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Lavondyss
LAVONDYSS also titled Lavondyss: Journey to an Unknown Region is a fantasy novel by British writer Robert Holdstock
Robert Holdstock
, the second book in his Mythago Wood
Mythago Wood
series. Lavondyss
Lavondyss
was originally published in 1988. The name of the novel hints at the real and mythological locales of Avon , Lyonesse
Lyonesse
, Avalon
Avalon
and Dis ; within the novel Lavondyss
Lavondyss
is the name of the remote, ice-age heart of Ryhope wood. Despite having a new primary character, Lavondyss
Lavondyss
is a sequel to Mythago Wood
Mythago Wood
because several characters provide links between the novels; the events in Mythago Wood
Mythago Wood
set into motion events that drive the protagonists' actions in Lavondyss. Lavondyss
Lavondyss
has won, or been nominated to, several fantasy literature awards. CONTENTS * 1 Plot introduction * 2 Plot summary * 3 Human characters * 4 Mythagos * 5 Critical commentary and awards * 6 Chronology of works in the Mythago Wood
Mythago Wood
cycle * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links PLOT INTRODUCTIONTallis Keeton, the younger sister of Harry Keeton (from Mythago Wood), is the protagonist of the story
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Robert Holdstock
ROBERT PAUL HOLDSTOCK (2 August 1948 – 29 November 2009) was an English novelist and author best known for his works of Celtic , Nordic , Gothic and Pictish fantasy literature , predominantly in the fantasy subgenre of mythic fiction . Holdstock broke into print in 1968. His science fiction and fantasy works explore philosophical , psychological , anthropological , spiritual , and woodland themes. He received three BSFA awards and won the World Fantasy
Fantasy
Award in the category of Best Novel of 1985. CONTENTS * 1 Biography * 2 Writings * 3 Critical reception * 4 Book Covers * 5 Awards * 6 Select Bibliography * 7 References * 8 Sources * 9 External links BIOGRAPHYRobert Holdstock, the oldest of five children, was born in Hythe, Kent . His father, Robert Frank Holdstock, was a police officer and his mother, Kathleen Madeline Holdstock, was a nurse. At the age of seven Robert started attending Gillingham Grammar School in the Medway Towns . As a young adult he had jobs including banana boatman , construction worker and slate miner . He also earned a Bachelor of Science from University College of North Wales , Bangor, with honours in applied Zoology
Zoology
(1967–1970)
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Alan Lee (illustrator)
ALAN LEE (born 20 August 1947) is an English book illustrator and movie conceptual designer . He was born in Middlesex
Middlesex
, England, and studied at the Ealing School of Art . CONTENTS * 1 Illustrations * 2 Film * 3 Awards * 4 Personal life * 5 See also * 6 Notes * 7 Bibliography * 8 References * 9 External links ILLUSTRATIONSAlan has illustrated dozens of fantasy books , including some nonfiction, and many more covers. Several works by J.R.R. Tolkien are among his most notable interiors: the Tolkien centenary edition of The Lord of the Rings (1992), a 1999 edition of The Hobbit
The Hobbit
that has been boxed with it, and Narn i Chîn Húrin: The Children of Húrin (2007). The latter, a first edition, is his work most widely held in WorldCat participating libraries. Other books he has illustrated include Faeries (with Brian Froud
Brian Froud
), Lavondyss
Lavondyss
by Robert Holdstock
Robert Holdstock
(as well as the cover of an early print of this book), The Mabinogion (two versions), Castles
Castles
and Tolkien\'s Ring (both nonfiction by David Day ), The Mirrorstone by Michael Palin
Michael Palin
, The Moon\'s Revenge by Joan Aiken , and Merlin Dreams by Peter Dickinson
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Mythago Wood
MYTHAGO WOOD is a fantasy novel by British writer Robert Holdstock , published in the United Kingdom in 1984. The conception began as a short story written for the 1979 Milford Writer\'s Workshop ; later a novella of the same name appeared in the September 1981 edition of The Magazine of Fantasy
Fantasy
"> PRECEDED BY: Chronology of Events in Ryhope Wood: FOLLOWED BY: Gate of Ivory, Gate of Horn Mythago Wood Avilion SEE ALSO * Enchanted forest * Mythopoeia REFERENCES * ^ Newman, Kim St. James Guide to Fantasy
Fantasy
