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Male
A MALE ( ) organism is the physiological sex that produces sperm . Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete, or ovum , in the process of fertilization . A male cannot reproduce sexually without access to at least one ovum from a female, but some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually. Most male mammals , including male humans, have a Y chromosome , which codes for the production of larger amounts of testosterone to develop male reproductive organs . Not all species share a common sex-determination system . In most animals , including humans , sex is determined genetically , but in some species it can be determined due to social, environmental, or other factors. For example, _ Cymothoa exigua _ changes sex depending on the number of females present in the vicinity
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Malé
Coordinates : 04°10′31″N 073°30′32″E / 4.17528°N 73.50889°E / 4.17528; 73.50889 Malé މާލެ City Aerial view of the whole of Malé on the eponymous island as seen from the southwest Malé Location of Malé in the Maldives Coordinates: 04°10′31″N 073°30′32″E / 4.17528°N 73.50889°E / 4.17528; 73.50889 COUNTRY Maldives GEOGRAPHIC ATOLL North Malé Atoll GOVERNMENT • COUNCIL Malé City Council (MDP ) • MAYOR Shifa Mohammed AREA • TOTAL 5.8 km2 (2.2 sq mi) ELEVATION 2.4 m (7.9 ft) POPULATION (2014) • TOTAL 133,412 • DENSITY 23,002/km2 (59,570/sq mi) TIME ZONE MVT (UTC+05:00 ) ASSIGNED LETTER T AREA CODE(S) 331, 332, 333, 334 ISO 3166 CODE MV-MLEMALé (/ˈmɑːl.eɪ/ , local pronunciation: Maldivian : މާލެ) is the capital and most populous city in the Republic of Maldives . With a population of 133,412 and an area of 5.8 square kilometres (2.2 sq mi), it is also one of the most densely populated cities in the world . The city is geographically located at the southern edge of North Malé Atoll (Kaafu Atoll ). Administratively, the city consists of a central island, an airport island, and two other islands governed by the Malé City Council. Traditionally it was the King's Island, from where the ancient royal dynasties ruled and where the palace was located. The city was then called Mahal
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Male (other)
MALE may refer to: * male , in biology, the half of a reproduction system that produces sperm cells * male plant * man , in the social sciences, the gender role to which males in most human cultures are expected to conform * in hardware and electronics, a type of connector, often but not always a "plug"; see gender of connectors and fasteners * masculine gender, in languages with grammatical gender IN GEOGRAPHY: * Malé , the capital of Maldives * Malé Island , the island the city is on * Malé Atoll , the atoll the island is in * Malé, Italy , a municipality in the province of Trento, Italy * Małe, Łódź Voivodeship , a village in central Poland * Małe, Pomeranian Voivodeship , a village in northern Poland * Mâle, Orne , a village in France * Male, Belgium , a quarter in Bruges * Male, Vikramgad , a village in Maharashtra, India * Male (woreda) , a woreda in Ethiopia * Males, Crete , a village in GreecePEOPLE: * Male (surname) * the Male people of Ethiopia * the Male language (Ethiopia) * the Male language (Papua New Guinea) OTHER: * Medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle * Male (film) , a 2015 Indian film * Male (Foetus album) , a 1992 live album by Foetus * Male (Natalie Imbruglia album) , a 2015 studio album by Natalie Imbruglia This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MALE. If an internal link led you here, you may wish
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Mars (mythology)
In ancient Roman religion and myth , MARS (Latin : Mārs, ) was the god of war and also an agricultural guardian, a combination characteristic of early Rome . He was second in importance only to Jupiter and he was the most prominent of the military gods in the religion of the Roman army
Roman army
. Most of his festivals were held in March, the month named for him (Latin Martius ), and in October, which began the season for military campaigning and ended the season for farming. Under the influence of Greek culture , Mars
Mars
was identified with the Greek god Ares
Ares
, whose myths were reinterpreted in Roman literature and art under the name of Mars. But the character and dignity of Mars differed in fundamental ways from that of his Greek counterpart, who is often treated with contempt and revulsion in Greek literature . Mars
Mars
was a part of the Archaic Triad along with Jupiter and Quirinus
Quirinus
, the latter of whom as a guardian of the Roman people had no Greek equivalent. Mars' altar in the Campus Martius , the area of Rome that took its name from him, was supposed to have been dedicated by Numa , the peace-loving semi-legendary second king of Rome
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Mars
