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Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff picture info Jupiter by volume:6999890000000000000♠89%±2.0% hydrogen (H 2)6999100000000000000♠10%±2.0% helium (He)6997300000000000000♠0.3%±0.1% methane (CH 4)6996259999999999999♠0.026%±0.004% ammonia (NH 3)6995280000000000000♠0.0028%±0.001% hydrogen deuteride (HD)6994599999999999999♠0.0006%±0.0002% ethane (C 2H 6)6994400000000000000♠0.0004%±0.0004% water (H 2O)Ices:ammonia (NH 3) water (H 2O) ammonium hydrosulfide (NH 4SH) Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun Sun and the largest in the Solar System. It is a giant planet with a mass one-thousandth that of the Sun, but two-and-a-half times that of all the other planets in the Solar System Solar System combined. Jupiter Jupiter and Saturn Saturn are gas giants; the other two giant planets, Uranus Uranus and Neptune Neptune are ice giants [...More...] picture info Volume Volume Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains. Volume Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre. The volume of a container is generally understood to be the capacity of the container; i. e., the amount of fluid (gas or liquid) that the container could hold, rather than the amount of space the container itself displaces. Three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, and circular shapes can be easily calculated using arithmetic formulas [...More...] Foot Per Second Squared The foot per second squared (plural feet per second squared) is a unit of acceleration. It expresses change in velocity expressed in units of feet per second (ft/s) divided by time in seconds (s) (or the distance in feet (ft) traveled or displaced, divided by the time in seconds (s) squared) [...More...] picture info G-force The g-force (with g from gravitational) is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight. Despite the name, it is incorrect to consider g-force a fundamental force, as "g-force" (lower-case character) is a type of acceleration that can be measured with an accelerometer. Since g-force accelerations indirectly produce weight, any g-force can be described as a "weight per unit mass" (see the synonym specific weight). When the g-force acceleration is produced by the surface of one object being pushed by the surface of another object, the reaction force to this push produces an equal and opposite weight for every unit of an object's mass. The types of forces involved are transmitted through objects by interior mechanical stresses [...More...] picture info Density The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume. The symbol most often used for density is ρ (the lower case Greek letter rho), although the Latin letter D can also be used. Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume: ρ = m V displaystyle rho = frac m V where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. In some cases (for instance, in the United States oil and gas industry), density is loosely defined as its weight per unit volume, although this is scientifically inaccurate – this quantity is more specifically called specific weight. For a pure substance the density has the same numerical value as its mass concentration. Different materials usually have different densities, and density may be relevant to buoyancy, purity and packaging [...More...] picture info Right Ascension Right ascension Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol α) is the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun Sun at the March equinox to the hour circle of the point above the earth in question. When paired with declination, these astronomical coordinates specify the direction of a point on the celestial sphere (traditionally called in English the skies or the sky) in the equatorial coordinate system. Right ascension Right ascension and declination as seen on the inside of the celestial sphere [...More...] picture info Geographical Pole A geographical pole is either of the two points on a rotating body (planet, dwarf planet, natural satellite, sphere...etc) where its axis of rotation intersects its surface. As with Earth's North and South Poles, they are usually called that body's "north pole" and "south pole", one lying 90 degrees in one direction from the body's equator and the other lying 90 degrees in the opposite direction from the equator. Every planet has geographical poles. If, like the Earth, a body generates a magnetic field, it will also possess magnetic poles. Perturbations in a body's rotation mean that geographical poles wander slightly on its surface [...More...] picture info Declination In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle. Declination's angle is measured north or south of the celestial equator, along the hour circle passing through the point in question. Right ascension Right ascension and declination as seen on the inside of the celestial sphere. The primary direction of the system is the vernal equinox, the ascending node of the ecliptic (red) on the celestial equator (blue). Declination Declination is measured northward or southward from the celestial equator, along the hour circle passing through the point in question.The root of the word declination (Latin, declinatio) means "a bending away" or "a