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Lysogens
A lysogen or lysogenic bacterium is a bacterial cell in which a phage exists as DNA in its dormant state (prophage). A prophage is either integrated into the host bacteria's chromosome or more rarely exists as a stable plasmid within the host cell. The prophage expresses gene(s) that repress the phage's lytic action, until this repression is disrupted (see lytic cycle)
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Bacteriophage
A bacteriophage (/ˈbækˈtɪərioʊˌfeɪdʒ/), also known informally as a phage (/feɪdʒ/), is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria
Bacteria
and Archaea. The term was derived from "bacteria" and the Greek: φαγεῖν (phagein), "to devour". Bacteriophages are composed of proteins that encapsulate a DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
genome, and may have relatively simple or elaborate structures. Their genomes may encode as few as four genes, and as many as hundreds of genes. Phages replicate within the bacterium following the injection of their genome into its cytoplasm. Bacteriophages are among the most common and diverse entities in the biosphere.[1] Bacteriophages are ubiquitous viruses, found wherever bacteria exist
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Prophage
A prophage is a bacteriophage (often shortened to "phage") genome inserted and integrated into the circular bacterial DNA chromosome or existing as an extrachromosomal plasmid. This is a latent form of a phage, in which the viral genes are present in the bacterium without causing disruption of the bacterial cell. Pro means ''before'', so, prophage means the stage of a virus in the form of genome inserted into host DNA before attaining its real form inside host. Contents1 Prophage
Prophage
induction 2 Zygotic induction 3 References 4 See also Prophage
Prophage
induction[edit] Upon detection of host cell damage, such as UV light or certain chemicals, the prophage is excised from the bacterial chromosome in a process called prophage induction. After induction, viral replication begins via the lytic cycle. In the lytic cycle, the virus commandeers the cell's reproductive machinery
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Bacteria
Acidobacteria Actinobacteria Aquificae Armatimonadetes Bacteroidetes Caldiserica Chlamydiae Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Elusimicrobia Fibrobacteres Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Synergistetes Tenericutes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermotogae VerrucomicrobiaSynonymsEubacteria Woese & Fox, 1977[2] Bacteria
Bacteria
(/bækˈtɪəriə/ ( listen); common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats
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Chromosome
A chromosome (from ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA
DNA
molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle.[1][2] Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form).[3] Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends
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Plasmid
A plasmid is a small DNA
DNA
molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA
DNA
and can replicate independently. They are most commonly found as small circular, double-stranded DNA molecules in bacteria; however, plasmids are sometimes present in archaea and eukaryotic organisms. In nature, plasmids often carry genes that may benefit the survival of the organism, for example antibiotic resistance. While the chromosomes are big and contain all the essential genetic information for living under normal conditions, plasmids usually are very small and contain only additional genes that may be useful to the organism under certain situations or particular conditions. Artificial plasmids are widely used as vectors in molecular cloning, serving to drive the replication of recombinant DNA sequences within host organisms
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Lysis
Lysis
Lysis
(/ˈlaɪsɪs/ LY-sis; Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic" /ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək) mechanisms that compromise its integrity. A fluid containing the contents of lysed cells is called a lysate
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Lytic Cycle
The lytic cycle (/ˈlɪtɪk/ LIT-ək), is one of the two cycles of viral reproduction (referring to bacterial viruses or bacteriophages), the other being the lysogenic cycle. The lytic cycle results in the destruction of the infected cell and its membrane. A key difference between the lytic and lysogenic phage cycles is that in the lytic phage, the viral DNA
DNA
exists as a separate molecule within the bacterial cell, and replicates separately from the host bacterial DNA. The location of viral DNA
DNA
in the lysogenic phage cycle is within the host DNA, therefore in both cases the virus/phage replicates using the host DNA
DNA
machinery, but in the lytic phage cycle, the phage is a free floating separate molecule to the host DNA
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TRNA
A transfer RNA
RNA
(abbreviated t RNA
RNA
and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA[1]) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length,[2] that serves as the physical link between the m RNA
RNA
and the amino acid sequence of proteins. t RNA
RNA
does this by carrying an amino acid to the protein synthetic machinery of a cell (ribosome) as directed by a three-nucleotide sequence (codon) in a messenger RNA
RNA
(mRNA)
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Lambda Phage
Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage, coliphage λ) is a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, that infects the bacterial species Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli
(E. coli). It was discovered by Esther Lederberg
Esther Lederberg
in 1950 when she noticed that streaks of mixtures of two E. coli strains, one of which treated with ultraviolet light, was "nibbled and plaqued".[1][2] The wild type of this virus has a temperate lifecycle that allows it to either reside within the genome of its host through lysogeny or enter into a lytic phase (during which it kills and lyses the cell to produce offspring); mutant strains are unable to lysogenize cells – instead, they grow and enter the lytic cycle after superinfecting an already lysogenized cell.[3] The phage particle consists of a head (also known as a capsid), a tail, and tail fibers (see image of virus below)
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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Lysogen
A lysogen or lysogenic bacterium is a bacterial cell in which a phage exists as DNA in its dormant state (prophage). A prophage is either integrated into the host bacteria's chromosome or more rarely exists as a stable plasmid within the host cell. The prophage expresses gene(s) that repress the phage's lytic action, until this repression is disrupted (see lytic cycle)
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Lysogenic Cycle
Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other). Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a circular replicon in the bacterial cytoplasm. In this condition the bacterium continues to live and reproduce normally
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