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Man-of-war
The man-of-war (pl. men-of-war; also man of war, man-o'-war, man o' war, or simply man)[1][2] was a British Royal Navy
Royal Navy
expression for a powerful warship or frigate from the 16th to the 19th century. The term often refers to a ship armed with cannon and propelled primarily by sails, as opposed to a galley which is propelled primarily by oars. The man-of-war was developed in Portugal in the early 15th century from earlier roundships with the addition of a second mast to form the carrack. The 16th century saw the carrack evolve into the galleon and then the ship of the line. The evolution of the term has been given thus:Man-of-war. "A phrase applied to a line of battle ship, contrary to the usual rule in the English language by which all ships are feminine. It probably arose in the following manner: 'Men of war' were heavily armed soldiers
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Sailing
Sailing
Sailing
employs the wind—acting on sails, wingsails or kites—to propel a craft on the surface of the water (sailing ship, sailboat, windsurfer, or kitesurfer), on ice (iceboat) or on land (land yacht) over a chosen course, which is often part of a larger plan of navigation. A course defined with respect to the true wind direction is called a point of sail. Conventional sailing craft cannot derive power from sails on a point of sail that is too close into the wind. On a given point of sail, the sailor adjusts the alignment of each sail with respect to the apparent wind direction (as perceived on the craft) to mobilize the power of the wind. The forces transmitted via the sails are resisted by forces from the hull, keel, and rudder of a sailing craft, by forces from skate runners of an iceboat, or by forces from wheels of a land sailing craft to allow steering the course. In the 21st century, most sailing represents a form of recreation or sport
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Oar
An oar is an implement used for water-borne propulsion. Oars have a flat blade at one end. Rowers grasp the oar at the other end. The difference between oars and paddles are that paddles are held by the paddler, and are not connected with the vessel. Oars generally are connected to the vessel by means of rowlocks or tholes which transmit the applied force to the boat. In this system (known as a second class lever)[1] the water is the fulcrum. Rowers generally face the stern of the vessel, reach towards the stern, and insert the blade of their oar in the water. As they lean back, towards the vessel's bow, the blade of their oars sweeps the water towards the stern, providing forward thrust – see lever. For thousands of years vessels were powered either by sails, or the mechanical work of rowers, or paddlers
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Cargo Ship
A cargo ship or freighter ship is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. Thousands of cargo carriers ply the world's seas and oceans each year, handling the bulk of international trade. Cargo
Cargo
ships are usually specially designed for the task, often being equipped with cranes and other mechanisms to load and unload, and come in all sizes. Today, they are almost always built by welded steel, and with some exceptions generally have a life expectancy of 25 to 30 years before being scrapped.[citation needed]Contents1 Types 2 History 3 Piracy 4 Definitions 5 Vessel prefixes 6 Famous cargo ships 7 Size categories 8 Pollution 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksTypes[edit]A US cargo ship off McMurdo Station, Antarctica Cargo
Cargo
ships/freighters can be divided into six groups, according to the type of cargo they carry
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Knot (unit)
The knot (/nɒt/) is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h (approximately 1.15078 mph).[1] The ISO standard symbol for the knot is kn.[2] The same symbol is preferred by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE); kt is also common
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Gun Deck
The term gun deck used to refer to a deck aboard a ship that was primarily used for the mounting of cannon to be fired in broadsides. The term is generally applied to decks enclosed under a roof; smaller and unrated vessels carried their guns on the upper deck, forecastle and quarterdeck, and these were not described as gun decks.[1] On marine seismic survey vessels, the lowest deck on the ship is normally referred to as the gun deck. This deck carries the seismic source arrays, consisting of air guns arranged in clusters.[2][3] Slang[edit] The term "gun deck" is also navy slang for fabricating or falsifying something. A possible explanation relates to midshipmen retiring to the gun deck to complete their celestial navigation assignments of computing the ship's position three times daily following morning star sights, noon sun line, and evening star sights
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John Hawkins (naval Commander)
Admiral Sir John Hawkins (also spelled as Hawkyns) (1532 – 12 November 1595) was an English slave trader, naval commander and administrator, merchant, navigator, shipbuilder and privateer. His elder brother and trading partner was William (b. c. 1519). He was considered the first English trader to profit from the Triangle Trade, based on selling supplies to colonies ill-supplied by their home countries, and their demand for African slaves in the Spanish colonies of Santo Domingo
Santo Domingo
and Venezuela
Venezuela
in the late 16th century. He styled himself "Captain General" as the General of both his own flotilla of ships and those of the English Royal Navy
Royal Navy
and to distinguish himself from those Admirals that served only in the administrative sense and were not military in nature
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Crab Claw Sail