7006339620000000000♠3,396.2±0.1 km   0.533 Earths POLAR RADIUS 7006337620000000000♠3,376.2±0.1 km   0.531 Earths FLATTENING 6997589000000000000♠0.00589±0.00015 SURFACE AREA 7014144798500000000♠144,798,500 km2 0.284 Earths VOLUME 7020163180000000000♠1.6318×1011 km3 0.151 Earths MASS 7023641710000000000♠6.4171×1023 kg 0.107 Earths MEAN DENSITY 7000393350000000000♠3.9335±0.0004 g/cm³ SURFACE GRAVITY 7000371100000000000♠3.711 m/s² 0.376 _g _ MOMENT OF INERTIA FACTOR 6999366200000000000♠0.3662±0.0017 ESCAPE VELOCITY 5.027 km/s SIDEREAL ROTATION PERIOD 7004886426848000000♠1.025957 d 24h 37m 22s EQUATORIAL ROTATION VELOCITY 868.22 km/h (241.17 m/s) AXIAL TILT 25.19° to its orbital plane NORTH POLE RIGHT ASCENSION 21h 10m 44s 7000554458692594390♠317.68143° NORTH POLE DECLINATION 6999923043554855983♠52.88650° ALBEDO 0.170 (geometric ) 0.25 (Bond ) SURFACE TEMP
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Alchemical Symbol
ALCHEMICAL SYMBOLS, originally devised as part of alchemy , were used to denote some elements and some compounds until the 18th century. Note that while notation like this was mostly standardized, style and symbol varied between alchemists, so this page lists the most common. CONTENTS * 1 Three primes * 2 Four basic elements * 3 Seven planetary metals * 4 Mundane elements * 5 Alchemical compounds * 6 Alchemical processes * 7 Unicode * 8 References * 9 External links THREE PRIMESAccording to Paracelsus
Paracelsus
(1493–1541), the three primes or _tria prima_ – of which material substances are immediately composed – are: * Mercury (spirit) * Salt (base matter or body) * Sulfur
Sulfur
(soul) FOUR BASIC ELEMENTS Main article: Classical elements Western alchemy makes use of the Hellenic elements. The symbols used for these are: * Air * Earth * Fire * Water SEVEN PLANETARY METALS Main articles: Classical planets in Western alchemy, Planets in astrology , and Metals of antiquity Seven metals are associated with the seven classical planets, and seven deities, all figuring heavily in alchemical symbolism. Although the metals occasionally have a glyph of their own, the planet's symbol is used most often, and the symbolic and mythological septenary is consistent with Western astrology
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Iron
IRON is a chemical element with symbol FE (from Latin : _ferrum_) and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series . It is by mass the most common element on Earth
Earth
, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core . It is the fourth most common element in the Earth\'s crust . Its abundance in rocky planets like Earth
Earth
is due to its abundant production by fusion in high-mass stars , where it is the last element to be produced with release of energy before the violent collapse of a supernova , which scatters the iron into space. Like the other group 8 elements , ruthenium and osmium , iron exists in a wide range of oxidation states , −2 to +6, although +2 and +3 are the most common. Elemental iron occurs in meteoroids and other low oxygen environments, but is reactive to oxygen and water . Fresh iron surfaces appear lustrous silvery-gray, but oxidize in normal air to give hydrated iron oxides , commonly known as rust . Unlike the metals that form passivating oxide layers, iron oxides occupy more volume than the metal and thus flake off, exposing fresh surfaces for corrosion. Iron
Iron
metal has been used since ancient times , although copper alloys , which have lower melting temperatures, were used even earlier in human history
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A PLANET SYMBOL (or _planetary symbol_) is a graphical symbol either in astrology or astronomy representing either a classical planet (including the Sun
Sun
and the Moon
Moon
) or one of the eight modern planets . In alchemy , the symbols are also used to represent the metals which are associated with the respective planets. The use of these symbols is based in ancient Greco-Roman tradition , although their current shapes are a development of the 16th century. The classical planets with their symbols and associated metals are: planet Moon Mercury Venus Sun Mars Jupiter Saturn symbol ☾ ☿ ♀ ☉ ♂ ♃ ♄ metal silver mercury copper gold iron tin leadFor the purposes of modern astronomy, the International Astronomical Union discourages the use of these symbols in journal articles. In certain cases where planetary symbols might be used, such as in the headings of tables, the IAU Style Manual propose one- and (to disambiguate Mercury and Mars) two-letter abbreviations for the names of the planets
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Organism
