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Luddites
The LUDDITES were a group of English textile workers and weavers in the 19th century who destroyed weaving machinery as a form of protest. The group was protesting the use of machinery in a "fraudulent and deceitful manner" to get around standard labour practices. Luddites feared that the time spent learning the skills of their craft would go to waste as machines would replace their role in the industry. It is a misconception that the Luddites protested against the machinery itself in an attempt to halt progress of technology. However, the term has come to mean one opposed to industrialisation , automation , computerisation or new technologies in general. The Luddite
Luddite
movement began in Nottingham
Nottingham
and culminated in a region-wide rebellion that lasted from 1811 to 1816. Mill owners took to shooting protesters and eventually the movement was brutally suppressed with military force
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Pentrich Rising
The PENTRICH RISING was an armed uprising in 1817 that began around the village of Pentrich, Derbyshire , in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It occurred on the night of 9/10 June 1817. While much of the planning took place in Pentrich, two of the three ringleaders were from South Wingfield and the other was from Sutton in Ashfield; the 'revolution' itself started from Hunt's Barn in South Wingfield, and the only person killed died in Wingfield Park. A gathering of some two or three hundred men (stockingers, quarrymen and iron workers), led by Jeremiah Brandreth ('The Nottingham Captain'), (an unemployed stockinger, and claimed by Gyles Brandreth as an ancestor—although unlikely, since Brandreth's children emigrated to America), set out from South Wingfield to march to Nottingham
Nottingham

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Jacquard Loom
The JACQUARD MACHINE (French: ) is a device fitted to a power loom that simplifies the process of manufacturing textiles with such complex patterns as brocade , damask and matelassé . It was invented by Joseph Marie Jacquard
Joseph Marie Jacquard
in 1804. The loom was controlled by a "chain of cards", a number of punched cards , laced together into a continuous sequence. Multiple rows of holes were punched on each card, with one complete card corresponding to one row of the design. Several such paper cards, generally white in color, can be seen in the images below. Chains, like Bouchon's earlier use of paper tape , allowed sequences of any length to be constructed, not limited by the size of a card. It is based on earlier inventions by the Frenchmen Basile Bouchon (1725), Jean Baptiste Falcon (1728), and Jacques Vaucanson (1740)
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Parliament Of The United Kingdom
HM GOVERNMENT * Conservative Party (254)CONFIDENCE AND SUPPLY * Democratic Unionist Party (4)HM MOST LOYAL OPPOSITION * Labour Party (201)OTHER OPPOSITION * Liberal Democrats (101) * Non-affiliated (31) * UKIP (3) * Ind. Labour (2) * Ulster Unionist Party
Ulster Unionist Party
(2) * Green Party (1) * Ind. Social Democrat (1) * Ind
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Penal Transportation
PENAL TRANSPORTATION or simply TRANSPORTATION refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a certain term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination. While the prisoners may have been released once the sentence was served, they generally didn't have the resources to get themselves back home. England transported its convicts, political prisoners as well as prisoners of war from Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
to its overseas colonies in the Americas from the 1610s until early in the American Revolution
American Revolution
in 1776, when transportation to America was temporarily suspended by the Criminal Law Act 1776 (16 Geo. 3 c.43). The practice would become mandated for use in Scotland
Scotland
consequent to an act in 1785, but remained used less than in England
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Jeremiah Brandreth
JEREMIAH BRANDRETH (1785 – 7 November 1817) was an out-of-work stocking maker who lived in Sutton-in-Ashfield , Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
, who was beheaded for treason. He was known as "The Nottingham Captain". He and two of his conspirators were the last people to be beheaded with an axe in Britain. CONTENTS * 1 The plot * 2 The trial * 3 References * 4 External links THE PLOTBrandreth was born in Holborn, London and was baptised at St Andrews Holborn on June 26, 1785. The Brandreth family moved to Barnstaple, Devon, in 1786. When he was about 13 the family moved to Exeter and set up a framework knitting business on Maudlin Street. In 1803 he was listed as a reservist in the 28th Regiment of foot and in the same year was present at the execution of Colonel Despard and six guardsmen in London. He deserted from the army around 1808. In 1809 and 1811 his mother and then his father died
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Middleton, Greater Manchester
MIDDLETON is a town in the Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale
Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale
, Greater Manchester
Manchester
, England, on the River Irk
River Irk
5 miles (8.0 km) south-southwest of Rochdale
Rochdale
and 4.4 miles (7.1 km) north-northeast of Manchester city centre . In 2001 , Middleton had a population of 45,580, reducing to 42,972 at the 2011 Census. It lies on the northern edge of Manchester
Manchester
, with Blackley
Blackley
to the south and Moston to the south east. Middleton is home of the largest snakepit in Western Europe . Historically part of Lancashire
Lancashire
, Middleton's name comes from it being the centre of several circumjacent settlements. It was an ecclesiastical parish of the hundred of Salford , ruled by aristocratic families. The Church of St Leonard is a Grade I listed building
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Protection Of Stocking Frames, Etc. Act 1788
The PROTECTION OF STOCKING FRAMES, ETC. ACT 1788 (28 Geo. 3 c. 55) was an Act of Parliament
Act of Parliament
passed by the British Government in 1788 and aimed at increasing the penalties for the deliberate disruption of the activity of mechanical looms (stocking frames ). CONTENTS * 1 Contents * 2 Significance * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links CONTENTSSection one of the Act made failure to return frames that had been hired from their owner punishable with a fine, whilst section two made unlawfully disposing of hired frames punishable with imprisonment, and section three made the purchaser equally culpable if he or she knew the frames were not the property of the seller. The final (and most strongly worded) section of the Act, section four, made the outright destruction of the frames a felony punishable by 7 to 14 years transportation
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Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
Nottinghamshire
County Council http://www.nottscc.gov.uk/ EXECUTIVE Labour ADMIN HQ West Bridgford
West Bridgford
AREA 2,085 km2 (805 sq mi) • RANKED 24th of 27 POPULATION 810,700<
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Lancashire
LANCASHIRE (/ˈlæŋkəʃər/ , /ˈlæŋkəʃɪər/ or, locally, ; archaically the COUNTY PALATINE OF LANCASTER; abbreviated Lancs.) is a non-metropolitan ceremonial county in north west England
England
. The county town is Lancaster although the county's administrative centre is Preston . The county has a population of 1,449,300 and an area of 1,189 square miles (3,080 km2). People from Lancashire
Lancashire
are known as Lancastrians. The history of Lancashire
Lancashire
begins with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086, some of its lands were treated as part of Yorkshire
Yorkshire

