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Khasso
Khasso
Khasso
or Xaaso was a West African kingdom of the 17th to 19th centuries, occupying territory in what is today Senegal
Senegal
and the Kayes Region of Mali. Over two thousand years ago, it was part of Serer territory.[1] From the 17th to 19th centuries, its capital was at Medina until its fall. Seated at the head of the Senegal
Senegal
River, the Khasso
Khasso
kingdom was composed of Fulas[2] who had immigrated to the area and integrated with the local Malinké
Malinké
and Soninké populations. Séga Doua (r. 1681 - 1725) is remembered as the first Fankamala (king) of the Khasso, and his dynasty would last until the death of his descendant Demba Séga in 1796. Following a civil war between his sons Dibba Samballa et Demba Maddy, the kingdom fragmented into five smaller states, the most powerful of which was Dembaya under Hawa Demba Diallo (r
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Fula Language
Fula /ˈfuːlə/[3], also known as Fulani /fʊˈlɑːniː/[3] or Fulah[4][5][6] (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; French: Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa. Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof, it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages, which does not have tones, unlike most other Niger–Congo languages. More broadly, it belongs to the Atlantic geographic grouping within Niger–Congo. It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fula: Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea
Guinea
to Cameroon
Cameroon
and Sudan
Sudan
and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River
Senegal River
Valley
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Europe
Europe
Europe
is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic
Arctic
Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe
Europe
is most commonly considered as separated from Asia
Asia
by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus
Caucasus
Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits.[5] Though the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity
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French Language
French (le français [lə fʁɑ̃sɛ] ( listen) or la langue française [la lɑ̃ɡ fʁɑ̃sɛz]) is a Romance language
Romance language
of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin
Vulgar Latin
of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin
Latin
in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France
France
and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages
Celtic languages
of Northern Roman Gaul
Gaul
like Gallia Belgica
Gallia Belgica
and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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Africa
Africa
Africa
is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
in both categories). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its total land area.[3] With 1.2 billion[1] people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea
Red Sea
along the Sinai Peninsula
Sinai Peninsula
to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos
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French Sudan
FlagAnthem La Marseillaise  •  Le Mali (instrumental only)Green: French Sudan Lime: French West Africa Gray: Other French possessions Black: French RepublicCapital Bamako¹Historical era New Imperialism •  Established c. 1880 •  Federated with Senegal 20 June 1960Area •  1959 1,241,238 km2 (479,245 sq mi)Population •  1959 4,407,000 Density 3.6 /km2  (9.2 /sq mi)¹ Kayes (1892–1899)French Sudan (French: Soudan français; Arabic: السودان الفرنسي‎ as-Sūdān al-Faransī) was a French colonial territory in the federation of French West Africa from around 1880 until 1960, when it became the independent state of Mali. The colony was formally called French Sudan from 1890 until 1899 and then again from 1921 until 1958, and had a variety of different names over the course of its existence
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France
France
France
(French: [fʁɑ̃s]), officially the French Republic (French: République française [ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France
France
in western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.[XIII] The metropolitan area of France
France
extends from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the English Channel
English Channel
and the North Sea, and from the Rhine
Rhine
to the Atlantic Ocean. The overseas territories include French Guiana
French Guiana
in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans
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Jihad
Jihad
Jihad
(English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/; Arabic: جهاد‎ jihād [dʒɪˈhaːd]) is an Arabic
Arabic
word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim.[1][2][3][4] It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to conve
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Bambara Empire
The Bamana Empire
Bamana Empire
(also Bambara Empire or Ségou
Ségou
Empire) was a large West African state based at Ségou, now in Mali. This state was established after the fall of the Mali
Mali
Empire and the Keita dynasty, as a smaller Bambara Empire founded by other Bambara families related to the Keita clan. It was ruled by the Kulubali or Coulibaly dynasty established c. 1640 by Kaladian Coulibaly also known as Fa Sine or Biton-si-u
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Senegal River
The Senegal
Senegal
River
River
(Arabic: نهر السنغال‎, French: Fleuve Sénégal) is a 1,086 km (675 mi) long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal
Senegal
and Mauritania.Contents1 Geography 2 History2.1 Arab sources 2.2 Cartographic representation 2.3 European contact3 Etymology 4 See also 5 References 6 Sources 7 Further reading 8 External linksGeography[edit] The Senegal's headwaters are the Semefé (Bakoye) and Bafing rivers which both originate in Guinea; they form a small part of the Guinean-Malian border before coming together at Bafoulabé
Bafoulabé
in Mali. From there, the Senegal
Senegal
river flows west and then north through Talari Gorges near Galougo and over the Gouina Falls, then flows more gently past Kayes, where it receives the Kolimbiné
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Sine-Saloum
Coordinates: 14°11′N 16°15′W / 14.183°N 16.250°W / 14.183; -16.250 Sine- Saloum
Saloum
is a region in Senegal
Senegal
located north of the Gambia and south of the Petite Côte. It encompasses an area of 24,000 square kilometers, about 12% of Senegal, with a population in the 1990s of 1,060,000.[1] The western portion contains the Saloum
Saloum
Delta, a river delta at the junction of the Saloum
Saloum
and the North Atlantic. It is in this region that the Saloum Delta
Saloum Delta
National Park is located. 145,811 hectares of the Delta were designated a UNESCO Heritage Site
UNESCO Heritage Site
in 2011.[2] Because it flows so slowly, this delta allows saltwater to travel deep inland. Long ago, the Serer kingdoms of Sine and Saloum
Saloum
were rivals
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Serer Creation Myth
The Serer creation myth
Serer creation myth
is the traditional creation myth of the Serer people of Senegal, the Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania. Many Serers who adhere to the tenets of the Serer religion
Serer religion
believe these narratives to be sacred
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Junjung
Junjung
Junjung
(various spellings, including Jung-jung, gungun also dyoung-dyoung etc.)[1] is the name for the royal war drum of the Serer people in Senegal
Senegal
and the Gambia.[2] It was played on the way to the battlefield, on special State occasions as well as on Serer religious ceremonies. It is also the progenitor of the music of the same name found in the Caribbean.[3] See also[edit]Dunun Serer religion
Serer religion
portal Serer people
Serer people
portal Senegal
Senegal
portal Gambia
Gambia
portal Religion portal history portal Music portal War portalNotes[edit]^ Léopold Sédar Senghor, À l'appel de la race de Saba (1936) : « Ma tête bourdonnant au galop guerrier des dyoungs-dyoungs, au grand galop de mon sang de pur sang » ^ Louis Diène Faye
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Lamane
Lamane
Lamane
or laman (also laam or lam) means "master of the land" in the Serer language.[1][2] The name was also sometimes the title of chiefs or kings of the Serer people
Serer people
of the
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