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Khasso
KHASSO or XAASO was a West African kingdom of the 17th to 19th centuries, occupying territory in what is today Senegal
Senegal
and the Kayes Region of Mali
Mali
. Over two thousand years ago, it was part of Serer territory. From the 17th to 19th centuries, its capital was at Medina until its fall. Seated at the head of the Senegal
Senegal
River , the Khasso
Khasso
kingdom was composed of Fulas who had immigrated to the area and integrated with the local Malinké
Malinké
and Soninké populations. Séga Doua (r. 1681 - 1725) is remembered as the first Fankamala (king) of the Khasso, and his dynasty would last until the death of his descendant Demba Séga in 1796. Following a civil war between his sons Dibba Samballa et Demba Maddy, the kingdom fragmented into five smaller states, the most powerful of which was Dembaya under Hawa Demba Diallo (r. 1810-1833)
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French Sudan
Flag ANTHEM La Marseillaise
La Marseillaise
Le Mali (instrumental only) GREEN: French Sudan LIME: French West Africa GRAY: Other French possessions BLACK: French Republic CAPITAL Bamako
Bamako
¹ HISTORICAL ERA New Imperialism • Established c. 1880 • Federated with Senegal 20 June 1960 AREA • 1959 1,241,238 km2 (479,245 sq mi) POPULATION • 1959 4,407,000 Density 3.6 /km2 (9.2 /sq mi) ¹ Kayes
Kayes
(1892–1899)FRENCH SUDAN (French: Soudan Français; Arabic : السودان الفرنسي‎‎ as-Sūdān al-Faransī) was a French colonial territory in the federation of French West Africa
French West Africa
from around 1880 until 1960, when it became the independent state of Mali
Mali

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Jihad
JIHAD (English: /dʒɪˈhɑːd/ ; Arabic : جهاد‎‎ _jihād_ ) is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim. It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against one's evil inclinations, an exertion to convert unbelievers, or efforts toward the moral betterment of society, though it is most frequently associated with war. In classical Islamic law , the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi and pious circles, spiritual and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of _greater jihad_. The term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups
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France
FRANCE (locally ), officially the FRENCH REPUBLIC (_République française_ ), is a country with territory status in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories . The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea , and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean . The republic also includes French Guiana on the South American continent and several islands in the Atlantic , Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions (5 of which are situated overseas) span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) which, as of January 2017, has a total population of almost 67 million people. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris , the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre
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Africa
AFRICA is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent (the first being Asia
Asia
). At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth\'s total surface area and 20.4% of its total land area. With 1.2 billion people as of 2016, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population . The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast, the Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
to the southeast and the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the west. The continent includes Madagascar
Madagascar
and various archipelagos . It contains 54 fully recognised sovereign states (countries ), nine territories and two _de facto _ independent states with limited or no recognition
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Sine-Saloum
Coordinates : 14°11′N 16°15′W / 14.183°N 16.250°W / 14.183; -16.250 SINE-SALOUM is a region in Senegal
Senegal
located north of the Gambia and south of the Petite Côte . It encompasses an area of 24,000 square kilometers , about 12% of Senegal, with a population in the 1990s of 1,060,000. The western portion contains the Saloum Delta , a river delta at the junction of the Saloum
Saloum
and the North Atlantic. It is in this region that the Saloum Delta National Park is located. 145,811 hectares of the Delta were designated a UNESCO Heritage Site in 2011. Because it flows so slowly, this delta allows saltwater to travel deep inland. Long ago, the Serer kingdoms of Sine and Saloum
Saloum
were rivals. In 1984, the area was divided into two administrative regions: Kaolack and Fatick
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French Language
