (d
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Semantics
SEMANTICS (from Ancient Greek
Ancient Greek
: σημαντικός sēmantikos, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning , in language , programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics . It is concerned with the relationship between signifiers—like words , phrases , signs , and symbols —and what they stand for, their denotation . In international scientific vocabulary semantics is also called semasiology . The word semantics was first used by Michel Bréal , a French philologist. It denotes a range of ideas—from the popular to the highly technical. It is often used in ordinary language for denoting a problem of understanding that comes down to word selection or connotation . This problem of understanding has been the subject of many formal enquiries, over a long period of time, especially in the field of formal semantics
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Governor
A GOVERNOR is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state . In federations , governor may be the title of a politician who governs a constituent state and may be either appointed or elected. The power of the individual governor can vary dramatically between political systems, with some governors having only nominal or largely ceremonial power, while others having a complete control over the entire government. Historically, the title can also apply to the executive officials acting as representatives of a chartered company which has been granted exercise of sovereignty in a colonial area, such as the British East India Company
East India Company
or the Dutch East India Company
East India Company
. These companies operate as a major state within a state with its own armed forces
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Middle Ages
In the history of Europe , the MIDDLE AGES (or MEDIEVAL PERIOD) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
and merged into the Renaissance
Renaissance
and the Age of Discovery . The Middle Ages
Middle Ages
is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history: classical antiquity , the medieval period, and the modern period . The medieval period is itself subdivided into the Early , High , and Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
. Population decline , counterurbanisation , invasion, and movement of peoples, which had begun in Late Antiquity , continued in the Early Middle Ages
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Military Occupation
MILITARY OCCUPATION is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign. Military occupation
Military occupation
is distinguished from annexation by its intended temporary nature (i.e. no claim for permanent sovereignty), by its military nature, and by citizenship rights of the controlling power not being conferred upon the subjugated population. MILITARY GOVERNMENT may be broadly characterized as the administration or supervision of occupied territory, or as the governmental form of such an administration. Military government is distinguished from martial law , which is the temporary rule by domestic armed forces over disturbed areas
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Al-Andalus
AL-ANDALUS (Arabic : الأنْدَلُس‎‎, trans. al-ʼAndalus; Spanish : al-Ándalus; Portuguese : al-Ândalus; Catalan : al-Àndalus; Berber : Andalus), also known as MUSLIM SPAIN or ISLAMIC IBERIA, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal. At its greatest geographical extent in the 8th century, southern France—Septimania —was briefly under its control
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Late Middle Ages
The LATE MIDDLE AGES or LATE MEDIEVAL PERIOD were the period of European history generally comprising the 14th and 15th centuries (c. 1301–1500). The Late Middle Ages
Middle Ages
followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern era (and, in much of Europe, the Renaissance
Renaissance
). Around 1300, centuries of prosperity and growth in Europe
Europe
came to a halt. A series of famines and plagues, including the Great Famine
Famine
of 1315–1317 and the Black Death
Black Death
, reduced the population to around half of what it was before the calamities. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare
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Fief
A FIEF (/ˈfiːf/ ; Latin : feudum) was the central element of feudalism and consisted of heritable property or rights granted by an overlord to a vassal who held it in fealty (or "in fee") in return for a form of feudal allegiance and service, usually given by the personal ceremonies of homage and fealty. The fees were often lands or revenue-producing real property held in feudal land tenure : these are typically known as FIEFS or FIEFDOMS. However, not only land but anything of value could be held in fee, including governmental office, rights of exploitation such as hunting or fishing, monopolies in trade, and tax farms
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Carolingian Empire
The CAROLINGIAN EMPIRE (800–888) was a large empire in western and central Europe during the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. It was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty
Carolingian dynasty
, which had ruled as kings of the Franks
Franks
since 751 and as kings of the Lombards
Lombards
of Italy
Italy
from 774. In 800, the Frankish king Charlemagne
Charlemagne
was crowned emperor in Rome
Rome
by Pope Leo III in an effort to revive the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the west during a vacancy in the throne of the eastern Roman Empire
Roman Empire

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Pyrenees
The PYRENEES (/ˈpɪrᵻniːz/ ; Spanish : Pirineos , French : Pyrénées , Aragonese : Pirineus, Catalan : Pirineus , Occitan : Pirenèus, Basque : Pirinioak or Auñamendiak ) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe
Europe
that forms a natural border between France
France
and Spain
Spain
. Reaching a height of 3,404 metres (11,168 ft) altitude at the peak of Aneto
Aneto
, the range separates the Iberian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe, and extends for about 491 km (305 mi) from the Bay of Biscay
Bay of Biscay
( Cap Higuer ) to the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
( Cap de Creus ). For the most part, the main crest forms a divide between France
France
and Spain, with the microstate of Andorra
Andorra
sandwiched in between
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