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Juliusz Słowacki
Juliusz Słowacki
Juliusz Słowacki
(Polish pronunciation: [ˈjuljuʂ swɔˈvat͡ski]; 23 August 1809 – 3 April 1849) was a Polish Romantic poet. He is considered one of the "Three Bards" of Polish literature — a major figure in the Polish Romantic period, and the father of modern Polish drama. His works often feature elements of Slavic pagan traditions, Polish history, mysticism and orientalism. His style includes the employment of neologisms and irony. His primary genre was the drama, but he also wrote lyric poetry. His most popular works include the dramas Kordian
Kordian
and Balladyna and the poems Beniowski and Testament mój. Słowacki spent his youth in the "Stolen Lands", in Kremenets
Kremenets
(Polish: Krzemieniec; now in Ukraine) and Vilnius
Vilnius
(Polish: Wilno, in Lithuania). He briefly worked for the government of the Kingdom of Poland
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Adam Jerzy Czartoryski
Prince
Prince
Adam Jerzy Czartoryski
Czartoryski
(Polish pronunciation: [ˈadam ˈjɛʐɨ t͡ʂartɔˈrɨskʲi], Lithuanian: Аdomas Jurgis Čartoriskis, also known as Adam George Czartoryski
Czartoryski
in English; 14 January 1770 – 15 July 1861) was a Polish nobleman, statesman and author. He was the son of Prince
Prince
Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski
Czartoryski
and Izabela Flemming. Czartoryski
Czartoryski
held the distinction of having been part, at different times, of the governments of two mutually hostile countries
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Stolen Lands
Western Krai (Russian: Западный край) is an unofficial name of the westernmost parts of the Russian Empire, excluding the territory of Congress Poland. The term embodies lands annexed by the Russian Empire during subsequent partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth at the end of the 18th century, in 1772, 1793 and 1795. This area is known in Poland as Ziemie Zabrane (Taken Lands, Stolen Lands)[1] but most often they are referred to in Polish historiography and in common talk as part of Zabór Rosyjski (literally Russian Seizure). Western Krai was made of the following lands of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth:from the First Partition of Poland (1772): Inflants (Latgale), northern part of the Polotsk Voivodeship, entire Mstsislaw Voivodeship and Vitebsk Voivodeship, and south eastern part of the Minsk Voivodeship (about 92,000
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Mysticism
Mysticism
Mysticism
is popularly known as becoming one with God
God
or the Absolute, but may refer to any kind of ecstasy or altered state of consciousness which is given a religious or spiritual meaning.[web 1] It may also refer to the attainment of insight in ultimate or hidden truths,
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Orientalism
Orientalism
Orientalism
is a term that is used by art historians, literary and cultural studies scholars for the imitation or depiction of aspects in Middle Eastern, South Asian, and East Asian cultures (Eastern world). These depictions are usually done by writers, designers and artists from the West. In particular, Orientalist painting, depicting more specifically "the Middle East",[1] was one of the many specialisms of 19th-century academic art, and the literature of Western countries took a similar interest in Oriental themes. Since the publication of Edward Said's Orientalism
Orientalism
in 1978, much academic discourse has begun to use the term "Orientalism" to refer to a general patronizing Western attitude towards Middle Eastern, Asian and North African societies
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Neologism
A neologism (/niːˈɒlədʒɪzəm/; from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.[1] Neologisms are often directly attributable to a specific person, publication, period, or event. In the process of language formation, neologisms are more mature than protologisms.[2]Contents1 Background 2 Sources 3 History and meaning 4 Literature 5 Popular culture 6 Translations 7 Other uses 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksBackground[edit] Neologisms are often created by combining existing words (see compound noun and adjective) or by giving words new and unique suffixes or prefixes. Portmanteaux
Portmanteaux
are combined words that are sometimes used commonly. "Brunch" is an example of a portmanteau word (breakfast + lunch)
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Irony
Irony
Irony
(from Ancient Greek εἰρωνεία eirōneía, meaning 'dissimulation, feigned ignorance'[1]), in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case. Irony
Irony
can be categorized into different types, including: verbal irony, dramatic irony, and situational irony. Verbal, dramatic, and situational irony are often used for emphasis in the assertion of a truth
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Lyric Poetry
Lyric poetry
Lyric poetry
is a formal type of poetry which expresses personal emotions or feelings, typically spoken in the first person.[1] The term derives from a form of Ancient Greek literature, the lyric, which was defined by its musical accompaniment, usually on a stringed instrument known as a lyre.[2] The term owes its importance in literary theory to the division developed by Aristotle
Aristotle
