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Jerusalem
JERUSALEM (/dʒəˈruːsələm/ ; Hebrew : יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎ _ Yerushalayim _ ; Arabic : القُدس‎‎ _ al-Quds _ ) is a city in the Middle East , located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea . Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem as their capital, as the State of Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there while the State of Palestine ultimately foresees the city as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally. One of the oldest cities in the world , Jerusalem was named as _"Urusalima"_ on ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem " after a Canaanite deity, during the early Canaanite period (approximately 2400 BCE). During the Israelite period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah . It is considered a holy city in the three major Abrahamic religions of Judaism , Christianity and Islam . During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times
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Jerusalem (other)
JERUSALEM is a city in the Middle East. JERUSALEM or JERUZALEM may also refer to: CONTENTS* 1 Places * 1.1 Middle East * 1.2 United States * 1.3 Other places * 2 Arts * 2.1 Literature * 2.2 Music * 2.2.1 Albums * 2.2.2 Songs * 2.3 Other arts * 3 Other uses * 4 See also PLACESMIDDLE EAST * Jerusalem
Jerusalem
District , State of Israel * Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Governorate , Palestinian National Authority * Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, an Ottoman District from 1872–1917 * Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, a Christian kingdom from 1099–1291UNITED STATES* Jerusalem, Baltimore County, Maryland , unincorporated community * Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Mill Village , living history museum in Maryland * Jerusalem, New York , town in Yates County * Jerusalem, Ohio , village in Monroe County * Jerusalem, Rhode Island , an unincorporated village in the incorporated town of Narragansett in Washington County * Jerusalem, Virginia , former name of Courtland, a town in Southampton County * Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Figtree Hill, U.S
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Al-Quds (other)
AL-QUDS (Arabic : القدس‎‎) is the Arabic name for the city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, literally meaning "the holy one" (quds = holy)
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Bayt Al-Maqdis (other)
BAIT AL-MAQDIS or BAYT AL-MAQDIS\' (Arabic : بيت المقدس‎‎) is an Arabic name and a common designation for Jerusalem in Islamic sources. It may also refer to: ORGANIZATIONS * Ansar Bait al-Maqdis , the jihadist militant group based in Egypt. * Aknaf Bait al-Maqdis , the Palestinian rebel group active during the Syrian Civil War.SEE ALSO * Al-Quds (other) This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title BAYT AL-MAQDIS. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bayt_al-Maqdis_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Arabic Language
THIS ARTICLE CONTAINS ARABIC TEXT . Without proper rendering support , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols .ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, _al-ʻarabiyyah_ (_ listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī_ (_ listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca _ of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs
Arabs
, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic ) is derived from Classical Arabic . It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic
Arabic
(_fuṣḥā_), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam
Islam
. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary
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Mar Elias Monastery
MAR ELIAS MONASTERY is a Greek Orthodox monastery in south East Jerusalem, on a hill overlooking Bethlehem
Bethlehem
and Herodium . The monastery was founded in the 6th century, damaged in an earthquake, and restored in 1160 with funds donated by Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor . According to Christian tradition, Elijah
Elijah
rested here after fleeing the vengeance of Jezebel
Jezebel
. It is also said to be the burial place of the Greek Bishop Elias of Bethlehem
Bethlehem
who died in 1345, and St. Elias , an Egyptian monk who became Patriarch of Jerusalem in 494. In the battle for Ramat Rachel during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, Mar Elias was the base of the Arab Legion . From the hill east of the monastery, in 1956 one or rather several Jordanian soldiers opened fire on a group of Israeli archaeologists visiting the excavation sites across the valley at Ramat Rachel , killing four and injuring 16. After 1967 the height, known as Elijah Hill, was renamed in Hebrew as Givat ha'Arba'a, Hill of the Four, in honour of the four victims. During the 1967 Six-Day War , the Israel Defense Forces quickly overran Jordanian defences around the monastery on the way to Bethlehem
Bethlehem
and Hebron
Hebron

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Souq
