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Kutama
The Kutama (Berber: Iktamen) were a major Berber Tribe in northern Algeria
Algeria
classified among the Berber Confederation of the Bavares. the Kutama are attested much earlier, in the form Koidamousii by the Greek geographer Ptolemy.[1] The Kutama played a pivotal role during the Fatimid
Fatimid
Caliphate (909–1171), forming the Fatimid
Fatimid
army which eventually overthrew the Aghlabids
Aghlabids
who controlled Ifriqiya, and which then went on to conquer Egypt and the southern Levant
Levant
in 969–975. The Kutama remained one of the mainstays of the Fatimid
Fatimid
army until well into the 11th century.Contents1 Origins 2 History 3 21st century 4 See also 5 NotesOrigins[edit] The Kutama are part of the Branes branch of Berbers
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Jawhar Al-Siqilli
Jawhar (Arabic: جوهر‎; fl. 966–d. 992) was a Fatimid general. Under the command of Caliph
Caliph
Al-Mu'izz, he led the conquest of North Africa and then of Egypt,[1] founded the city of Cairo[2] and the great al-Azhar Mosque. A Greek slave by origin, he was freed by Al-Mu'izz.[3]Contents1 Biography 2 Epithets 3 See also 4 References 5 Sources 6 External linksBiography[edit] Jawhar was a Sicilian ghulam of Greek ethnicity.[4][5][6][7][8] His family originated from the Emirate of Sicily
Sicily
(hence the epithet الصقلي = the Sicilian), and came as a slave to North Africa. He was sent to the Fatimid Caliph
Caliph
Ismail al-Mansur
Ismail al-Mansur
on account of his intelligence and cunning. Under his son al-Muizz (953-975) he gained his freedom and became his personal secretary. Soon he was the vizier and the highest-ranking military commander of the Fatimids
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Hadīth
Ḥadīth (/ˈhædɪθ/[1] or /hɑːˈdiːθ/;[2] Arabic: حديث‎ ḥadīth, pl. Aḥādīth, أحاديث, ʼaḥādīth[3], also "Traditions") in Islam
Islam
denotes the words, actions, and the silent approval, of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Within Islam
Islam
the authority of Ḥadīth as a source for religious law ranks inferior only to the Qur'an
Qur'an
— which Muslims hold to be the word of Allah
Allah
revealed to his messenger Muhammad
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Hammadids
French Algeria
Algeria
(19th - 20th centuries)French conquest French governorsResistance PacificationEmir Abdelkader Fatma N'SoumerMokrani Revolt Cheikh BouamamaNationalism RCUA FLN GPRAAlgerian War 1958 putsch 1961 putschÉvian Accords Independence referendumPied-Noir Harkis Oujda GroupContemporary era 1960s–80sArab nationalism 1965 putschBerber Spring 1988 Riots1990s
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Ayyubids
The Ayyubid dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
(Arabic: الأيوبيون‎ al-Ayyūbīyūn; Kurdish: خانەدانی ئەیووبیان‎ Xanedana Eyûbiyan) was a Sunni
Sunni
Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin[2][3][4] founded by Saladin
Saladin
and centred in Egypt. The dynasty ruled large parts of the Middle East
Middle East
during the 12th and 13th centuries. Saladin
Saladin
had risen to vizier of Fatimid Egypt
Egypt
in 1169, before abolishing the Fatimids in 1171
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Bani Hilal
The Banu Hilal
Banu Hilal
(Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz
Hejaz
and Najd
Najd
regions of the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
that emigrated to North Africa
North Africa
in the 11th century. Masters of the vast plateaux of Najd, they enjoyed a somewhat infamous reputation, possibly owing to their relatively late (for the Arabian tribes) conversion to Islam and accounts of their campaigns in the borderlands between Iraq and Syria. With the revolutionary movement of the Qarmatians
Qarmatians
in Bahrain
Bahrain
and Oman, they participated in the pillage of Mecca
Mecca
in 930 in their fight against the Fatimid Caliphate
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Mila Province
Mila (Arabic: ولاية ميلة‎, Berber languages: ⵜⴰⵎⴻⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵎⵉⵍⴰ) is a province (wilaya) of Algeria, whose capital is Mila
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Sétif Province
Sétif
Sétif
Province (Arabic: ولاية سطيف‎, Berber languages: ⵜⴰⵎⴻⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵣⴹⵉⴼ) is a province (wilaya) in north-eastern Algeria. Its capital and largest city is Sétif; the next largest city is El Eulma
