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Kimigayo
"KIMIGAYO" (君が代, ; His Imperial Majesty
Majesty
's Reign) is the national anthem of Japan
Japan
. Its lyrics are the oldest among the world's national anthems, and with a length of 11 measures and 32 characters "Kimigayo" is also one of the world's shortest. Its lyrics are from a _waka _ poem written in the Heian period
Heian period
(794–1185), and the current melody was chosen in 1880, replacing an unpopular melody composed eleven years earlier. While the title "Kimigayo" is usually translated as "His Imperial Majesty's Reign", no official translation of the title or lyrics has been established in law. From 1888 to 1945 "Kimigayo" served as the national anthem of the Empire of Japan
Japan
. When the Empire was dissolved following its surrender at the end of World War II
World War II
, the State of Japan
Japan
succeeded it in 1945
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 _Nippon-koku_ _Nihon-koku_ _ Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo _" * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * _ * Go-Shichi no Kiri_ (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan shown in green; claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
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Waka (poetry)
WAKA (和歌, "Japanese poem") is a type of poetry in classical Japanese literature
Japanese literature
. Waka are composed in Japanese , and are contrasted with poetry composed by Japanese poets in Classical Chinese , which are known as kanshi . Although waka in modern Japanese is written as 和歌, in the past it was also written as 倭歌 (see Wa (Japan) ), and a variant name is yamato-uta (大和歌)
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Heian Period
The HEIAN PERIOD (平安時代, _Heian jidai_) is the last division of classical Japanese history , running from 794 to 1185. The period is named after the capital city of Heian-kyō , or modern Kyōto . It is the period in Japanese history when Buddhism
Buddhism
, Taoism and other Chinese influences were at their height. The Heian period
Heian period
is also considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art , especially poetry and literature . Although the Imperial House of Japan
Japan
had power on the surface, the real power was in the hands of the Fujiwara clan , a powerful aristocratic family who had intermarried with the imperial family . Many emperors actually had mothers from the Fujiwara family. _Heian_ (平安) means "peace" in Japanese
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Franz Eckert
FRANZ ECKERT (April 5, 1852 – August 6, 1916 ) was a German composer and musician who composed the harmony for Japan
Japan
's national anthem , " Kimigayo
Kimigayo
" and the anthem of the Korean Empire
Korean Empire
, "Aegukga ". CONTENTS * 1 Early life and education * 2 Career * 3 Later life and death * 4 Notes * 5 References EARLY LIFE AND EDUCATIONEckert was a native of Neurode , Prussian Silesia
Prussian Silesia
(now Nowa Ruda
Nowa Ruda
, Poland
Poland
), and the son of a court official. He studied in the conservatories of Breslau (Wrocław) and the Royal Conservatory in Dresden
Dresden
, and specialized in military music at Neiße
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Majesty
_MAJESTY_ is an English word derived ultimately from the Latin _maiestas_, meaning _greatness_, and used as a style by many monarchs , usually kings or emperors . Where used, the style outranks _ Highness _. It has cognates in many other languages, especially Indo-European languages of Europe. CONTENTS * 1 Origin * 2 Style of a head of state * 2.1 In the United Kingdom * 2.2 In ancient China * 2.3 In Japan * 2.4 In Brunei * 3 References ORIGINOriginally, during the Roman republic , the word _maiestas_ was the legal term for the supreme status and dignity of the state, to be respected above everything else
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National Anthem
A NATIONAL ANTHEM (also STATE ANTHEM, NATIONAL HYMN, NATIONAL SONG, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song , or by convention through use by the people. The majority of national anthems are marches or hymns in style. The countries of Latin America , Central Asia and Europe
Europe
tend towards more operatic pieces, while those in the Middle East
Middle East
, Oceania
Oceania
, Africa
Africa
and the Caribbean use a simple fanfare
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Lyrics
LYRICS are words that make up a song usually consisting of verses and choruses . The writer of lyrics is a lyricist . The words to an extended musical composition such as an opera are, however, usually known as a "libretto " and their writer, as a "librettist ". The meaning of lyrics can either be explicit or implicit. Some lyrics are abstract, almost unintelligible, and, in such cases, their explication emphasizes form , articulation , meter , and symmetry of expression. Rappers can also create lyrics (often with a variation of rhyming words) that are meant to be spoken rhythmically rather than sung. CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 Poems as lyrics * 3 Shifter * 4 Copyright and royalties * 5 Academic study * 6 Search engines * 6.1 Riskiest search * 6.2 Lyrics in Google search results * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links ETYMOLOGY A lyrist on the Standard of Ur , c. 2500 BC