A SOUQ or SOUK (Arabic : سوق‎‎, Hebrew : שוק‎ _suq_, also spelled SHUK, SHOOQ, SOQ, ESOUK, SUCC, SUK, SOOQ, SUQ, SOEK) is a marketplace or commercial quarter in Western Asian and North African cities. _Suq _, and sometimes monti , is also used for a marketplace in Malta . The equivalent Persian term is "bazaar ". CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Types * 3.1 Seasonal * 3.2 Permanent * 4 Organisation * 5 See also * 6 References ETYMOLOGYThe Arabic word is a loan from Aramaic "šūqā" (“street, market”‎), itself a loanword from the Akkadian "sūqu" (“street”‎, from "sāqu", meaning “narrow”). The spelling SOUK entered European languages probably through French during the French occupation of the Arab countries Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia in the 19th and 20th centuries. Thus, the word "souk" most likely refers to Arabic/North African traditional markets . Other spellings of this word involving the letter "Q" (sooq, souq...) were likely developed using English and thus refer to Western Asian/Arab traditional markets, as British colonialism was present there during the 19th and 20th centuries
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Old City (Jerusalem)
The OLD CITY (Hebrew : העיר העתיקה‎‎, Ha'Ir Ha'Atiqah, Arabic : البلدة القديمة‎‎, al-Balda al-Qadimah) is a 0.9 square kilometers (0.35 sq mi) walled area within the modern city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. Until 1860, when the Jewish neighborhood Mishkenot Sha\'ananim was established, this area constituted the entire city of Jerusalem. The Old City is home to several sites of key religious importance: the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
and al-Aqsa Mosque for Muslims , the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
and Western Wall
Western Wall
for Jews and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre for Christians , It was added to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site List in 1981. Traditionally, the Old City has been divided into four uneven quarters, although the current designations were introduced only in the 19th century. Today, the Old City is roughly divided (going counterclockwise from the northeastern corner) into the Muslim
Muslim
Quarter , Christian Quarter , Armenian Quarter and Jewish Quarter . The Old City's monumental defensive walls and city gates were built in the years 1535–1542 by the Turkish sultan Suleiman the Magnificent . The current population of the Old City resides mostly in the Muslim and Christian
Christian
quarters
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Mamilla Mall
MAMILLA MALL, also known as ALROV MAMILLA AVENUE, is an upscale shopping street and the only open-air mall in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Israel. Located northwest of Jaffa Gate , the mall consists of a 2,000-foot (610 m) pedestrian promenade called Alrov Mamilla Avenue lined by 140 stores, restaurants, and cafes, and office space on upper floors. The mall sits atop a multi-story parking garage for 1,600 cars and buses, and a bus terminal. Designed by Moshe Safdie and developed by Alrov Properties and Lodgings Ltd. of Tel Aviv , the mall incorporates the facades of 19th-century buildings from the original Mamilla Street, as well as the original structures of the Convent of St. Vincent de Paul, the Stern House , and the Clark House. The mall is part of the Alrov Mamilla Quarter, a $400 million mixed-use development that also includes the 28-acre (11 ha) David's Village luxury condominium project, the David Citadel Hotel, the Alrov Mamilla Hotel, and the Karta parking lot
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Knesset
GOVERNMENT (66) * Likud (30) * Kulanu (10) * The Jewish Home (8) * Shas (7) * UTJ (6) * Yisrael Beiteinu (5)OPPOSITION (54) * Zionist Union (24) * _ Labor (19)_* _ Hatnuah (5)_ * _ Green Movement (1)_* Joint List (13) * _ Hadash (5)_ * _ Balad (3)_ * _ Ra\'am (3)_ * _ Ta\'al (2)_ * Yesh Atid (11) * Meretz (5) * Independent (1 ) ELECTIONS VOTING SYSTEM Party-list proportional representation D\'Hondt method LAST ELECTION 17 March 2015 NEXT ELECTION 2019 or earlier MEETING PLACE Knesset, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Israel
Israel
WEBSITE www.knesset.gov.ilThe KNESSET (Hebrew : הַכְּנֶסֶת‎ (_ listen ); lit. the gathering_ or _assembly_; Arabic : الكنيست‎‎ _al-K(e)neset_) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel
Israel
. As the legislative branch of the Israeli government , the Knesset
Knesset
passes all laws, elects the President and Prime Minister (although the latter is ceremonially appointed by the President), approves the cabinet , and supervises the work of the government. In addition, the Knesset elects the State Comptroller
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Dome Of The Rock
The DOME OF THE ROCK (Arabic: قبة الصخرة‎‎ _Qubbat al-Sakhrah_, Hebrew: כיפת הסלע‎‎ _Kippat ha-Sela_) is an Islamic shrine located on the Temple Mount in the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. It was initially completed in 691 CE at the order of Umayyad Caliph Abd al-Malik during the Second Fitna , built on the site of the Roman temple of _Jupiter Capitolinus_, which had in turn been built on the site of the Second Jewish Temple , destroyed during the Roman Siege of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 70 CE. The original dome collapsed in 1015 and was rebuilt in 1022–23. The Dome
Dome