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Death Penalty
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, also known as the DEATH PENALTY, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a DEATH SENTENCE, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an EXECUTION. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as CAPITAL CRIMES or CAPITAL OFFENCES, and they commonly include offences such as murder , treason , espionage , war crimes , crimes against humanity and genocide . Etymologically, the term capital (lit. "of the head", derived via the Latin
Latin
capitalis from caput, "head") in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 103 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes), and 30 are abolitionist in practice
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Criminal Damage In English Law
In English law, causing CRIMINAL DAMAGE was originally a common law offence . The offence was largely concerned with the protection of dwellings and the food supply, and few sanctions were imposed for damaging personal property. Liability was originally restricted to the payment of damages by way of compensation. As time passed, specific laws were introduced to deal with particular situations as they were judged to require intervention, most particularly alongside the rise of mechanisation and urbanisation during the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
. The modern law of criminal damage is mostly contained in the Criminal Damage Act 1971, which redefines or creates several offences protecting property rights. The Act provides a comprehensive structure covering merely preparatory acts to the most serious offences of arson and causing damage with intent to endanger life
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British Government
HER MAJESTY\'S GOVERNMENT (HMG; Welsh : Llywodraeth Ei Mawrhydi), commonly referred to as the UK GOVERNMENT or BRITISH GOVERNMENT, is the central government of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
. The government is led by the Prime Minister , who selects all the remaining ministers . The prime minister and the other most senior ministers belong to the supreme decision-making committee, known as the Cabinet . The government ministers all sit in Parliament , and are accountable to it
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York
YORK (/ˈjɔːrk/ ( listen )) is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire
North Yorkshire
, England. The municipality is the traditional county town of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
to which it gives its name. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events in England throughout much of its two millennia of existence. The city offers a wealth of historic attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent, and a variety of cultural and sporting activities making it a popular tourist destination for millions. The city was founded by the Romans as Eboracum
Eboracum
in 71 AD. It became the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior , and later of the kingdoms of Northumbria
Northumbria
and Jórvík
Jórvík

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Show Trials
A SHOW TRIAL is a public trial in which the judicial authorities have already determined the guilt of the defendant . The actual trial has as its only goal the presentation of both the accusation and the verdict to the public so they will serve as both an impressive example and a warning to other would-be dissidents or transgressors. Show trials tend to be retributive rather than corrective and they are also conducted for propagandistic purposes. The term was first recorded in the 1930s. CONTENTS * 1 China
China
* 2 Egypt
Egypt
* 3 Turkey * 4 Russia * 4.1 1930s * 4.2 2010s * 5 Eastern Europe * 5.1 Hungary
Hungary
* 5.2 Czechoslovakia * 5.3 Romania * 6 Western Europe * 6.1 Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* 7 See also * 8 Notes * 9 References * 10 External links CHINA This article NEEDS ADDITIONAL CITATIONS FOR VERIFICATION
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Execution
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT, also known as the DEATH PENALTY, is a government sanctioned practice whereby a person is put to death by the state as a punishment for a crime. The sentence that someone be punished in such a manner is referred to as a DEATH SENTENCE, whereas the act of carrying out the sentence is known as an EXECUTION. Crimes that are punishable by death are known as CAPITAL CRIMES or CAPITAL OFFENCES, and they commonly include offences such as murder , treason , espionage , war crimes , crimes against humanity and genocide . Etymologically, the term capital (lit. "of the head", derived via the Latin
Latin
capitalis from caput, "head") in this context alluded to execution by beheading. Fifty-six countries retain capital punishment, 103 countries have completely abolished it de jure for all crimes, six have abolished it for ordinary crimes (while maintaining it for special circumstances such as war crimes), and 30 are abolitionist in practice
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