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Empire Of Japan
Other: Buddhism GOVERNMENT Daijō-kan (1868–1885) Constitutional monarchy (1890–1940, 1945-1947) One-party military dictatorship (1940–1945) EMPEROR • 1868–1912 Meiji (Mutsuhito) • 1912–1926 Taishō (Yoshihito) • 1926–1947 Shōwa (Hirohito) PRIME MINISTER • 1885–1888 Itō Hirobumi (first) • 1946–1947 Shigeru Yoshi
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Surrender Of Japan
The SURRENDER OF IMPERIAL JAPAN was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II
World War II
to a close . By the end of July 1945, the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) was incapable of conducting major operations and an Allied invasion of Japan was imminent. Together with the British Empire and China , the United States
United States
called for the unconditional surrender of the Japanese armed forces in the Potsdam Declaration
Potsdam Declaration
on July 26, 1945—the alternative being "prompt and utter destruction". While publicly stating their intent to fight on to the bitter end, Japan's leaders (the Supreme Council for the Direction of the War , also known as the "Big Six") were privately making entreaties to the still-neutral Soviet Union
Soviet Union
to mediate peace on terms more favorable to the Japanese
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World War Ii
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Successor State
SUCCESSION OF STATES is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states. A SUCCESSOR STATE is a sovereign state over a territory and populace which was previously under the sovereignty of another state. The theory has its root in 19th century diplomacy . A successor state often acquires a new international legal personality , which is distinct from a continuing state, also known as a continuator, which despite change to its borders retains the same legal personality and possess all its existing rights and obligations (such as a rump state )
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Parliamentary Democracy
REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACY (also INDIRECT DEMOCRACY, REPRESENTATIVE REPUBLIC, or PSEPHOCRACY) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy . Nearly all modern Western-style democracies are types of representative democracies; for example, the United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy , Ireland is a parliamentary republic , and the United States is a federal republic . Representative democracy is often presented as the most efficient form of democracy possible in mass societies. It arguably allows for efficient ruling by a sufficiently small number of people on behalf of the larger number. Government efficiency can be judged based on metric of cost effectiveness and time effectiveness. Representatives voting on behalf of the people allows for a monetary benefit as there is lessened use of polling stations, vote counters, etc
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Polity
A POLITY is any kind of political entity . It is a group of people who are collectively united by a self-reflected cohesive force such as identity , who have a capacity to mobilize resources , and are organized by some form of institutionalized hierarchy . CONTENTS * 1 Overview * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links OVERVIEWA polity can be manifested in many different forms, such as a state , an empire , an international organization , a political organisation and other identifiable, resource-manipulating organisational structures. A polity, like a state, does not need to be a sovereign unit. The most preeminent polities today are Westphalian states and nation-states , commonly (though incorrectly) referred to as "nations ". It therefore encapsulates a vast multitude of organisations, many of which form the fundamental apparatuses of contemporary states such as their subordinate civil and local government authorities
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Sovereignty
SOVEREIGNTY is understood as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies. In political theory, sovereignty is a substantive term designating supreme authority over some polity . It is a basic principle underlying the dominant Westphalian model of state foundation . Derived from Latin through French _souveraineté_, its attainment and retention, in both Chinese and Western culture, has traditionally been associated with certain moral imperatives upon any claimant
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Popular Sovereignty
POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY, or the SOVEREIGNTY OF THE PEOPLE\'S RULE, is the principle that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives (Rule by the People), who are the source of all political power. It is closely associated with social contract philosophers such as Thomas Hobbes , John Locke
John Locke
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau . Popular sovereignty expresses a concept and does not necessarily reflect or describe a political reality. The peopl