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Leo Africanus
Joannes Leo Africanus, (c. 1494 – c. 1554?) (born al-Hasan ibn Muhammad al-Wazzan al-Fasi, Arabic: حسن ابن محمد الوزان الفاسي‎) was a Berber[2] Andalusi diplomat and author who is best known for his book Descrittione dell’Africa (Description of Africa) centered on the geography of the Maghreb
Maghreb
and Nile Valley. The book was regarded among his scholarly peers in Europe as the most authoritative treatise on the subject until the modern exploration of Africa.[3] For this work, Leo became a household name among European geographers.Contents1 Biography1.1 Historicity of Africa trip2 Name 3 Works 4 References in media 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External linksBiography[edit]The courtyard of the University of al-Qarawiyyin, Fez, Morocco, where al-Hasan (future Leo Africanus) studied.Most of what is known about his life is gathered from autobiographical notes in his own work
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Bornu Empire
The Kanem– Bornu Empire
Bornu Empire
was an empire that existed in modern Chad
Chad
and Nigeria. It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem Empire from the 9th century AD onward and lasted as the independent kingdom of Bornu (the Bornu Empire) until 1900. The Kanem Empire
Kanem Empire
(c. 700–1380) was located in the present countries of Chad, Nigeria
Nigeria
and Libya.[2] At its height it encompassed an area covering not only most of Chad, but also parts of southern Libya
Libya
(Fezzan) and eastern Niger, northeastern Nigeria
Nigeria
and northern Cameroon. The Bornu Empire (1380s–1893) was a state of what is now northeastern Nigeria, in time becoming even larger than Kanem, incorporating areas that are today parts of Chad, Niger, Sudan, and Cameroon; is existed from 1380s to 1893
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Adrian VI
Pope Adrian VI (Latin: Hadrianus VI), born Adriaan Florensz Boeyens[1] (2 March 1459 – 14 September 1523), was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 9 January 1522 until his death on 14 September 1523. The only Dutchman so far to become pope, he was the last non-Italian pope until John Paul II, 455 years later. Born in the Episcopal principality of Utrecht, Adrian studied at the University of Leuven in the Low Countries, where he rose to the position of professor of theology, also serving as rector (the equivalent of vice-chancellor). In 1507, he became the tutor of the future Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, who later trusted him as both his emissary and his regent. In 1516, Adrian became bishop of Tortosa, Spain, and was soon appointed Grand Inquisitor of the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile
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Rome
Rome
Rome
(/roʊm/ ROHM; Italian: Roma i[ˈroːma]; Latin: Roma [ˈroːma]) is the capital of Italy
Italy
and a special comune (named Comune
Comune
di Roma Capitale). Rome
Rome
also serves as the capital of the Lazio
Lazio
region. With 2,874,558 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi),[1] it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth-most populous city in the European Union
European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4.3 million residents.[2] Rome
Rome
is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber
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Rhodes
Rhodes
Rhodes
(Greek: Ρόδος, Ródos [ˈroðos]) is the largest of the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
islands of Greece
Greece
in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital. Administratively the island forms a separate municipality within the Rhodes
Rhodes
regional unit, which is part of the South Aegean
South Aegean
administrative region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Rhodes.[1] The city of Rhodes had 50,636 inhabitants in 2011
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Knights Hospitaller
The Order of Knights of the Hospital
Hospital
of Saint John of Jerusalem (Latin: Ordo Fratrum Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani), also known as the Order of Saint John, Order of Hospitallers, Knights Hospitaller, Knights Hospitalier or Hospitallers, was a medieval Catholic
Catholic
military order that became the modern Sovereign Military Order of Malta, which remains a sovereign subject of international law, as well as the Protestant members of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem
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Galley
A galley is a type of ship that is propelled mainly by rowing. The galley is characterized by its long, slender hull, shallow draft and low freeboard (clearance between sea and railing). Virtually all types of galleys had sails that could be used in favorable winds, but human strength was always the primary method of propulsion. This allowed galleys to navigate independently of winds and currents. The galley originated among the seafaring civilizations around the Mediterranean Sea in the late second millennium BC and remained in use in various forms until the early 19th century in warfare, trade and piracy. Galleys were the warships used by the early Mediterranean naval powers, including the Greeks, Phoenicians
Phoenicians
and Romans. They remained the dominant types of vessels used for war and piracy in the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
until the last decades of the 16th century
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Castel Sant’Angelo
