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Lichenification
A CUTANEOUS CONDITION is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system —the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin , hair , nails , and related muscle and glands . The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment. Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails ). While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described. Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying causes and pathogenetics are often not known. Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location (for example, conditions of the mucous membrane ), morphology (chronic blistering conditions ), cause (skin conditions resulting from physical factors ), and so on. Clinically, the diagnosis of any particular skin condition is made by gathering pertinent information regarding the presenting skin lesion(s), including the location (such as arms, head, legs), symptoms (pruritus , pain), duration (acute or chronic), arrangement (solitary, generalized, annular, linear), morphology (macules, papules , vesicles ), and color (red, blue, brown, black, white, yellow)
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Boil
A BOIL, also called a FURUNCLE, is a deep folliculitis , infection of the hair follicle . It is most commonly caused by infection by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus , resulting in a painful swollen area on the skin caused by an accumulation of pus and dead tissue. Boils which are expanded are basically pus-filled nodules. Individual boils clustered together are called carbuncles . Most human infections are caused by coagulase-positive S. aureus strains , notable for the bacteria's ability to produce coagulase , an enzyme that can clot blood. Almost any organ system can be infected by S. aureus. CONTENTS * 1 Signs and symptoms * 2 Causes * 2.1 Bacteria
Bacteria
* 2.2 Family history * 2.3 Other * 3 Complications * 4 Treatment * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links SIGNS AND SYMPTOMSBoils are bumpy, red, pus -filled lumps around a hair follicle that are tender , warm, and very painful. They range from pea-sized to golf ball-sized. A yellow or white point at the center of the lump can be seen when the boil is ready to drain or discharge pus. In a severe infection, an individual may experience fever , swollen lymph nodes , and fatigue . A recurring boil is called chronic furunculosis. Skin
Skin
infections tend to be recurrent in many patients and often spread to other family members
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List Of Cutaneous Conditions
Many conditions affect the human integumentary system —the organ system covering the entire surface of the body and composed of skin , hair , nails , and related muscle and glands . The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment. The skin weighs an average of four kilograms, covers an area of two square meters, and is made of three distinct layers: the epidermis , dermis , and subcutaneous tissue . The two main types of human skin are: glabrous skin , the hairless skin on the palms and soles (also referred to as the "palmoplantar" surfaces), and hair-bearing skin. Within the latter type, the hairs occur in structures called pilosebaceous units , each with hair follicle , sebaceous gland , and associated arrector pili muscle. In the embryo , the epidermis, hair, and glands form from the ectoderm , which is chemically influenced by the underlying mesoderm that forms the dermis and subcutaneous tissues. The epidermis is the most superficial layer of skin, a squamous epithelium with several strata : the stratum corneum , stratum lucidum , stratum granulosum , stratum spinosum , and stratum basale . Nourishment is provided to these layers by diffusion from the dermis, since the epidermis is without direct blood supply. The epidermis contains four cell types: keratinocytes , melanocytes , Langerhans cells , and Merkel cells . Of these, keratinocytes are the major component, constituting roughly 95 percent of the epidermis
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Specialty (medicine)
A SPECIALTY (or SPECIALITY) in medicine is a branch of medical practice. After completing medical school , physicians or surgeons usually further their medical education in a specific specialty of medicine by completing a multiple year residency to become a MEDICAL SPECIALIST. CONTENTS * 1 History of medical specialization * 2 Classification of medical specialization * 3 Specialties that are common worldwide * 4 List of specialties recognized in the European Union and European Economic Area * 5 List of North American medical specialties and others * 6 Physician
Physician
compensation * 7 Specialties by country * 7.1 Australia and New Zealand * 7.2 Canada * 7.3 Germany * 7.4 India * 7.5 United States
United States
* 8 Other uses * 9 Training * 10 Satisfaction * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References HISTORY OF MEDICAL SPECIALIZATIONTo a certain extent, medical practitioners have always been specialized. According to Galen
Galen
, specialization was common among Roman physicians. The particular system of modern medical specialities evolved gradually during the 19th century. Informal social recognition of medical specialization evolved before the formal legal system. The particular subdivision of the practice of medicine into various specialities varies from country to country, and is somewhat arbitrary
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Dermatology
DERMATOLOGY (from ancient Greek δέρμα, _derma_ which means skin and λογία, _logia)_ is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin , nails , hair and its diseases . It is a specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist treats diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Training * 3.1 United States * 4 Fields * 4.1 Cosmetic dermatology * 4.2 Dermatopathology * 4.3 Immunodermatology * 4.4 Mohs surgery * 4.5 Pediatric dermatology * 4.6 Teledermatology * 4.7 Dermatoepidemiology * 5 Therapies * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ETYMOLOGYAttested in English in 1819, the word _dermatology_ derives from the Greek δέρματος (_dermatos_), genitive of δέρμα (_derma_), "skin" (itself from δέρω _dero_, "to flay" ) and -λογία _-logia_. HISTORY Main article: History of dermatology Readily visible alterations of the skin surface have been recognized since the dawn of history, with some being treated, and some not. In 1801 the first great school of dermatology became a reality at the famous Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris, while the first textbooks (Willan's, 1798–1808) and atlases (Alibert\'s , 1806–1814) appeared in print during the same period of time