In biology , an ORGANISM (from Greek : οργανισμός, _organismos_) is any individual life form , of an animal , plant , fungus , or single-celled microorganism such as a protist , bacterium , and archaeon . All types of organisms are capable of reproduction , growth and development , maintenance , and some degree of response to stimuli . An organism consists of one or more cells ; when it has one cell it is known as a unicellular organism ; and when it has more than one it is known as a multicellular organism . Humans are multicellular organisms composed of many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs . An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote . Prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains —bacteria and archaea . Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a membrane-bound cell nucleus and contain additional membrane-bound compartments called organelles (such as mitochondria in animals and plants and plastids in plants and algae , all generally considered to be derived from endosymbiotic bacteria). Fungi, animals and plants are examples of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which only about 1.2 million have been documented. More than 99% of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived are estimated to be extinct
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Physiological
PHYSIOLOGY (/ˌfɪziˈɒlədʒi/ ; from Ancient Greek φύσις _(physis)_, meaning 'nature, origin', and -λογία _(-logia)_, meaning 'study of' ) is the scientific study of normal mechanisms , and their interactions, which works within a living system . A sub-discipline of biology , its focus is in how organisms, organ systems, organs , cells , and biomolecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. Given the size of the field, it is divided into, among others, animal physiology (including that of humans ), plant physiology , cellular physiology , microbial physiology (microbial metabolism ), bacterial physiology, and viral physiology. Central to an understanding of physiological functioning is its integrated nature with other disciplines such as chemistry and physics, coordinated homeostatic control mechanisms, and continuous communication between cells. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded to those who make significant achievements in this discipline by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences . In medicine, a PHYSIOLOGIC state is one occurring from normal body function, rather than pathologically , which is centered on the abnormalities that occur in animal diseases, including humans
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Sex
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a SEX, with some falling in between being intersex . Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent. Gametes can be identical in form and function (known as isogamy ), but in many cases an asymmetry has evolved such that two sex-specific types of gametes (heterogametes) exist (known as anisogamy ). Among humans and other mammals , males typically carry XY chromosomes , whereas females typically carry XX chromosomes, which are a part of the XY sex-determination system . Other animals have a sex-determination system as well, such as the ZW sex-determination system in birds, and the X0 sex-determination system in insects. The gametes produced by an organism are determined by its sex: males produce male gametes (spermatozoa, or sperm , in animals; pollen in plants) while females produce female gametes (ova , or egg cells); individual organisms which produce both male and female gametes are termed hermaphroditic . Frequently, physical differences are associated with the different sexes of an organism; these sexual dimorphisms can reflect the different reproductive pressures the sexes experience. For instance, mate choice and sexual selection can accelerate the evolution of physical differences between the sexes
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Sperm
SPERM is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) _sperma_ (meaning "seed"). In the types of sexual reproduction known as anisogamy and its subtype oogamy , there is a marked difference in the size of the gametes with the smaller one being termed the "male" or sperm cell. A uniflagellar sperm cell that is motile is referred to as a SPERMATOZOON , whereas a non-motile sperm cell is referred to as a SPERMATIUM. Sperm cells cannot divide and have a limited life span, but after fusion with egg cells during fertilization, a new organism begins developing, starting as a totipotent zygote . The human sperm cell is haploid , so that its 23 chromosomes can join the 23 chromosomes of the female egg to form a diploid cell. In mammals , sperm develops in the testicles and is released from the penis . Play media Video of human sperm cells recorded by an affordable home microscope
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Spermatozoon
