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Laboratory
A laboratory (British English: /ləˈbɒrətəri/ or /ləˈbɒrətri/, American English: /ˈlæbərətɔːri/ or /ˈlæbrətɔːri/; informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.Contents1 Overview 2 History2.1 The early laboratories3 Techniques 4 Equipment and supplies 5 Specialized types 6 Safety 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksOverview[edit] Laboratories used for scientific research take many forms because of the differing requirements of specialists in the various fields of science and engineering. A physics laboratory might contain a particle accelerator or vacuum chamber, while a metallurgy laboratory could have apparatus for casting or refining metals or for testing their strength
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Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
(/ˈluːi pæˈstɜːr/, French: [lwi pastœʁ]; December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization. He is remembered for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of diseases, and his discoveries have saved many lives ever since. He reduced mortality from puerperal fever, and created the first vaccines for rabies and anthrax. His medical discoveries provided direct support for the germ theory of disease and its application in clinical medicine. He is best known to the general public for his invention of the technique of treating milk and wine to stop bacterial contamination, a process now called pasteurization
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Industry
Industry
Industry
is the production of goods or related services within an economy.[1] The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry.[2] When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing
Manufacturing
industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies
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School
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers. Most countries have systems of formal education, which is commonly compulsory.[citation needed] In these systems, students progress through a series of schools. The names for these schools vary by country (discussed in the Regional section below) but generally include primary school for young children and secondary school for teenagers who have completed primary education. An institution where higher education is taught, is commonly called a university college or university. In addition to these core schools, students in a given country may also attend schools before and after primary and secondary education. Kindergarten
Kindergarten
or pre-school provide some schooling to very young children (typically ages 3–5)
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Learning Space
Learning space
Learning space
or learning setting refers to a physical setting for a learning environment, a place in which teaching and learning occur.[1] The term is commonly used as a more definitive alternative to "classroom,"[2] but it may also refer to an indoor or outdoor location, either actual or virtual. Learning spaces are highly diverse in use, learning styles, configuration, location, and educational institution
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Engineers
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are people who invent, design, analyse, build and test machines, systems, structures and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation, safety, and cost.[1][2] The word engineer ( Latin
Latin
ingeniator[3]) is derived from the Latin
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Data
Data
Data
(/ˈdeɪtə/ DAY-tə, /ˈdætə/ DAT-ə, /ˈdɑːtə/ DAH-tə)[1] is a set of values of qualitative or quantitative variables. Data
Data
and information are often used interchangeably; however, the extent to which a set of data is informative to someone depends on the extent to which it is unexpected by that person
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Data Analysis
Numerical analysis · Simulation Data
Data
analysis · VisualizationPotentials Morse/Long-range potential · Lennard-Jones potential · Yukawa potential · Morse potentialFluid dynamics Finite difference · Finite volume Finite element · Boundary element Lattice Boltzmann · Riemann solver Dissipative particle dynamics Smoothed particle hydrodynamics Turbulence modelsMonte Carlo methods Integration · Gibbs sampling · Metropolis algorithmParticle N-body · Particle-in-cell Molecular dynamicsScientists Godunov · Ulam · von Neumann · Galerkin · Lorenz · Wilsonv t e Data
Data
analysis is a process of inspecting, cleansing, transforming, and modeling data with the goal of discovering useful information, suggesting conclusions, and supporting decision-making
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Government
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.[1] In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority (tyranny). While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations.[2] Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny
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Military
A military is a force authorized to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. It typically consists of an Army, Navy, Air Force, and in certain countries the Marines
Marines
and Coast Guard. The task of the military is usually defined as defence of the state, and its citizens, and the prosecution of war against another state. The military may also have additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within a society, including, the promotion of a political agenda, protecting corporate economic interests, internal population control, construction, emergency services, social ceremonies, and guarding important areas. The military may also function as a discrete subculture within a larger civil society, through the development of separate infrastructures, which may include housing, schools, utilities, logistics, health and medical, law, food production, finance and banking
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Ship
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing. Historically, a "ship" was a sailing vessel with at least three square-rigged masts and a full bowsprit. Ships are generally distinguished from boats, based on size, shape, load capacity, and tradition. Ships have been important contributors to human migration and commerce. They have supported the spread of colonization and the slave trade, but have also served scientific, cultural, and humanitarian needs. After the 15th century, new crops that had come from and to the Americas via the European seafarers significantly contributed to the world population growth.[1] Ship transport
Ship transport
is responsible for the largest portion of world commerce. As of 2016, there were more than 49,000 merchant ships, totaling almost 1.8 billion dead weight tons
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Computer Scientist
A computer scientist is a scientist who has acquired the knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application.[1] Computer scientists typically work on the theoretical side of computer systems, as opposed to the hardware side that computer engineers mainly focus on (although there is overlap)
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Fab Lab
A fab lab (fabrication laboratory) is a small-scale workshop offering (personal) digital fabrication.[1][2] A fab lab is typically equipped with an array of flexible computer-controlled tools that cover several different length scales and various materials, with the aim to make "almost anything".[3] This includes technology-enabled products generally perceived as limited to mass production. While fab labs have yet to compete with mass production and its associated economies of scale in fabricating widely distributed products, they have already shown the potential to empower individuals to create smart devices for themselves
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Strength Of Materials
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains. The complete theory began with the consideration of the behavior of one and two dimensional members of structures, whose states of stress can be approximated as two dimensional, and was then generalized to three dimensions to develop a more complete theory of the elastic and plastic behavior of materials. An important founding pioneer in mechanics of materials was Stephen Timoshenko. The study of strength of materials often refers to various methods of calculating the stresses and strains in structural members, such as beams, columns, and shafts
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Refining
Refining (also perhaps called by the mathematical term affining) is the process of purification of a (1) substance or a (2) form. The term is usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but which is more useful in its pure form. For instance, most types of natural petroleum will burn straight from the ground, but it will burn poorly and quickly clog an engine with residues and by-products. The term is broad, and may include more drastic transformations, such as the reduction of ore to metal (for which see Refining (metallurgy)). The refining of liquids is often accomplished by distillation or fractionation; this process is useful, for example, for isolating different fractions of petroleum. Gases can be refined in this way as well, by being cooled and/or compressed until they liquefy
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Casting (metalworking)
In metalworking and jewellery making, casting is a process in which a liquid metal is somehow delivered into a mold that contains a hollow cavity (i.e., a 3-dimensional negative image) of the intended shape. The metal and mold are then cooled, and the metal part (the casting) is extracted. Casting
Casting
is most often used for making complex shapes that would be difficult or uneconomical to make by other methods.[1] Casting
Casting
processes have been known for thousands of years, and have been widely used for sculpture (especially in bronze), jewellery in precious metals, and weapons and tools. Traditional techniques include lost-wax casting (which may be further divided into centrifugal casting and vacuum assist direct pour casting), plaster mold casting and sand casting. The modern casting process is subdivided into two main categories: expendable and non-expendable casting
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