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Medical Condition
A DISEASE is a particular abnormal condition, a disorder of a structure or function, that affects part or all of an organism . The study of disease is called pathology which includes the study of cause. Disease is often construed as a MEDICAL CONDITION associated with specific symptoms and signs . It may be caused by external factors such as pathogens , or it may be caused by internal dysfunctions particularly of the immune system such as an immunodeficiency , or a hypersensitivity including allergies and autoimmunity . When caused by pathogens (i.e. _Plasmodium_ ssp. in malaria ), even in the scientific literature, the term disease is often misleadingly used in the place of its causal agent, _viz_. the pathogen. This language habitat can cause confusion in the communication of the cause-effect principle in epidemiology, and as such it should be strongly discouraged. In humans, _disease_ is often used more broadly to refer to any condition that causes pain , dysfunction , distress , social problems , or death to the person afflicted, or similar problems for those in contact with the person. In this broader sense, it sometimes includes injuries , disabilities , disorders , syndromes , infections , isolated symptoms , deviant behaviors , and atypical variations of structure and function, while in other contexts and for other purposes these may be considered distinguishable categories
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Integumentary System
The INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM is the organ system that protects the body from various kinds of damage, such as loss of water or abrasion from outside. The system comprises the skin and its appendages (including hair , scales , feathers , hooves , and nails ). The integumentary system has a variety of functions; it may serve to waterproof, cushion, and protect the deeper tissues, excrete wastes, and regulate temperature , and is the attachment site for sensory receptors to detect pain, sensation, pressure, and temperature. In most terrestrial vertebrates with significant exposure to sunlight, the integumentary system also provides for vitamin D synthesis. CONTENTS* 1 Skin
Skin
* 1.1 Epidermis * 1.2 Dermis
Dermis
* 2 Hypodermis * 3 Functions * 4 Clinical significance * 5 References * 6 External links SKINThe skin is the largest organ in the body. In humans, it accounts for about 12 to 15 percent of total body weight and covers 1.5-2m2 of surface area. It distinguishes, separates, and protects the organism from its surroundings. Small-bodied invertebrates of aquatic or continually moist habitats respire using the outer layer (integument). This gas exchange system, where gases simply diffuse into and out of the interstitial fluid , is called INTEGUMENTARY EXCHANGE. The human skin (integument) is composed of a minimum of two major layers of tissue: the epidermis and dermis
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Organ System
A BIOLOGICAL SYSTEM is a complex network of biologically relevant entities . As biological organization spans several scales, examples of biological systems are populations of organisms , or on the organ - and tissue scale in mammals and other animals, the circulatory system , the respiratory system , the nervous system , etc. On the micro to the nanoscopic scale, examples of biological systems are cells , organelles , macromolecular complexes and regulatory pathways. A biological system is not to be confused with a living system , which is commonly referred to as life . For further information see e.g. definition of life or synthetic biology . CONTENTS * 1 Organ and tissue systems * 2 History * 3 See also * 4 External links * 5 References ORGAN AND TISSUE SYSTEMS An example of a system: The brain , the cerebellum , the spinal cord , and the nerves are the four basic components of the nervous system . These specific systems are widely studied in human anatomy . "Human" systems are also present in many other animals
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Human Body
The HUMAN BODY is the entire structure of a human being . It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems . They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body. It comprises a head , neck , trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen ), arms and hands , legs and feet . The study of the human body involves anatomy , physiology , histology and embryology . The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions. Many systems and mechanisms interact in order to maintain homeostasis , with safe levels of substances such as sugar and oxygen in the blood. The body is studied by health professionals , physiologists, anatomists, and by artists to assist them in their work
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Skin
SKIN is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates . Other animal coverings , such as the arthropod exoskeleton , have different developmental origin , structure and chemical composition . The adjective CUTANEOUS means "of the skin" (from Latin
Latin
_cutis_, skin). In mammals , the skin is an organ of the integumentary system made up of multiple layers of ectodermal tissue , and guards the underlying muscles , bones , ligaments and internal organs . Skin
Skin
of a different nature exists in amphibians , reptiles , and birds . All mammals have some hair on their skin, even marine mammals like whales , dolphins , and porpoises which appear to be hairless. The skin interfaces with the environment and is the first line of defense from external factors. For example, the skin plays a key role in protecting the body against pathogens and excessive water loss. Its other functions are insulation , temperature regulation, sensation, and the production of vitamin D folates. Severely damaged skin may heal by forming scar tissue . This is sometimes discoloured and depigmented. The thickness of skin also varies from location to location on an organism. In humans for example, the skin located under the eyes and around the eyelids is the thinnest skin in the body at 0.5 mm thick, and is one of the first areas to show signs of aging such as "crows feet" and wrinkles