Writers, ed. David Pringle (Detroit: St. James Press, 1996), pages 285-286. * ^ Langford, David Supernatural Fiction Writers, Second Edition, Volume 1, ed. Richard Bleiler (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2003), pages 445-453. * ^ A B Clute, John Look at the Evidence: Essays & Reviews, (Ann Arbor: Liverpool University Press, 1995), page 111. This essay originally appeared in the May/June 1989 (issue 29) magazine Interzone . * ^ Clute, John Look at the Evidence: Essays & Reviews, (Ann Arbor: Liverpool University Press, 1995), page 111. This essay was published originally in the May/June 1989 (issue 29) magazine Interzone . * ^ Moorcock, Michael Horror: The 100 Best Books, ed
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Fantasy Literature
FANTASY LITERATURE is set in an imaginary universe , often but not always without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Magic , the supernatural and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. Fantasy is a subgenre of speculative fiction and is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes, respectively, though these genres overlap. Historically, most works of fantasy were written , however, since the 1960s, a growing segment of the fantasy genre has taken the form of films , television programs , graphic novels , video games , music and art. A numbering of fantasy novels originally written for children, such as _ Alice in Wonderland _, and the _ Hobbit _ also attract an adult audience. CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Beginnings * 1.2 From the 13th century * 1.3 Renaissance * 1.4 Enlightenment * 1.5 Romanticism * 1.6 Victorian Period * 1.7 After 1901 * 2 Style * 3 See also * 4 Footnotes HISTORY Main articles: History of fantasy and Early history of fantasy BEGINNINGSStories involving magic and terrible monsters have existed in spoken forms before the advent of printed literature
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Victor Gollancz Ltd
VICTOR GOLLANCZ LTD (/ˈvɪktər ɡəˈlæns, -ˈlænts/ ) was a major British book publishing house of the twentieth century. It was founded in 1927 by Victor Gollancz and specialised in the publication of high quality literature, nonfiction and popular fiction, including crime, detective, mystery, thriller and science fiction. Upon Gollancz's death in 1967, ownership passed to his daughter, Livia, who sold it to Houghton Mifflin in 1989. Three years later, in October 1992, Houghton Mifflin sold Gollancz to the publishing house Cassell the result was _ The Road to Wigan Pier _. His break with Orwell came when he declined to publish Orwell's account of the Spanish Civil War, _ Homage to Catalonia _, the pair having drifted apart on political grounds. He did publish _The Red Army Moves_ by Geoffrey Cox on the Winter War , which was critical of the Soviet attack on Finland, but also foresaw that the Red Army would defeat the Germans. He also published works by German exiles, such as Hilde Meisel . Gollancz was the original publisher of a number of authors and their books including: * George Orwell with _ Down and Out in Paris and London _ in 1933 * Alfred Ayer with _ Language, Truth and Logic _ in 1936 * A. J
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Hardback
A HARDCOVER or HARDBACK (also known as HARDBOUND, and sometimes as CASE-BOUND) book is one bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with buckram or other cloth , heavy paper , or occasionally leather ). It has a flexible, sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation _Hbk_. Detail of "Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea", first English edition (1873), showing cloth pattern on cover Hardcover books are often printed on acid-free paper , and are much more durable than paperbacks , which have flexible, easily damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are frequently protected by artistic dust jackets , but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming increasingly popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. CONTENTS * 1 Marketing * 2 Prices * 3 Typical structure * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References MARKETINGIf brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is typically released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition (same format as hardcover) the next year. Some publishers publish paperback originals if slow hardback sales are anticipated
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero). Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines ; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, specific purpose * "Special" (Lost) , an episode of the television series _Lost_ * _Special_ (film) * _The Specials_ (film) * Television special , television programming that temporarily replaces scheduled programmingOTHER USES * A special price, a form of discounts and allowances * A kit car or one-off home built vehicle * A euphemi