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Jijel Province
Jijel
Jijel
( Berber languages: ⵜⴰⵎⴻⵏⴰⴹⵜ ⵏ ⵉⵖⵉⵍ ⴳⵉⵍⵉ/ Ighil Gili , Arabic: ولاية جيجل‎) is a province (wilaya) in Algeria
Algeria
, in "La Petite Kabylie", on the eastern Mediterranean coast. The capital is Jijel
Jijel
(Berber Igilgili)
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Béjaïa Province
The Bejaia province (Berber languages: Tamnaḍt en Bgayet, Arabic: ولاية بجاية‎), stylized Béjaïa
Béjaïa
in French, is a province of Algeria
Algeria
in the Kabylia
Kabylia
region (also known as Tazwawa). The province's capital city is Bgayet. Gouraya National Park
Gouraya National Park
is located in Béjaïa
Béjaïa
Province
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Zirid Dynasty
The Zirid dynasty
Zirid dynasty
(Berber languages: ⵉⵣⵉⵔⵉⴻⵏ Tagelda en Ayt Ziri, Arabic: زيريون‎ /ALA-LC: Zīryūn; Banu Ziri), was a Sanhaja
Sanhaja
Berber dynasty from current Algeria, which ruled the central Maghreb
Maghreb
from 972 to 1014 and Ifriqiya
Ifriqiya
(eastern Maghreb) from 972 to 1148.[3][6] Descendants of Ziri ibn Menad, a military leader who rallied to the Cairo-based Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
and gave his name to the dynasty, the Zirids were Emirs who ruled in the name of the Fatimids. They gradually established their autonomy until officially breaking with the Fatimids
Fatimids
in the mid-11th century
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Saladin
An-Nasir
An-Nasir
Salah ad-Din Yusuf
Yusuf
ibn Ayyub (Arabic: صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب‎ / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; Kurdish: سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی‎ / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (/ˈsælədɪn/; 1137 – 4 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt
Egypt
and Syria[4] and the founder of the Ayyubid
Ayyubid
dynasty. A Sunni Muslim of Kurdish ethnicity,[5][6][7] Saladin
Saladin
led the Muslim military campaign against the Crusader states in the Levant
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Cairo
Cairo
Cairo
(/ˈkaɪroʊ/ KYE-roh; Arabic: القاهرة‎ Al-Qāhirah,  pronunciation (help·info)) is the capital city of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is the largest in the Middle East
Middle East
and the Arab world, and the 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex
Giza pyramid complex
and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta,[3][4] modern Cairo
Cairo
was founded in 969 CE by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo
Cairo
has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture
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Berber Language
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages[2] (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg
Tuareg
Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ, pronounced [tæmæˈzɪɣt], [θæmæˈzɪɣθ]), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family. They comprise a group of closely related dialects spoken by the Berbers, who are indigenous to North Africa.[3] The languages were traditionally written with the ancient Libyco-Berber script, which now exists in the form of Tifinagh.[4] Berber is spoken by large populations of Morocco, Algeria
Algeria
and Libya, by smaller populations of Tunisia, northern Mali, western and northern Niger, northern Burkina Faso
Burkina Faso
and Mauritania
Mauritania
and in the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
of Egypt
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Mahdiyya, Tunisia
Mahdia
Mahdia
(Arabic: المهدية‎  al-Mahdīya) is a Tunisian coastal city with 62,189 inhabitants, south of Monastir and southeast of Sousse. Mahdia
Mahdia
is a provincial centre north of Sfax
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Sunni
OthersZahiri Awza'i Thawri Laythi Jariri Sunni
Sunni
schools of theologyAsh'ari Maturidi TraditionalistOthers:Mu'tazila Murji'ahContemporary movementsAhl-i Hadith Al-Ahbash Barelvi Deobandi Islamic Modernism Salafi
Salafi
movement WahhabismHoly sitesJerusalem Mecca Medina Mount SinaiListsLiteratureKutub al-Sittah Islam
Islam
portalv t eThis article contains Arabic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols. Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
(/ˈsuːni, ˈsʊni/) is the largest denomination of Islam
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