The Mausoleum
Mausoleum
of Hadrian, usually known as Castel Sant'Angelo
Castel Sant'Angelo
(Italian pronunciation: [kaˈstɛl sanˈtandʒelo]; English: Castle of the Holy Angel), is a towering cylindrical building in Parco Adriano, Rome, Italy. It was initially commissioned by the Roman Emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
as a mausoleum for himself and his family. The building was later used by the popes as a fortress and castle, and is now a museum. The structure was once the tallest building in Rome.Contents1 Hadrian's tomb 2 Decline 3 Papal fortress, residence and prison 4 Museum 5 Gallery 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksHadrian's tomb[edit] Castel Sant'Angelo
Castel Sant'Angelo
from the bridge
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Pope Leo X
Pope
Pope
Leo X (11 December 1475 – 1 December 1521), born Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici, was Pope
Pope
from 9 March 1513 to his death in 1521.[1] The second son of Lorenzo the Magnificent, ruler of the Florentine Republic, he was elevated to the cardinalate in 1489. Following the death of Pope
Pope
Julius II, Giovanni was elected pope after securing the backing of the younger members of the Sacred College. Early on in his rule he oversaw the closing sessions of the Fifth Council of the Lateran, but struggled to implement the reforms agreed. In 1517 he led a costly war that succeeded in securing his nephew as Duke of Urbino, but which reduced papal finances. In protestant circles, Leo is associated with granting indulgences for those who donated to reconstruct St. Peter's Basilica, a practice that was soon challenged by Martin Luther's 95 Theses, following his visit to Rome
Rome
in 1511
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Baptized
Baptism (from the Greek noun βάπτισμα baptisma; see below) is a Christian sacrament of admission and adoption,[1] almost invariably with the use of water, into the Christian Church generally.[2][3] The canonical Gospels report that Jesus was baptized[4]—a historical event to which a high degree of certainty can be assigned.[5][6][7] Baptism has been called a holy sacrament and an ordinance of Jesus Christ
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St. Peter's Basilica
The Papal Basilica
Basilica
of St. Peter
St. Peter
in the Vatican (Italian: Basilica Papale di San Pietro in Vaticano), or simply St. Peter's Basilica (Latin: Basilica
Basilica
Sancti Petri), is an Italian Renaissance
Italian Renaissance
church in Vatican City, the papal enclave within the city of Rome. Designed principally by Donato Bramante, Michelangelo, Carlo Maderno and Gian Lorenzo Bernini, St. Peter's is the most renowned work of Renaissance architecture[2] and the largest church in the world.[3] While it is neither the mother church of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
nor the cathedral of the Diocese
Diocese
of Rome, St. Peter's is regarded as one of the holiest Catholic shrines
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Papal Court
The Papal Household
Papal Household
or Pontifical Household (Latin: Domus Pontificalis), called until 1968 the Papal Court (Pontificalis Aula),[1] consists of dignitaries who assist the Pope
Pope
in carrying out particular ceremonies of either a religious or a ci
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Pope Clement VII
Pope
Pope
Clement VII (Italian: Papa Clemente VII; Latin: Clemens VII) (26 May 1478 – 25 September 1534), born Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici, was head of the Catholic Church
Catholic Church
and ruler of the Papal States
Papal States
from 19 November 1523 to his death on 25 September 1534.[1] “The most unfortunate of the Popes,” Clement VII’s reign was marked by a rapid succession of political, military, and religious struggles — many interrelated and long in the making — which had far-reaching consequences for Christianity and world politics. [2] Elected in 1523 at the end of the Italian Renaissance, Clement VII came to the papacy with a high reputation as a statesman, having served as chief advisor to both Pope
Pope
Leo X
Leo X
(1513-1521) and Pope
Pope
Adrian VI (1522-1523)
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Bologna
Bologna
Bologna
(/bəˈloʊniə/; Italian: [boˈloɲːa] ( listen); Emilian: Bulåggna IPA: [buˈlʌɲːa]; Latin: Bononia) is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
Region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, at the heart of a metropolitan area of about one million people. Of Etruscan origin, the city has been a major urban centre for centuries, first under the Etruscans, then under the Romans (Bononia), then again in the Middle Ages, as a free municipality and signoria, when it was among the largest European cities by population
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Djerba
Djerba (Arabic: جربة‎  ˈʒɪrbæ), also transliterated as Jerba[1] or Jarbah,[2] is, at 514 square kilometres (198 sq mi), the largest island of North Africa, located in the Gulf of Gabès,[1] off the coast of Tunisia. It had a population of 139,544 at the 2004 Census, while the latest official estimate (as at 1 July 2014) is 163,726
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Vocabulary
A vocabulary is a set of familia words within a person's language. A vocabulary, usually developed with age, serves as a useful and fundamental tool for communication and acquiring knowledge
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