of the Rock is in its core one of the oldest extant works of Islamic architecture . Its architecture and mosaics were patterned after nearby Byzantine churches and palaces, although its outside appearance has been significantly changed in the Ottoman period and again in the modern period, notably with the addition of the gold-plated roof, in 1959–61 and again in 1993. The octagonal plan of the structure may also have been influenced by the Byzantine Church of the Seat of Mary (also known as Kathisma in Greek and al-Qadismu in Arabic) built between 451 and 458 on the road between Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Bethlehem
Bethlehem

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Tower Of David
The TOWER OF DAVID (Hebrew : מגדל דוד‎‎, Migdal David, Arabic : برج داود‎‎, Burj Daud), also known as the JERUSALEM CITADEL, is an ancient citadel located near the Jaffa
Jaffa
Gate entrance to western edge of the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. The citadel that stands today dates to the Mamluk and Ottoman periods. It was built on the site of an earlier ancient fortification of the Hasmonean , Herodian-era , Byzantine and Early Muslim
Muslim
periods, after being destroyed repeatedly during the last decades of Crusader presence in the Holy Land by Ayyubid and Mamluk rulers. It contains important archaeological finds dating back over 2,000 years including a quarry dated to the First Temple period, and is a popular venue for benefit events, craft shows, concerts, and sound-and-light performances. Dan Bahat
Dan Bahat
writes that the original three Hasmonean towers were altered by Herod, and that "The northeastern tower was replaced by a much larger, more massive tower, dubbed the "Tower of David" beginning in the 5th century C.E." The name "Tower of David" is due to Byzantine Christians who believed the site to be the palace of King David
David

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Walls Of Jerusalem
The WALLS OF JERUSALEM (Arabic : أسوار القدس‎‎; Hebrew : חומות ירושלים‎‎) surround the Old City of Jerusalem (approx. 1 km²). In 1535, when Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was part of the Ottoman Empire , Sultan
Sultan
Suleiman I ordered the ruined city walls to be rebuilt. The work took some four years, between 1537 and 1541. The length of the walls is 4,018 meters (2.4966 mi), their average height is 12 meters (39.37 feet) and the average thickness is 2.5 meters (8.2 feet). The walls contain 34 watchtowers and seven main gates open for traffic, with two minor gates reopened by archaeologists. In 1981, the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
walls were added, along with the Old City of Jerusalem, to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site List. Today the walls of Jerusalem, which were originally built to protect the city against intrusions, mainly serve as an attraction for tourists. CONTENTS * 1 Pre-Israelite city * 2 Israelite city (ca. 1000–587/86 BCE) * 3 Jewish postexilic city * 4 Aelia Capitolina and Byzantine Jerusalem
Jerusalem
* 5 Middle Ages * 6 Ottoman period * 7 See also * 8 References PRE-ISRAELITE CITYThe city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been surrounded by walls for its defense since ancient times
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Western Wall
The WESTERN WALL, WAILING WALL or KOTEL (Hebrew : _ הַכֹּתֶל הַמַּעֲרָבִי‎ (help ·info ), translit. : HaKotel HaMa'aravi_; Ashkenazic pronunciation: _HaKosel HaMa'arovi_; Arabic : حائط البراق‎‎, translit. : _Ḥā'iṭ al-Burāq_, translat. : the Buraq Wall, or Arabic : المبكى‎‎ _al-Mabkā_: the Place of Weeping) is an ancient limestone wall in the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
. It is a relatively small segment of a far longer ancient retaining wall, known also in its entirety as the "Western Wall". The wall was originally erected as part of the expansion of the Second Jewish Temple begun by Herod the Great , which resulted in the encasement of the natural, steep hill known to Jews and Christians as the Temple Mount , in a large rectangular structure topped by a huge flat platform, thus creating more space for the Temple itself and its auxiliary buildings. The Western Wall
Western Wall
is considered holy due to its connection to the Temple Mount. Because of the Temple Mount entry restrictions , the Wall is the holiest place where Jews are permitted to pray, though it is not the holiest site in the Jewish faith , which lies behind it. The original, natural and irregular-shaped Temple Mount was gradually extended to allow for an ever-larger Temple compound to be built at its top
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Flag Of Jerusalem
The municipal FLAG OF JERUSALEM is based on the flag of Israel . It features two horizontal blue stripes reminiscent of the tallit (the Jewish prayer shawl). In the center are Jerusalem's municipal emblem , which consists of a shield with the lion of Judah superimposed on a stylized background representing the kotel , flanked on either side with olive branches . The word ירושלים (i.e., Yerushalayim, Hebrew for "Jerusalem") appears above the shield. A vertical variant is sometimes used during ceremonial functions. The flag was adopted in 1949 following a contest held by the municipal government of Jerusalem, which was established by Israel (in the western part of the city). It was made the "flag of a united Jerusalem
Jerusalem
" following the Six Day War in 1967. REFERENCES * ^ " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Israel)"
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