A SPERMATOZOON (pronounced /ˌspɜːrmætəˈzoʊən/ , alternate spelling SPERMATOZOöN; plural SPERMATOZOA; from Ancient Greek : σπέρμα "seed" and Ancient Greek : ζῷον "living being") is a motile sperm cell , or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete . A spermatozoon joins an ovum to form a zygote . (A zygote is a single cell, with a complete set of chromosomes , that normally develops into an embryo .) Sperm cells contribute approximately half of the nuclear genetic information to the diploid offspring (excluding, in most cases, mitochondrial DNA ). In mammals, the sex of the offspring is determined by the sperm cell: a spermatozoon bearing a X chromosome will lead to a female (XX) offspring, while one bearing a Y chromosome will lead to a male (XY) offspring. Sperm cells were first observed by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1677
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Female
FEMALE (♀) is the sex of an organism , or a part of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cells). Barring rare medical conditions, most female mammals , including female humans , have two X chromosomes . CONTENTS * 1 Defining characteristics * 2 Etymology and usage * 3 Mammalian female * 4 Symbol * 5 Sex
Sex
determination * 5.1 Genetic determination * 5.2 Environmental determination * 6 See also * 7 Sources * 8 References DEFINING CHARACTERISTICSThe ova are defined as the larger gametes in a heterogamous reproduction system , while the smaller, usually motile gamete, the spermatozoon , is produced by the male . A female individual cannot reproduce sexually without access to the gametes of a male, or vice versa (an exception is parthenogenesis ). Some organisms can reproduce both sexually and asexually . There is no single genetic mechanism behind sex differences in different species and the existence of two sexes seems to have evolved multiple times independently in different evolutionary lineages . Patterns of sexual reproduction include * Isogamous species with two or more mating types with gametes of identical form and behavior (but different at the molecular level), * Anisogamous species with gametes of male and female types, * Oogamous species, which include humans in which the female gamete is very much larger than the male and has no ability to move . Oogamy is a form of anisogamy
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Ovum
The EGG CELL, or OVUM, is the female reproductive cell (gamete ) in oogamous organisms. The egg cell is typically not capable of active movement, and it is much larger (visible to the naked eye) than the motile sperm cells . When egg and sperm fuse, a diploid cell (the zygote ) is formed, which rapidly grows into a new organism. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Animals * 2.1 Human and mammal ova * 2.2 Ooplasm * 2.3 Ova development in oviparous animals * 2.4 Ovoviviparity * 3 Plants * 4 Other organisms * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links HISTORYWhile the non-mammalian animal egg was obvious, the doctrine ex ova omne vivum ("every living an egg"), associated with William Harvey (1578-1657), was a rejection of spontaneous generation and preformationism as well as a bold assumption that mammals also reproduced via eggs. Karl Ernst von Baer discovered the mammalian ovum in 1827, and Edgar Allen discovered the human ovum in 1928. The fusion of spermatozoa with ova (of a starfish) was observed by Oskar Hertwig in 1876. ANIMALSIn animals, egg cells are also known as ova (singular OVUM, from the Latin word ovum meaning egg or egg cell). The term OVULE is used for the young ovum of an animal. In vertebrates, ova are produced by female gonads (sexual glands) called ovaries a number of ova are present at birth in mammals and mature via oogenesis . White et al. disproved the longstanding dogma that all of the ova are produced before birth
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Fertilization
FERTILISATION or FERTILIZATION (see spelling differences ), also known as GENERATIVE FERTILISATION, CONCEPTION, FECUNDATION, SYNGAMY and IMPREGNATION, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism . The cycle of fertilisation and development of new individuals is called sexual reproduction . During double fertilisation in angiosperms the haploid male gamete combines with two haploid polar nuclei to form a triploid primary endosperm nucleus by the process of vegetative fertilisation. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Fertilisation in plants * 2.1 Bryophytes * 2.2 Ferns * 2.3 Gymnosperms * 2.4 Flowering plants * 2.5 Self-Pollination * 3 Fertilisation in animals * 3.1 Internal vs. external * 3.2 Sea urchins * 3.3 Mammals * 3.3.1 Humans * 3.4 Insects * 4 Fertilisation in fungi * 5 Fertilisation in protists * 5.1 Fertilisation in protozoa * 5.2 Fertilisation in algae * 5.3 Fertilisation in fungi-like protists * 6 Fertilisation and genetic recombination * 7 Parthenogenesis * 8 Allogamy and autogamy * 9 Other variants of bisexual reproduction * 10 Benefits of cross-fertilisation * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links HISTORYIn 1784, Spallanzani established the need of interaction between the female's ovum and male's sperm to form a zygote. Oscar Hertwig (1876), in Germany, described the fusion of nuclei of spermatozoa and of ova from sea urchin
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.