The crab claw sail or, as it is sometimes known, Oceanic lateen or Oceanic sprit, is a triangular sail with spars along upper and lower edges. The crab claw sail is used in many traditional Pacific Ocean cultures, as can be seen by the traditional proa and tepukei.Contents1 Construction1.1 Proa 1.2 Tepukei 1.3 Non-shunting crab claw2 Performance 3 See also3.1 Related rigs4 External links 5 ReferencesConstruction[edit] The crab claw sail consists of a sail, approximately an isosceles triangle in shape. The equal length sides are usually longer than the third side, with spars along the long sides. The crab claw may also traditionally be constructed with curved spars, giving the edges of the sail along the spars a convex shape, while the leech of the sail is often quite concave to keep it stiff on the trailing edge
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Rigging
Rigging
Rigging
comprises the system of ropes, cables and chains, which support a sailing ship or sail boat's masts—standing rigging, including shrouds and stays—and which adjust the position of the vessel's sails and spars to which they are attached—the running rigging, including halyards, braces, sheets and vangs.[1]Contents1 Etymology 2 Types of rigging2.1 Standing2.1.1 Fore-and-aft rigged vessels 2.1.2 Square-rigged vessels2.2 Running3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksEtymology[edit] According to the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
"rigging" derives from Anglo-Saxon wrigan or wringing, "to clothe"
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Lateen
A lateen (from French latine, meaning "Latin"[1]) or latin-rig is a triangular sail set on a long yard mounted at an angle on the mast, and running in a fore-and-aft direction. Dating back to Roman navigation, the lateen became the favourite sail of the Age of Discovery, mainly because it allows a boat to tack "against the wind." It is common in the Mediterranean, the upper Nile River, and the northwestern parts of the Indian Ocean, where it is the standard rig for feluccas and dhows
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Lug Sail
The lug sail, or lugsail, is a fore-and-aft, four-cornered sail that is suspended from a spar, called a yard. When raised the sail area overlaps the mast. For "standing lug" rigs, the sail remains on the same side of the mast on both the port and starboard tacks. For "dipping lug" rigs, the sail is lowered partially to be brought around to the leeward side of the mast in order to optimize the efficiency of the sail on both tacks. The lug sail is evolved from the square sail to improve how close the vessel can sail into the wind. Square sails, on the other hand, are symmetrically mounted in front of the mast and are manually angled to catch the wind on opposite tacks
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Rating System Of The Royal Navy
The rating system of the Royal Navy and its predecessors was used by the British Royal Navy
British Royal Navy
between the beginning of the 17th century and the middle of the 19th century to categorise sailing warships, initially classing them according to their assigned complement of men, and later according to the number of their carriage-mounted guns.Contents1 Origins and description1.1 The Stuart era 1.2 First, second and third rates (ships of the line) 1.3 Fourth, fifth and sixth rates 1.4 Unrated vessels2 The number of guns and the rate 3 Royal Navy ratin
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Sail
A sail is a tensile structure—made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, windsurfers, ice boats, and even sail-powered land vehicles. Sails may be made from a combination of woven materials—including canvas or polyester cloth, laminated membranes or bonded filaments—usually in a three- or four-sided shape. A sail provides propulsive force via a combination of lift and drag, depending on its angle of attack—its angle with respect to the apparent wind. Apparent wind is the air velocity experienced on the moving craft and is the combined effect of the true wind velocity with the velocity of the sailing craft. Angle of attack
Angle of attack
is often constrained by the sailing craft's orientation to the wind or point of sail
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Cannon
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant. In the past, gunpowder was the primary propellant before the invention of smokeless powder in the 19th century. Cannon
Cannon
vary in caliber, range, mobility, rate of fire, angle of fire, and firepower; different forms of cannon combine and balance these attributes in varying degrees, depending on their intended use on the battlefield. The word cannon is derived from several languages, in which the original definition can usually be translated as tube, cane, or reed
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East India Companies (other)
The East India Company, also known as the English East India Company, the British East India Company, and the Honourable East India Company was an English company founded in 1600 East India Company may also refer to: Historical European companies[edit]Austrian East India Company Danish East India Company Dutch East India Company, also known as the United East India Company or United East Indian Company French East India Company Portuguese East India Company Swedish East India CompanyOther uses[edit]East India Company (video game) The East India Company, a retail business founded by Sanjiv Mehta in 2010See also[edit]West India Company (other)Disambiguation page providing links to articles with similar titles This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title East India Company. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the
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Willem Van De Velde The Younger
Willem van de Velde the Younger
Willem van de Velde the Younger
(bapt. 18 December 1633; died 6 April 1707) was a Dutch marine painter.Contents1 Biography 2 Works2.1 Gallery3 References 4 External linksBiography[edit] Willem van de Velde was baptised on 18 December 1633 in Leiden, Holland, Dutch Republic. A son of Willem van de Velde the Elder, also a painter of sea-pieces, Willem van de Velde, the younger, was instructed by his father, and afterwards by Simon de Vlieger, a marine painter of repute at the time, and had achieved great celebrity by his art before he came to London. By 1673 he had moved to England, where he was engaged by Charles II, at a salary of £100, to aid his father in "taking and making draughts of sea-fights", his part of the work being to reproduce in color the drawings of the elder Van de Velde
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