between three broad categories of poetry: lyrical, dramatic, and epic.Contents1 Meters 2 History2.1 Antiquity2.1.1 Greece 2.1.2 Rome 2.1.3 China2.2 Medieval verse 2.3 16th century 2.4 17th century 2.5 18th century 2.6 19th century 2.7 20th century3 References 4 Further readingMeters[edit] Much lyric poetry depends on regular meter based either on number of syllables or on stress
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Spring Of Nations
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples,[3] or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history. The revolutions were essentially democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent national states. The first revolution began in January in Sicily.[clarification needed] Revolutions then spread across Europe after a separate revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries
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Ukraine
42,418,235 [4] (32nd)• 2001 census48,457,102[3]• Density73.8/km2 (191.1/sq mi) (115th)GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate• Total$366 billion[5] (50th)• Per capita$8,656[5] (114th)GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate• Total$104 billion[5] (62nd)• Per capita$2,459[5] (132nd)Gini (2015)  25.5[6] low · 18thHDI (2015)  0.743[7] high · 84thCurrency Ukrainian hryvnia
Ukrainian hryvnia
(UAH)Time zone EET (UTC+2[8])• Summer (DST)EEST (UTC+3)Drives on the rightCalling code +380 ISO 3166 code UA Internet
Internet
TLD.ua .укрAn independence referendum was held on 1 December, after which Ukrainian independence was finalized on 26 December.This article contains Cyrillic text
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Slavic Mythology
Slavic paganism
Slavic paganism
or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs
Slavs
before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites
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Vilnius
Vilnius
Vilnius
(Lithuanian pronunciation: [ˈvʲɪlʲnʲʊs] ( listen), see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania
Lithuania
and its largest city, with a population of 574,221 as of 2017[update].[6] Vilnius
Vilnius
is in the southeast part of Lithuania
Lithuania
and is the second largest city in the Baltic states. Vilnius
Vilnius
is the seat of the main government institutions of Lithuania
Lithuania
and the Vilnius
Vilnius
District Municipality. Vilnius
Vilnius
is classified as a Gamma global city according to GaWC
GaWC
studies, and is known for the architecture in its Old Town, declared a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site in 1994.[8] Before World War II, Vilnius
Vilnius
was one of the largest Jewish centres in Europe
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Lithuania
Coordinates: 55°N 24°E / 55°N 24°E / 55; 24 Lithuania
Lithuania
(/ˌlɪθjuˈeɪniə/ ( listen);[11] Lithuanian: Lietuva [lʲɪɛtʊˈvɐ]), officially the Republic
Republic
of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe. One of the three Baltic states, it is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, to the east of Sweden
Sweden
and Denmark. It is bordered by Latvia
Latvia
to the north, Belarus to the east and south, Poland
Poland
to the south, and Kaliningrad Oblast
Kaliningrad Oblast
(a Russian exclave) to the southwest. Lithuania
Lithuania
has an estimated population of 2.8 million people as of 2017[update], and its capital and largest city is Vilnius. Lithuanians
Lithuanians
are a Baltic people
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Congress Poland
The Kingdom of Poland,[1] informally known as Congress Poland[2] or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland
Poland
connected by personal union with the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland
Poland
until 1832
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November Uprising
Congress PolandArmy of Congress Poland Russian EmpireImperial Russian ArmyCommanders and leaders Józef Chłopicki Michał Gedeon Radziwiłł Jan Zygmunt Skrzynecki Ignacy Prądzyński Kazimierz Małachowski Maciej Rybiński Jan Nepomucen Umiński Nicholas I of Russia Hans Karl von Diebitsch Ivan PaskevichStrength150,000 180,000–200,000Casualties and losses40,000 killed and wounded[1] about 22,000–23,000 killed[2] Total killed and wounded at least 60,000 32,000 captured 5,230–12,000 died of diseasev t eNovember UprisingStoczek 1st Wawer Nowa Wieś Kałuszyn Białołęka Olszynka Grochowska 1st Puławy 2nd Puławy Kurów Markuszów 2nd Wawer Dębe Wielkie Domanice Iganie Poryck Wronów Kazimierz Dolny Boremel Sokołów Podlaski Firley Lubartów Połąga Tykocin Nur Wilno Ostrołęka Rajgród Warsawv t ePolish–Russian WarsMuscovite/Lithuanian Livonian 1605–18
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Polish National Government (November Uprising)
Polish National Government of 1831 was a Polish supreme authority during the November Uprising against the Russian occupation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was formed by the decree of the Sejm (parliament) of the Congress Poland on 29 January 1831 to assume the competences of the Polish head of state in the follow-up of an earlier decree of 25 January: deposing the usurping Tsar Nicholas I of Russia from the throne of Poland.[1] The government concentrated on issues related to the fight with the Russian Empire. In August the government of Prince Adam Jerzy Czartoryski resigned, facing loss of support and radicalization among the Varsovians. Czartoryski was replaced by Jan Krukowiecki. After the capitulation of Warsaw the government was taken over by lawyer Bonawentura Niemojowski
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