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Mafia
A mafia (Italian pronunciation: [ˈmaːfja]) is a type of organized crime syndicate whose primary activities are protection racketeering, the arbitration of disputes between criminals, and the organizing and oversight of illegal agreements and transactions.[1] Mafias often engage in secondary activities such as gambling, loan sharking, drug-trafficking, prostitution, and fraud. The term "Mafia" was originally applied to the Sicilian Mafia
Sicilian Mafia
and originates in Sicily, but it has since expanded to encompass other organizations of similar methods and purpose, e.g., "the Russian Mafia" or "the Japanese Mafia". The term is applied informally by the press and public; the criminal organizations themselves have their own terms (e.g
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Arabic
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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Marsala
Marsala
Marsala
(Sicilian: Maissala; Latin: Lilybaeum) is an Italian town located in the Province of Trapani
Province of Trapani
in the westernmost part of Sicily. Marsala
Marsala
is the most populated town in its province and the fifth in Sicily. The town is famous for the docking of Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
on 11 May 1860 (the Expedition of the Thousand) and for its Marsala
Marsala
wine. A feature of the area is the Stagnone Lagoon Natural Reserve — a marine area with salt ponds. Marsala
Marsala
is built on the ruins of the ancient Carthaginian city of Lilybaeum, and includes in its territory the archaeological site of the island of Motya, an ancient Phoenician town
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US Civil War
Union victoryDissolution of the Confederate States U.S. territorial integrity preserved Slavery abolished Beginning of the Reconstruction EraBelligerents United States  Confederate StatesCommanders and leaders Abraham Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman David Farragut George B. McClellan Henry Halleck George Meade and others Jefferson Davis Robert E. Lee  J. E. Johnston  G. T. Beauregard  A. S
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Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
(Italian: [dʒuˈzɛppe ɡariˈbaldi]); 4 July 1807 in Nice
Nice
– 2 June 1882 on Caprera) was an Italian general, politician and nationalist.[1] He is considered one of the greatest generals of modern times[5] and one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland" along with Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
Italy
and Giuseppe Mazzini. Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay
Uruguay
and Europe. He personally commanded and fought in many military campaigns that led eventually to the Italian unification
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Redshirts (Italy)
Redshirts (Italian Camicie rosse) or Red coats (Italian Giubbe Rosse) is the name given to the volunteers who followed Giuseppe Garibaldi
Giuseppe Garibaldi
in southern Italy during his expedition of the Thousand to southern Italy, but sometimes extended to other campaigns of his. The name derived from the color of their shirts or loose fitting blouses (complete uniforms were beyond the finances of the Italian patriots). Background[edit]Sewing red shirts for the volunteers: Odoardo Borrani, Cucitrici di camicie rosse, 1863The red shirts were started by Giuseppe Garibaldi. During his years of exile, Garibaldi was involved in a military action in Uruguay, where, in 1843, he originally used red shirts from a stock destined for slaughterhouse workers in Buenos Aires. Later, he spent time in private retirement in New York City
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Italian Unification
Timeline Italy
Italy
portalv t e Italian unification
Italian unification
(Italian: Unità d'Italia [uniˈta ddiˈtaːlja]), or the Risorgimento
Risorgimento
([risordʒiˈmento], meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula
Italian peninsula
into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy
Italy
in the 19th century
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Capetian House Of Anjou
The Capetian House of Anjou
Anjou
was a royal house and cadet branch of the direct French House of Capet, part of the Capetian dynasty. It is one of three separate royal houses referred to as Angevin, meaning "from Anjou" in France. Founded by Charles I of Naples, the youngest son of Louis VIII of France, the Capetian king first ruled the Kingdom of Sicily
Sicily
during the 13th century. Later the War of the Sicilian Vespers forced him out of the island of Sicily, leaving him with the southern half of the Italian Peninsula
Italian Peninsula
— the Kingdom of Naples
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Black Market