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The Bone Forest
THE BONE FOREST is a collection of fantasy short stories by British writer Robert Holdstock , published in 1991 (UK) and 1992 (US). It opens with a novella of the same name, followed by seven short stories. The novella is a prequel to the entire Mythago Wood cycle. According to the author it was written "to fill in the background and back-story to Mythago Wood" at the request of a screenwriter who was working on a planned movie version of Mythago Wood. The 1991 and 1992 editions of the book contain seven short stories in addition to the novella The Bone Forest., after which the volume takes its name. The additional stories in The Bone Forest
The Bone Forest
bear little relation with either time or events in the Mythago Wood cycle, yet the short stories are largely influenced by the fantasy realm created as part of the Mythago Wood cycle. The Bone Forest
The Bone Forest
has both won and been nominated for fantasy literature awards
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Fantasy
FANTASY is a fiction genre set in an imaginary universe , often (but not always) without any locations, events, or people from the real world. Its roots are in oral traditions, which then developed into literature and drama . From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, television, graphic novels, and video games. Most fantasy uses magic or other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme , or setting . Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these imaginary worlds. Fantasy is a subgenre of speculative fiction and is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes respectively, though these genres overlap. In popular culture , the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, however, fantasy comprises works by many writers, artists, filmmakers, and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Fantasy is studied in a number of disciplines including English and other language studies, cultural studies , comparative literature , history and medieval studies . Work in this area ranges widely from the structuralist theory of Tzvetan Todorov , which emphasizes the fantastic as a liminal space , to work on the connections (political, historical and literary) between medievalism and popular culture
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Avon (county)
AVON (/ˈeɪvən/ ) was, from 1974 to 1996, a non-metropolitan and ceremonial county in the west of England. The county was named after the River Avon , which runs through the area. It was formed from parts of the historic counties of Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
and Somerset
Somerset
, together with the City of Bristol
Bristol
. In 1996, the county was abolished and the area split between four new unitary authorities : Bath and North East Somerset , Bristol
Bristol
, North Somerset
Somerset
and South Gloucestershire
South Gloucestershire
. The Avon name is still used for some purposes. The area had a population of approximately 1.08 million people in 2009. CONTENTS * 1 Background * 2 Creation * 3 Demise * 4 Legacy * 5 See also * 6 External links * 7 References BACKGROUNDThe port of Bristol
Bristol
lies close to the mouth of the River Avon which formed the historic boundary between Gloucestershire
Gloucestershire
and Somerset. In 1373 a charter constituted the area as the County of the Town of Bristol, although it continued to fall within the jurisdiction of the two counties for some purposes. The appointment of a boundaries commission in 1887 led to a campaign for the creation of a county of Greater Bristol
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Lyonesse
LYONESSE is a country in Arthurian legend , particularly in the story of Tristan and Iseult
Tristan and Iseult
. Said to border Cornwall
Cornwall
, it is most notable as the home of the hero Tristan
Tristan
, whose father was king. In later traditions Lyonesse
Lyonesse
is said to have sunk beneath the waves some time after the Tristan
Tristan
stories take place, making it similar to Ys and other lost lands in medieval Celtic tales, and perhaps connecting it with the Isles of Scilly . CONTENTS * 1 Lyonesse
Lyonesse
in Arthurian legend * 2 Analogues in Celtic mythology * 3 Lyonesse
Lyonesse
in modern English literature * 4 Lyonesse