bending down" [...More...] picture info Albedo Albedo Albedo (/ælˈbiːdoʊ/) (Latin: albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth). It is dimensionless and measured on a scale from 0 (corresponding to a black body that absorbs all incident radiation) to 1 (corresponding to a body that reflects all incident radiation). Surface albedo is defined as the ratio of irradiance reflected to the irradiance received by a surface. The proportion reflected is not only determined by properties of the surface itself, but also by the spectral and angular distribution of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. These factors vary with atmospheric composition, geographic location and time (see position of the Sun) [...More...] picture info Argument Of Periapsis The argument of periapsis (also called argument of perifocus or argument of pericenter), symbolized as ω, is one of the orbital elements of an orbiting body. Parametrically, ω is the angle from the body's ascending node to its periapsis, measured in the direction of motion. For specific types of orbits, words such as perihelion (for heliocentric orbits), perigee (for geocentric orbits), periastron (for orbits around stars), and so on may replace the word periapsis. (See apsis for more information.) An argument of periapsis of 0° means that the orbiting body will be at its closest approach to the central body at the same moment that it crosses the plane of reference from South to North. An argument of periapsis of 90° means that the orbiting body will reach periapsis at its northmost distance from the plane of reference. Adding the argument of periapsis to the longitude of the ascending node gives the longitude of the periapsis [...More...] picture info Longitude Of The Ascending Node The longitude of the ascending node (☊ or Ω) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. It is the angle from a reference direction, called the origin of longitude, to the direction of the ascending node, measured in a reference plane. The ascending node is the point where the orbit of the object passes through the plane of reference, as seen in the adjacent image. Commonly used reference planes and origins of longitude include:For a geocentric orbit, Earth's equatorial plane as the reference plane, and the First Point of Aries First Point of Aries as the origin of longitude. In this case, the longitude is also called the right ascension of the ascending node, or RAAN [...More...] picture info Temperature Temperature Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold. Temperature Temperature is measured with a thermometer, historically calibrated in various temperature scales and units of measurement. The most commonly used scales are the Celsius Celsius scale, denoted in °C (informally, degrees centigrade), the Fahrenheit scale Fahrenheit scale (°F), and the Kelvin Kelvin scale. The kelvin (K) is the unit of temperature in the International System of Units (SI), in which temperature is one of the seven fundamental base quantities. The coldest theoretical temperature is absolute zero, at which the thermal motion of all fundamental particles in matter reaches a minimum. Although classically described as motionless, particles still possess a finite zero-point energy in the quantum mechanical description [...More...] picture info Equator An equator is the intersection of the surface of a rotating sphere (such as a planet) with the plane perpendicular to the axis of rotation and midway between its poles. On Earth, the Equator Equator is an imaginary line on the surface, equidistant from the North and South Poles, dividing the Earth Earth into Northern and Southern Hemispheres [...More...] picture info Kelvin The Kelvin Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The kelvin (symbol: K) is the base unit of temperature in the International System of Units International System of Units (SI). The kelvin is defined as the fraction ​1⁄273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water (exactly 0.01 °C or 32.018 °F). In other words, it is defined such that the triple point of water is exactly 273.16 K. The Kelvin Kelvin scale is named after the Belfast-born, Glasgow University engineer and physicist William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin (1824–1907), who wrote of the need for an "absolute thermometric scale". Unlike the degree Fahrenheit Fahrenheit and degree Celsius, the kelvin is not referred to or typeset as a degree [...More...] picture info Ecliptic The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun appears to follow over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system [...More...] picture info Celsius The Celsius Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units International System of Units (SI). As an SI derived unit, it is used by all countries in the world, except the United States, Myanmar, and Liberia. It is named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who developed a similar temperature scale. The degree Celsius Celsius (symbol: °C) can refer to a specific temperature on the Celsius Celsius scale as well as a unit to indicate a temperature interval, a difference between two temperatures or an uncertainty [...More...]
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