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Hair
HAIR is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis , or skin. Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals . The human body, apart from areas of glabrous skin , is covered in follicles which produce thick terminal and fine vellus hair . Most common interest in hair is focused on hair growth , hair types and hair care , but hair is also an important biomaterial primarily composed of protein, notably alpha-keratin . Attitudes towards different hair, such as hairstyles and hair removal , vary widely across different cultures and historical periods, but it is often used to indicate a person's personal beliefs or social position, such as their age, sex, or religion
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Nail (anatomy)
A NAIL is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals . Nails are similar to claws in other animals. Fingernails and toenails are made of a tough protective protein called keratin . This protein is also found in the hooves and horns of different animals. CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Parts of the nail * 2 Function * 2.1 Growth * 2.2 Permeability * 3 Clinical significance * 3.1 Health and care * 3.2 Effect of nutrition * 4 Society and culture * 4.1 Fashion * 4.2 Length records * 5 Evolution
Evolution
in primates * 6 See also * 7 References STRUCTURE Human nails Fingernails Toenails A. Nail plate; B. lunula; C. root; D. sinus; E. matrix; F. nail bed; G. hyponychium; H. free margin. The bed part of the nail after its removal The nail consists of the nail plate, the nail matrix and the nail bed below it, and the grooves surrounding it. PARTS OF THE NAILThe MATRIX, sometimes called the _matrix unguis_, keratogenous membrane, nail matrix, or onychostroma, is the tissue (or germinal matrix ) which the nail protects. It is the part of the nail bed that is beneath the nail and contains nerves , lymph and blood vessels . The matrix is responsible for producing cells that become the nail plate
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Muscle
MUSCLE is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle
Muscle
cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one another, producing a contraction that changes both the length and the shape of the cell. Muscles function to produce force and motion . They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture , locomotion , as well as movement of internal organs , such as the contraction of the heart and the movement of food through the digestive system via peristalsis . Muscle
Muscle
tissues are derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells in a process known as myogenesis . There are three types of muscle, skeletal or striated, cardiac , and smooth . Muscle
Muscle
action can be classified as being either voluntary or involuntary. Cardiac and smooth muscles contract without conscious thought and are termed involuntary, whereas the skeletal muscles contract upon command. Skeletal muscles in turn can be divided into fast and slow twitch fibers. Muscles are predominantly powered by the oxidation of fats and carbohydrates , but anaerobic chemical reactions are also used, particularly by fast twitch fibers. These chemical reactions produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules that are used to power the movement of the myosin heads
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Glands
A GLAND is an organ in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones ) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland ) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland ). CONTENTS* 1 Structure * 1.1 Development * 2 Function * 2.1 Endocrine glands * 2.2 Exocrine glands * 3 Clinical significance * 4 Other animals * 5 Additional images * 6 References * 7 External links STRUCTURE Main article: List of glands of the human body
List of glands of the human body
DEVELOPMENT This image shows some of the various possible glandular arrangements. These are the simple tubular, simple branched tubular, simple coiled tubular, simple acinar, and simple branched acinar glands. This image shows some of the various possible glandular arrangements. These are the compound tubular, compound acinar, and compound tubulo-acinar glands. Every gland is formed by an ingrowth from an epithelial surface. This ingrowth may in the beginning possess a tubular structure, but in other instances glands may start as a solid column of cells which subsequently becomes tubulated. As growth proceeds, the column of cells may divide or give off offshoots, in which case a compound gland is formed. In many glands, the number of branches is limited, in others (salivary, pancreas) a very large structure is finally formed by repeated growth and sub-division
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Melanonychia
MELANONYCHIA is a black or brown pigmentation of the normal nail plate, and may be present as a normal finding on many digits in African-Americans, as a result of trauma, systemic disease, or medications, or as a postinflammatory event from such localized events as lichen planus or fixed drug eruption . :790 :665 There are two types, longitudinal and transverse melanonychia. :671 Longitudinal melanonychia may be a sign of subungual melanoma (acral lentiginous melanoma ), although there are other diagnoses such as chronic paronychia , onychomycosis , subungual hematoma , pyogenic granuloma , glomus tumour , subungual verruca, mucous cyst , subungual fibroma, keratoacanthoma , carcinoma of the nail bed, and subungual exostosis. SEE ALSO * Nail anatomy * List of cutaneous conditions
List of cutaneous conditions
REFERENCES * ^ James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0 . * ^ A B Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0 . * ^ Baran, Robert, et al. 2008. Baran right: 15px; display: none;"> * v * t * e Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title= Melanonychia additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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