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Lysogens
A LYSOGEN or LYSOGENIC BACTERIUM is a bacterial cell in which a phage exists as DNA in its dormant state (prophage ). A prophage is either integrated into the host bacteria 's chromosome or more rarely exists as a stable plasmid within the host cell. The prophage expresses gene(s) that repress the phage's lytic action, until this repression is disrupted (see lytic cycle ). Currently a variety of studies are being conducted to see whether other genes are active during lysogeny, examples of which include phage-encoded tRNA and virulence genes. TYPES * lambda phage SEE ALSO * lysogenic cycle Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Lysogen additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Bacteriophage
A BACTERIOPHAGE /ˈbækˈtɪər.i.oʊˌfeɪdʒ/ , also known informally as a _PHAGE_ /ˈfeɪdʒ/ , is a virus that infects and replicates within a bacterium . The term is derived from "bacteria" and the Greek : φαγεῖν (_phagein_), "to devour". Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA or RNA genome , and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and as many as hundreds of genes . Phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm . Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere . Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist. It’s estimated there are more than 1031 bacteriophages on the planet, more than every other organism on Earth, including bacteria, combined
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Prophage
A PROPHAGE is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid . This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell . Pro means ''before'', so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host. CONTENTS * 1 Prophage
Prophage
induction * 2 Zygotic induction * 3 References * 4 See also PROPHAGE INDUCTIONUpon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication begins via the Lytic Cycle . In the lytic cycle, the virus commandeers the cell's reproductive machinery
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Bacteria
Actinobacteria (high-G+C ) Firmicutes (low-G+C ) Tenericutes (no wall ) * GRAM NEGATIVE / OUTER MEMBRANE PRESENT Aquificae Bacteroidetes / Fibrobacteres Chlorobi ( FCB group ) Chlamydiae Deinococcus-Thermus Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Verrucomicrobia / Chlamydiae ( PVC group ) Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes * UNKNOWN / UNGROUPED Acidobacteria Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Dictyoglomi Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae SYNONYMS Eubacteria Woese common noun BACTERIA, singular BACTERIUM) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms
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Chromosome
A CHROMOSOME (from ancient Greek : χρωμόσωμα, _chromosoma, chroma_ means color, _soma_ means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome ) of an organism. Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division . Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once ( S phase ), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere , resulting in an X-shaped structure. The original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids . During metaphase, when a chromosome is in its most condensed state, the X-shape structure is called a metaphase chromosome. In this highly condensed form chromosomes are easiest to distinguish and study. Chromosomes vary widely between different organisms . Some species such as certain bacteria , which lack histones , also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal DNA
DNA

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Plasmid
A PLASMID is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found in bacteria as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms . In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance . While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning , serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms
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Lysis
LYSIS (/ˈlaɪsɪs/ LY-sis ; Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell , often by viral , enzymic , or osmotic (that is, "lytic" /ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək ) mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a lysate. In molecular biology , biochemistry , and cell biology laboratories, cell cultures may be subjected to lysis in the process of purifying their components, as in protein purification , DNA extraction , RNA extraction , or in purifying organelles . Many species of bacteria are subject to lysis by the enzyme lysozyme , found in animal saliva , egg white , and other secretions . Phage lytic enzymes (lysins) produced during bacteriophage infection are responsible for the ability of these viruses to lyse bacterial cells
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Lytic Cycle
The LYTIC CYCLE (/ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək ), is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction , the other being the lysogenic cycle . The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane. A key difference between the lytic and lysogenic phage cycles is that in the lytic phage, the viral DNA
DNA
exists as a separate molecule within the bacterial cell, and replicates separately from the host bacterial DNA. The location of viral DNA
DNA
in the lysogenic phage cycle is within the host DNA, therefore in both cases the virus/phage replicates using the host DNA
DNA
machinery, but in the lytic phage cycle, the phage is a free floating separate molecule to the host DNA
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TRNA
A TRANSFER RNA
RNA
(abbreviated T RNA
RNA
and formerly referred to as SRNA, for SOLUBLE RNA
RNA
) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA
RNA
, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the m RNA
RNA
and the amino acid sequence of proteins. It does this by carrying an amino acid to the protein synthetic machinery of a cell (ribosome ) as directed by a three-nucleotide sequence (codon ) in a messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA). As such, tRNAs are a necessary component of translation , the biological synthesis of new proteins in accordance with the genetic code
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Lambda Phage
ENTEROBACTERIA PHAGE λ (LAMBDA PHAGE , COLIPHAGE λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage , that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
(E. coli). It was discovered by Esther Lederberg
Esther Lederberg
in 1950 when she noticed that streaks of mixtures of two E. coli strains, one of which treated with ultraviolet light, was "nibbled and plaqued ". The wild type of this virus has a temperate lifecycle that allows it to either reside within the genome of its host through lysogeny or enter into a lytic phase (during which it kills and lyses the cell to produce offspring); mutant strains are unable to lysogenize cells- instead they grow and enter the lytic cycle after superinfecting an already lysogenized cell. The phage particle consists of a head (also known as a capsid ), a tail, and tail fibers (see image of virus below). The head contains the phage's double-strand linear DNA
DNA
genome
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Lysogenic Cycle
LYSOGENY, or the LYSOGENIC CYCLE, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other). Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this condition the bacterium continues to live and reproduce normally. The genetic material of the bacteriophage, called a prophage , can be transmitted to daughter cells at each subsequent cell division, and at later events (such as UV radiation or the presence of certain chemicals) can release it, causing proliferation of new phages via the lytic cycle. Lysogenic cycles can also occur in eukaryotes , although the method of DNA incorporation is not fully understood
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Lysogen
A LYSOGEN or LYSOGENIC BACTERIUM is a bacterial cell in which a phage exists as DNA in its dormant state (prophage ). A prophage is either integrated into the host bacteria 's chromosome or more rarely exists as a stable plasmid within the host cell. The prophage expresses gene(s) that repress the phage's lytic action, until this repression is disrupted (see lytic cycle ). Currently a variety of studies are being conducted to see whether other genes are active during lysogeny, examples of which include phage-encoded tRNA and virulence genes. TYPES * lambda phage SEE ALSO * lysogenic cycle Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Lysogen additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Main Page
The 1983 ATLANTIC HURRICANE SEASON was the least active Atlantic hurricane season in 53 years. Although the season begins by convention on June 1, there were no tropical depressions until July 23, and only four of the season's seven depressions became tropical storms . Tropical Depression Three became Hurricane Alicia_(satellite image pictured)_ on August 17 and made landfall in Texas the next day, breaking thousands of glass windows in Houston's skyscrapers, killing 22 people and causing $1.7 billion in damage. The storm that became Hurricane Barry formed on August 25, crossed Florida, and made landfall near Brownsville, Texas
Brownsville, Texas
, dissipating five days later. Hurricane Chantal stayed out at sea, and was absorbed by a front on September 15. Tropical Depression Six formed on September 19 and caused heavy rains in the Caribbean
Caribbean

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Portal
PORTAL may refer to: * Portal (architecture) , a monumental gate or door, or the extremities (ends) of a tunnel * Portals in fiction , magical or technological doorways that connect two locations, dimensions, or points in time * _ Portal _, a video game series developed by Valve Corporation CONTENTS* 1 Computing * 1.1 Gateways to information * 1.2 Other computing * 2 Art, entertainment, and media


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