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Lichenification
A cutaneous condition is any medical condition that affects the integumentary system—the organ system that encloses the body and includes skin, hair, nails, and related muscle and glands.[1] The major function of this system is as a barrier against the external environment.[2] Conditions of the human integumentary system constitute a broad spectrum of diseases, also known as dermatoses, as well as many nonpathologic states (like, in certain circumstances, melanonychia and racquet nails).[3][4] While only a small number of skin diseases account for most visits to the physician, thousands of skin conditions have been described.[5] Classification of these conditions often presents many nosological challenges, since underlying causes and pathogenetics are often not known.[6][7] Therefore, most current textbooks present a classification based on location (for example, conditions of the mucous membrane), morphology (chronic blistering conditions), cause (skin conditions resulting from phys
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Boil
A boil, also called a furuncle, is a deep folliculitis, infection of the hair follicle. It is most commonly caused by infection by the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus, resulting in a painful swollen area on the skin caused by an accumulation of pus and dead tissue.[1] Boils which are expanded are basically pus-filled nodules.[2][verification needed] Individual boils clustered together are called carbuncles.[3] Most human infections are caused by coagulase-positive S. aureus strains, notable for the bacteria's ability to produce coagulase, an enzyme that can clot blood. Almost any organ system can be infected by S. aureus.Contents1 Signs and symptoms1.1 Complications2 Causes2.1 Bacteria 2.2 Family history 2.3 Other3 Diagnosis 4 Treatment 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksSigns and symptoms[edit] Boils are bumpy, red, pus-filled lumps around a hair follicle that are tender, warm, and very painful. They range from pea-sized to golf ball-sized
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Diffusion
Diffusion
Diffusion
is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms. Diffusion
Diffusion
is driven by a gradient in chemical potential of the diffusing species. A gradient is the change in the value of a quantity e.g. concentration, pressure, or temperature with the change in another variable, usually distance
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Embryology
Embryology
Embryology
(from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses
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Ectoderm
Ectoderm
Ectoderm
is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the mesoderm (middle layer) and endoderm (most proximal layer), with the ectoderm as the most exterior (or distal) layer.[1] It emerges and originates from the outer layer of germ cells. The word ectoderm comes from the Greek ektos meaning "outside", and derma, meaning "skin."[2] Generally speaking, the ectoderm differentiates to form the nervous system (spine, peripheral nerves and brain),[3][4] tooth enamel and the epidermis (the outer part of integument). It also forms the lining of mouth, anus, nostrils, sweat glands, hair and nails.[4] In vertebrates, the ectoderm has three parts: external ectoderm (also known as surface ectoderm), the neural crest, and neural tube
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Mesoderm
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo. The other two layers are the ectoderm (outside layer) and endoderm (inside layer), with the mesoderm as the middle layer between them.[1][2] The mesoderm forms mesenchyme, mesothelium, non-epithelial blood cells and coelomocytes. Mesothelium
Mesothelium
lines coeloms
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Epithelium
Epithelium
Epithelium
(/ˌɛpɪˈθiːliəm/)[1] is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line the outer surfaces of organs and blood vessels throughout the body, as well as the inner surfaces of cavities in many internal organs. An example is the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin. There are three principal shapes of epithelial cell: squamous, columnar, and cuboidal. These can be arranged in a single layer of cells as simple epithelium, either squamous, columnar, cuboidal, pseudo-stratified columnar or in layers of two or more cells deep as stratified (layered), either squamous, columnar or cuboidal. All glands are made up of epithelial cells
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Stratum
In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface[1], with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers. The "stratum" is the fundamental unit in a stratigraphic column and forms the basis of the study of stratigraphy.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Naming 3 Gallery 4 See also 5 References 6 External linksCharacteristics[edit]The Permian
Permian
through Jurassic
Jurassic
strata in the Colorado Plateau
Colorado Plateau
area of southeastern Utah
Utah
demonstrates the principles of stratigraphy. These strata make up much of the famous prominent rock formations in widely spaced protected areas such as Capitol Reef National Park
Capitol Reef National Park
and Canyonlands National Park
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Stratum Corneum
The stratum corneum ( Latin
Latin
for 'horny layer') is the outermost layer of the epidermis, consisting of dead cells (corneocytes). This layer is composed of 15–20 layers of flattened cells with no nuclei and cell organelles. Their cytoplasm shows filamentous keratin. These corneocytes are embedded in a lipid matrix composed of ceramides, cholesterol, and fatty acids.[2] The stratum corneum functions to form a barrier to protect underlying tissue from infection, dehydration, chemicals and mechanical stress. Desquamation, the process of cell shedding from the surface of the stratum corneum, balances proliferating keratinocytes that form in the stratum basale
