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Mamluks
Mamluk (Arabic: Arabic language text" xml:lang="ar">مملوك mamlūk (singular), Arabic language text" xml:lang="ar">مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves
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Arabic Language
Arabic (Arabic: اَلْعَرَبِيَّةُ‎, al-ʿarabiyyah, International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">[al ʕaraˈbijːa] (About this sound
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Bey
Bey” (Ottoman Turkish: بك‎ “Beik”, Albanian: bej, Bosnian: beg, Arabic: بيه‎ “Beyeh”, Persian: بیگ‎ “Beyg” or Persian: بگ‎ “Beg”) is a Turkish title for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders or rulers of various sized areas in the Ottoman Empire. The feminine equivalent title was Begum. The regions or provinces where "beys" ruled or which they administered were called beylik, roughly meaning "khanate", "emirate" or "principality" in the first case and "province" or "governorate" in the second (the equivalent of duchy in other parts of Europe). Today, the word is still used formally as a social title for men
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Greeks
Pontic Steppe

Arabic Transliteration
The romanization of Arabic writes written and spoken Arabic in the Latin script in one of various systematic ways. Romanized Arabic is used for a number of different purposes, among them transcription of names and titles, cataloging Arabic language works, language education when used in lieu of or alongside the Arabic script, and representation of the language in scientific publications by linguists. These formal systems, which often make use of diacritics and non-standard Latin characters and are used in academic settings or for the benefit of non-speakers, contrast with informal means of written communication used by speakers such as the Latin-based Arabic chat alphabet. Different systems and strategies have been developed to address the inherent problems of rendering various Arabic varieties in the Latin script
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Levant
The Levant (/ləˈvænt/) is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean region of Western Asia. In its narrowest sense, it is equivalent to the Syria (region)">historical region of Syria, which included present-day Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel and Palestine
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Iraq
Iraq (/ɪˈræk/, /ɪˈrɑːk/ (
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India
India (Hindi: Hindi language) transliteration">Bhārat), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: Hindi language) transliteration">Bhārat Gaṇarājya), is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west; China, Nepal, and Bhutan to the north; and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east
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Sultan
Sultan (/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic language">Arabic: سلطانsulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun Arabic language text" xml:lang="ar">سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate
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Emir
An emir (/əˈmɪər, ˈmɪər, ˈmɪər/; Arabic language">Arabic: أميرʾamīr [ʔaˈmiːr]), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries and Afghanistan. It means "commander", "general", or "prince". The feminine form is emira ( Arabic language text" xml:lang="ar">أميرة ʾamīrah)
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Crusades
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most commonly known Crusades were the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim conquests"> Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is also applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns. These were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and Heresy in Christianity">heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont
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Balkans
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions. The region takes its name from the Balkan Mountains that stretch from the Serbian-Bulgarian border to the Black Sea. The Balkan Peninsula is bordered by the Adriatic Sea on the northwest, the Ionian Sea on the southwest, the Aegean Sea in the south and southeast, and the Black Sea on the east and northeast. The northern border of the peninsula is variously defined
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Daniel Hopfer
Daniel is a masculine given name and a surname of Hebrew origin. It means, "God is my judge", and derives from two early biblical figures, primary among them Daniel from the Book of Daniel. It is a common given name for males, and is also used as a surname
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Baghdad
Baghdad (/ˈbæɡdæd, bəɡˈdæd/; Arabic language">Arabic: بغداد[baɣˈdaːd] (About this sound listen)) is the capital of Iraq. The population of Baghdad, as of 2016, is approximately 8,765,000, making it the largest city in Iraq, the second largest city in the Arab world"> Arab world (after Cairo, Egypt), and the second largest city in Western Asia (after Tehran, Iran). Located along the Tigris River, the city was founded in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate
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Al-Mu'tasim
Abū Isḥāq Muḥammad ibn Hārūn al-Rashīd (Arabic: أبو إسحاق محمد بن هارون الرشيد‎; October 796 – 5 January 842), better known by his regnal name al-Muʿtaṣim bi’llāh (المعتصم بالله, "he who seeks refuge in God"), was the eighth Abbasid caliph, ruling from 833 to his death in 842. A younger son of Harun al-Rashid, he rose to prominence through his formation of a private army composed predominantly of Turkish slave-soldiers (ghilmān). This proved useful to his half-brother, Caliph al-Ma'mun, who made use of al-Mu'tasim and his Turkish guard to counterbalance other powerful interest groups in the state, as well as employing them in campaigns against rebels and the Byzantine Empire
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