Phonological history * Oaths of Strasbourg * Ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts * Anglo-Norman GRAMMAR * Adverbs * Articles and determiners * Pronouns (personal )* Verbs * (conjugation * morphology ) ORTHOGRAPHY * Alphabet * Reforms * Circumflex * Braille PHONOLOGY * Elision * Liaison * Aspirated h * Help:IPA for French * v * t * e FRENCH (_le français_ (_ listen ) or la langue française_ ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family . It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire , as did all Romance languages. French has evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d\'oïl —languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French ( Francien ) has largely supplanted
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * _Special_ (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials , a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on _The Blind Leading the Naked _ * "Special", a song on _ The Documentary _ album by GameFILM AND TELEVISION * Special (lighting) , a stage light that is used for a single, s
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia
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Fula Language
FULA /ˈfuːlə/ , also known as FULANI /fʊˈlɑːniː/ or FULAH (Fula: Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular; French : Peul), is a language spoken as a set of various dialects in a continuum that stretches across some 20 countries in West and Central Africa
Central Africa
. Along with other related languages such as Serer and Wolof , it belongs to the Senegambian branch within the Niger–Congo languages
Niger–Congo languages
, which does not have tones , unlike most other Niger–Congo languages. More broadly, it belongs to the Atlantic geographic grouping within Niger–Congo. It is spoken as a first language by the Fula people ("Fulani", Fula: Fulɓe) from the Senegambia region and Guinea
Guinea
to Cameroon
Cameroon
and Sudan
Sudan
and by related groups such as the Toucouleur people in the Senegal River Valley
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Senegal River
The SENEGAL RIVER (Arabic : نهر السنغال‎‎, French : Fleuve Sénégal) is a 1,086 km (675 mi) long river in West Africa that forms the border between Senegal
Senegal
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. CONTENTS * 1 Geography * 2 History * 2.1 Arab sources * 2.2 Cartographic representation * 2.3 European contact * 3 Etymology * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Sources * 7 Further reading * 8 External links GEOGRAPHYThe Senegal's headwaters are the Semefé (Bakoye) and Bafing rivers which both originate in Guinea
Guinea
; they form a small part of the Guinean-Malian border before coming together at Bafoulabé
Bafoulabé
in Mali. From there, the Senegal
Senegal
river flows west and then north through Talari Gorges near Galougo and over the Gouina Falls , then flows more gently past Kayes , where it receives the Kolimbiné
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Bambara Empire
The BAMANA EMPIRE (also BAMBARA EMPIRE or SéGOU EMPIRE) was a large West African state based at Ségou
Ségou
, now in Mali
Mali
. This state was established after the fall of the Mali
Mali
Empire and the Keita dynasty , as a smaller Bambara Empire founded by other Bambara families related to the Keita clan. It was ruled by the Kulubali or Coulibaly dynasty established c. 1640 by Kaladian Coulibaly also known as Fa Sine or Biton-si-u. The empire existed as a centralized state from 1712 to the 1861 invasion of Toucouleur conqueror El Hadj Umar Tall
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Koox
ROOG or ROG (KOOX in the Cangin languages ) is the Supreme God and Creator of the Serer religion
Serer religion
of the Senegambia region. CONTENTS * 1 Names and titles * 2 Beliefs * 2.1 Gender * 3 Further reading * 4 References * 5 Bibliography NAMES AND TITLESIn Serer , roog means sky or the heavens . Roog
Roog
is sometimes referred to as Roog
Roog
Sene (Rog Seen, Rog Sene, Rooh Seen, etc.) which means Roog
Roog
the Immensity, or by extension, the merciful god
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Roog
ROOG or ROG (KOOX in the Cangin languages ) is the Supreme God and Creator of the Serer religion
Serer religion
of the Senegambia region. CONTENTS * 1 Names and titles * 2 Beliefs * 2.1 Gender * 3 Further reading * 4 References * 5 Bibliography NAMES AND TITLESIn Serer , roog means sky or the heavens . Roog
Roog
is sometimes referred to as Roog
Roog
Sene (Rog Seen, Rog Sene, Rooh Seen, etc.) which means Roog
Roog
the Immensity, or by extension, the merciful god
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Kokh Kox
KOKH KOX (or KOH, as pronounced in Noon ) is the creator god of the Noon people . The Noon are members of the Serer ethnic group of Senegal
Senegal
, the Gambia
Gambia
and Mauritania
Mauritania
. Kokh Kox
Kokh Kox
is one of the main deities in Serer religion . The Noon people refer to the supreme being as Kokh Kox