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Stratum Lucidum
The stratum lucidum (Latin for "clear layer") is a thin, clear layer of dead skin cells in the epidermis named for its translucent appearance under a microscope. It is readily visible by light microscopy only in areas of thick skin, which are found on the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet.[1][2] Located between the stratum granulosum and stratum corneum layers, it is composed of three to five layers of dead, flattened keratinocytes.[3][4] The keratinocytes of the stratum lucidum do not feature distinct boundaries and are filled with eleidin, an intermediate form of keratin. They are surrounded by an oily substance that is the result of the exocytosis of lamellar bodies accumulated while the keratinocytes are moving through the stratum spinosum and stratum granulosum.[citation needed] The thickness of the lucidum is controlled by the rate of mitosis (division) of the epidermal cells
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Stratum Granulosum
The stratum granulosum (or granular layer) is a thin layer of cells in the epidermis.[1] Keratinocytes
Keratinocytes
migrating from the underlying stratum spinosum become known as granular cells in this layer. These cells contain keratohyalin granules, which are filled with histidine- and cysteine-rich proteins that appear to bind the keratin filaments together. Therefore, the main function of keratohyalin granules is to bind intermediate keratin filaments together.[2][3] At the transition between this layer and the stratum corneum, cells secrete lamellar bodies (containing lipids and proteins) into the extracellular space
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Stratum Spinosum
The stratum spinosum (or spinous layer/prickle cell layer)[1] is a layer of the epidermis found between the stratum granulosum and stratum basale.[2] Their spiny (Latin, spinosum) appearance is due to shrinking of the microfilaments between desmosomes that occurs when stained with H&E. Keratinization
Keratinization
begins in the stratum spinosum.[3] This layer is composed of polyhedral keratinocytes. They have large pale-staining nuclei as they are active in synthesizing fibrilar proteins, known as cytokeratin, which build up within the cells aggregating together forming tonofibrils. The tonofibrils go on to form the desmosomes, which allow for strong connections to form between adjacent keratinocytes. Additional images[edit]Epidermis and dermis of human skinSection of epidermisSee also[edit] Spinous cell References[edit]^ McGrath, J.A.; Eady, R.A.; Pope, F.M. (2004). Rook's Textbook of Dermatology (Seventh Edition). Blackwell Publishing
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Stratum Germinativum
The stratum basale (basal layer, sometimes referred to as stratum germinativum) is the deepest layer of the five layers of the epidermis, the outer covering of skin in mammals. The stratum basale is a continuous layer of cells. It is often described as one cell thick, though it may in fact be two to three cells thick in glabrous skin (hairless), and hyperproliferative epidermis (from a skin disease).[1] The stratum basale is primarily made up of basal keratinocyte stem cells, which can be considered the stem cells of the epidermis
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Keratinocyte
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.[1] Those keratinocytes found in the basal layer (stratum basale) of the skin are sometimes referred to as "basal cells" or "basal keratinocytes".[2]Contents1 Function 2 Structure 3 Cell differentiation 4 Interaction with other cells 5 Role in wound healing 6 Sunburn cells 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksFunction[edit] The primary function of keratinocytes is the formation of a barrier against environmental damage by pathogenic bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, heat, UV radiation
UV radiation
and water loss
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Sebaceous Gland
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals. In humans, they occur in the greatest number on the face and scalp, but also on all parts of the skin except the palms of the hands and soles of the feet. The type of secretion of the sebaceous glands is referred to as holocrine. In the eyelids, meibomian glands, also called tarsal glands, are a type of sebaceous gland that secrete a special type of sebum into tears. Fordyce spots
Fordyce spots
are ectopic (misplaced) sebaceous glands found usually on the lips, gums and inner cheeks, and genitals. Areolar glands surround the female nipples. Several related medical conditions involve sebum—including acne, sebaceous cysts, hyperplasia, and sebaceous adenoma
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Melanocyte
Melanocytes are melanin-producing neural-crest derived[3] cells located in the bottom layer (the stratum basale) of the skin's epidermis, the middle layer of the eye (the uvea),[4] the inner ear,[5] vaginal epithelium,[6] meninges,[7] bones,[8] and heart.[9] Melanin
Melanin
is a dark pigment primarily responsible for skin color. Once synthesized, melanin is contained in special organelles called melanosomes which can be transported to nearby keratinocytes to induce pigmentation. Functionally, melanin serves as protection against UV radiation. Melanocytes also have a role in the immune system.Contents1 Function1.1 Role in the Immune System 1.2 Stimulation2 Clinical significance 3 See also 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksFunction[edit]3D rendering of a melanocyteThrough a process called melanogenesis, melanocytes produce melanin, which is a pigment found in the skin, eyes, hair, nasal cavity, and inner ear
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