Lyonesse
in Cornish literature * 5 Other uses of Lyonesse
Lyonesse
* 6 See also * 7 Notes * 8 References LYONESSE IN ARTHURIAN LEGENDIn medieval Arthurian legend, there are no references to the sinking of Lyonesse, because the name originally referred to a still-existing place. Lyonesse
Lyonesse
is an English alteration of French Léoneis or Léonois (earlier Loönois), a development of Lodonesia, the Latin name for Lothian in Scotland
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Avalon
AVALON (/ˈævəˌlɒn/ ; Latin : _Insula Avallonis_, Old French _Avalon_, Welsh : _Ynys Afallon, Ynys Afallach_; literally meaning "the isle of fruit trees") is a legendary island featured in the Arthurian legend . It first appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth 's 1136 pseudo-historical account _ Historia Regum Britanniae _ ("The History of the Kings of Britain") as the place where King Arthur
King Arthur
's sword Excalibur
Excalibur
was forged and later where Arthur was taken to recover from his wounds after the Battle of Camlann . Avalon
Avalon
was associated from an early date with mystical practices and people such as Morgan le Fay . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 In Arthurian legend * 3 Connection to Glastonbury
Glastonbury
* 3.1 Other locations for Avalon
Avalon
* 4 See also * 5 References ETYMOLOGY Geoffrey of Monmouth referred to it in Latin as _Insula Avallonis_ in the _Historia_. In the later _ Vita Merlini _ he called it _Insula Pomorum_ the "isle of fruit trees" (from Latin _pōmus_ "fruit tree"). The name is generally considered to be of Welsh origin (though an Old Cornish or Old Breton origin is also possible), derived from Old Welsh , Old Cornish , or Old Breton _aball_ or _avallen(n)_, "apple tree, fruit tree" (cf
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Dis (Divine Comedy)
In Dante Alighieri 's The Divine Comedy
Divine Comedy
, the CITY OF DIS (in Italian, la città il cui nome è Dis, "the city whose name is Dis") encompasses the sixth through the ninth circles of Hell
Hell
. Before the City is reached, in ninth canto, Dante encounters the unbaptised and then those who sinned by self-indulgence—the lustful, the gluttons, the misers and spendthrifts—and at the outskirts of the red-hot walls of City of Dis are the wrathful and those of ill-will. From this point on we find sinners who acted out of malice and wickedness. Immediately within the walls of the City are the Heretics, who, having disbelieved in immortality are forever imprisoned in red-hot tombs. Beyond are rings of those who were violent—to others, to themselves (suicides), to God (blasphemers), to art (usurers), and to nature (sexual perverts). Beyond the ruins of Dis are the frauds and corruptors, and finally the traitors. In ancient Roman mythology , Dis Pater ("Father Dis") is the ruler of the underworld and is named as such in the sixth book of Virgil
Virgil
's " Aeneid ", one of the principal influences on Dante in his depiction of Hell
Hell
(the god was also known as Pluto , a name not used by Virgil in the Aeneid)
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Last Glacial Period
The LAST GLACIAL PERIOD, popularly known as the ICE AGE, was the most recent glacial period , which occurred from c.  110,000 – c. 11,700 years ago. This most recent glacial period is part of a larger pattern of glacial and interglacial periods known as the Quaternary glaciation (c. 2,588,000 years ago to present). From this point of view, scientists consider this "ice age " to be merely the latest glaciation event in a much larger ice age, one that dates back over two million years and is still ongoing. During this last glacial period, there were several changes between glacier advance and retreat. The Last Glacial Maximum , the maximum extent of glaciation within the last glacial period, was approximately 22,000 years ago. While the general pattern of global cooling and glacier advance was similar, local differences in the development of glacier advance and retreat make it difficult to compare the details from continent to continent (see picture of ice core data below for differences). Approximately 13,000 years ago, the Late Glacial Maximum began. Around 11,700 years ago marked the beginning of the Holocene geological epoch , which includes the Holocene glacial retreat . From the point of view of human archaeology , it falls in the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
and Mesolithic periods
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