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules. If the rule defines the set of goods and services whose production and distribution is prohibited by law, non-compliance with the rule constitutes a black market trade since the transaction itself is illegal. Parties engaging in the production or distribution of prohibited goods and services are members of the illegal economy
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Sex Trafficking
Sex trafficking
Sex trafficking
is human trafficking for the purpose of sexual exploitation, including sexual slavery.[1] Sex trafficking
Sex trafficking
has two aspects of supply and demand
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Gambling
Gambling
Gambling
is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. Gambling
Gambling
thus requires three elements be present: consideration, chance and prize.[1] The outcome of the wager is often immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are also common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or even an entire sports season. The term "gaming"[2] in this context typically refers to instances in which the activity has been specifically permitted by law. The two words are not mutually exclusive; i.e., a "gaming" company offers (legal) "gambling" activities to the public[3] and may be regulated by one of many gaming control boards, for example, the Nevada Gaming Control Board
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Lazio
Lazio
Lazio
(UK: /ˈlætsioʊ/, US: /ˈlɑːtsioʊ/; Italian: [ˈlatsjo]; Latin: Latium) is one of the 20 administrative regions of Italy. Situated in the central peninsular section of the country, it has almost 5.9 million inhabitants – making it the second most populated region of Italy
Italy
(after Lombardy and just a little ahead of Campania) [1] – and its GDP of more than 170 billion euros per annum means that it has the nation's second largest regional economy
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Campania
Campania
Campania
(Italian pronunciation: [kamˈpaːnja]) is a region in Southern Italy. As of 2014, the region had a population of around 5,869,000 people, making it the third-most-populous region of Italy;[2] its total area of 13,590 km2 (5,247 sq mi) makes it the most densely populated region in the country.[3] Located on the Italian Peninsula, with the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the west, it includes the small Phlegraean Islands
Phlegraean Islands
and Capri
Capri
for administration as part of the region. Campania
Campania
was colonised by Ancient Greeks
Ancient Greeks
and was part of Magna Græcia. During the Roman era, the area maintained a Greco-Roman culture. The capital city of Campania
Campania
is Naples
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Veneto
Veneto
Veneto
(/ˈveɪnəˌtoʊ/ or /ˈvɛnətoʊ/,[4] Italian: [ˈvɛːneto]; Venetian: Vèneto, Venetian pronunciation: ['vɛːneto][5])[6] is one of the 20 regions of Italy. Its population is about five million, ranking fifth in Italy. The region's capital and most populous city is Venice. Veneto
Veneto
was part of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
until the 5th century AD. Later, after a feudal period, it was part of the Republic of Venice
Venice
until 1797. Venice
Venice
ruled for centuries over one of the largest and richest maritime republics and trade empires in the world. After the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
and the Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire, until it was merged with the Kingdom of Italy in 1866, as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence
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Apulia
Coordinates: 41°0′31″N 16°30′46″E / 41.00861°N 16.51278°E / 41.00861; 16.51278Apulia PugliaRegion of ItalyFlagCoat of armsCountry ItalyCapital BariGovernment • President Michele Emiliano (PD)Area • Total 19,358 km2 (7,474 sq mi)Population (31-12-2016) • Total 4,063,888 • Density 210/km2 (540/sq mi)Demonym(s) English: Apulian(s), Puglian(s) Italian: Pugliese, pl
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Emirate Of Sicily
The Emirate
Emirate
of Sicily
Sicily
(Arabic: إِمَارَةُ صِقِلِّيَة‎) was an emirate on the island of Sicily
Sicily
which existed from 831 to 1091.[1] Its capital was Palermo. Muslim Arabs, who first invaded in 652, seized control of the entire island from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
in a prolonged series of conflicts from 827 to 902. An Arab- Byzantine
Byzantine
culture developed, producing a multiconfessional and multilingual state. The Emirate
Emirate
was conquered by Christian Norman mercenaries under Roger I of Sicily, who founded the County of Sicily
County of Sicily
in 1071
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