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Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‬  Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس‎  al-Quds)[note 2] is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. Israelis and Palestinians both claim Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.[note 3] During its long history, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been destroyed at least twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[7] The part of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
called the City of David
City of David
was settled in the 4th millennium BCE.[8] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was named as "Urusalima" on ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets, probably meaning "City of Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the early Canaanite period (approximately 2400 BCE). During the Israelite
Israelite
period, significant construction activity in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
began in the 9th century BCE (Iron Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah.[9] In 1538, the city walls were rebuilt for a last time around Jerusalem
Jerusalem
under Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, which has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters.[10] The Old City became a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
in 1981, and is on the List of World Heritage in Danger.[11] Since 1860 Jerusalem has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
had a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising approximately 200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi Jews
Jews
and 300,000 Palestinians.[12][note 4] In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of which Jews
Jews
comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims
Muslims
281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.[14] According to the Bible, King David
David
conquered the city from the Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of Israel, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the First Temple.[note 5] These foundational events, straddling the dawn of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the Jewish people.[16] The sobriquet of holy city (עיר הקודש, transliterated ‘ir haqodesh) was probably attached to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in post-exilic times.[17][18][19] The holiness of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint[20] which Christians adopted as their own authority,[21] was reinforced by the New Testament account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the third-holiest city, after Mecca
Mecca
and Medina.[22][23] In Islamic tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for Muslim
Muslim
prayer (salat),[24] and Muhammad
Muhammad
made his Night Journey there ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according to the Quran.[25][26] As a result, despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi),[27] the Old City is home to many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple Mount with its Western Wall, Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
and al-Aqsa Mosque, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the Garden
Garden
Tomb. Today, the status of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
was among the areas captured and later annexed by Israel
Israel
while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and later annexed by Jordan. Israel
Israel
captured East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
from Jordan during the 1967 Six-Day War
Six-Day War
and subsequently annexed it into Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory.[note 6] One of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Law, refers to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset
Knesset
(Israel's parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister (Beit Aghion) and President (Beit HaNassi), and the Supreme Court. Whilst the international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
as Palestinian territory occupied by Israel,[31][32][33][34] Israel
Israel
has a stronger claim to sovereignty over West Jerusalem.[35][36]

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Overview of Jerusalem's historical periods 2.2 Age 2.3 Prehistory 2.4 Ancient period 2.5 Classical antiquity 2.6 Middle Ages 2.7 Ottoman rule (16th–19th centuries) 2.8 British Mandate (1917–1948) 2.9 Jordanian and Israeli rule (1948–1967) 2.10 Israeli rule (1967–present)

3 Political status

3.1 International status 3.2 Status under Israeli rule 3.3 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as capital of Israel

3.3.1 Government precinct and national institutions

3.4 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as capital of Palestine

4 Municipal administration 5 Geography

5.1 Climate

6 Demographics

6.1 Demographic history 6.2 Current demographics 6.3 Urban planning issues

7 Religious significance 8 Economy

8.1 High-rise construction

9 Transportation 10 Education 11 Culture

11.1 Media 11.2 Sports

12 Twin towns and sister cities 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References 16 Further reading 17 External links

Etymology Further information: Names of Jerusalem A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt
Egypt
(c. 19th century BCE) is widely, but not universally, identified as Jerusalem.[37][38] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is called Urušalim in the Amarna letters
Amarna letters
of Abdi-Heba
Abdi-Heba
(1330s BCE).[39] The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation (Sumerian yeru, 'settlement'/Semitic yry' 'to found, to lay a cornerstone') of the god Shalem";[40][41] the god Shalem was thus the original tutelary deity of the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
city.[42] The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) first appears in the Bible, in the Book
Book
of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a combination of "Yireh" ("The abiding place", the name given by Abraham to the place where he began to sacrifice his son) and "Shalem" ("Place of Peace", given by high priest Shem) then two names were united by God.[43] The earliest extra-biblical Hebrew
Hebrew
writing of the word Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE[44][45] and was discovered in Khirbet Beit Lei
Khirbet Beit Lei
near Beit Guvrin in 1961. The inscription states: "I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will redeem Jerusalem",[46][47][48] or as other scholars suggest: "Yahweh is the God
God
of the whole earth. The mountains of Judah belong to him, to the God
God
of Jerusalem".[49][50] Shalim
Shalim
or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion, whose name is based on the same root S-L-M
S-L-M
from which the Hebrew
Hebrew
word for "peace" is derived (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew).[51][52] The name thus offered itself to etymologizations such as "The City of Peace",[41][53] "Abode of Peace",[54][55] "dwelling of peace" ("founded in safety"),[56] alternately "Vision of Peace" in some Christian
Christian
authors.[57] The ending -ayim indicates the dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers to the fact that the city initially sat on two hills.[58][59] However, the pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the Septuagint.[citation needed] An ancient settlement of Jerusalem, founded as early as the Bronze Age on the hill above the Gihon Spring, was according to the Bible
Bible
named Jebus (e.g., Judges 19:10:יְב֔וּס הִ֖יא יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם: "Jebus, it [is] Jerusalem"[60]).[61] Called the "Fortress of Zion" (metsudat Zion), it was renamed by David as the City of David,[62] and was known by this name in antiquity.[63][64] Another name, "Zion", initially referred to a distinct part of the city, but later came to signify the city as a whole and to represent the biblical Land of Israel. In Greek and Latin the city's name was transliterated Hierosolyma (Greek: Ἱεροσόλυμα; in Greek hieròs, ἱερός, means holy), although the city was renamed Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina
for part of the Roman period of its history. The Aramaic Apocryphon of Genesis of the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls (1QapGen 22:13) equates Jerusalem
Jerusalem
with the earlier "Salem" (שלם), said to be the kingdom of Melchizedek
Melchizedek
in Genesis 14:18. Other early Hebrew sources,[65] early Christian
Christian
renderings of the verse[66] and targumim,[67] however, put Salem in Northern Israel
Israel
near Shechem
Shechem
(or Sichem), now Nablus, a city of some importance in early sacred Hebrew writing.[68] Possibly the redactor of the Apocryphon of Genesis wanted to dissociate Melchizedek
Melchizedek
from the area of Shechem, which at the time was in possession of the Samaritans.[69] However that may be, later Rabbinic sources also equate Salem with Jerusalem, mainly to link Melchizedek
Melchizedek
to later Temple traditions.[70] In Arabic, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is most commonly known as القُدس, transliterated as al-Quds and meaning "The Holy" or "The Holy Sanctuary".[54][55] Official Israeli government policy mandates that أُورُشَلِيمَ, transliterated as Ūršalīm, which is the cognate of the Hebrew
Hebrew
and English names, be used as the Arabic language name for the city in conjunction with القُدس. أُورُشَلِيمَ-القُدس.[71] Palestinian Arab
Arab
families who hail from this city are often called "Qudsi" or "Maqdisi", while Palestinian Muslim
Muslim
Jerusalemites may use these terms as a demonym.[72] History Main article: History of Jerusalem Given the city's central position in both Jewish nationalism (Zionism) and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarize some 5,000 years of inhabited history is often influenced by ideological bias or background (see Historiography and nationalism).[73][74] The periods of Jewish sovereignty in the city's history are important to Israeli/Jewish nationalists (Zionists), who claim the right to the city based on Jewish descent from the Israelite Kingdom of Judah, of which Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was the capital.[75][76] In contrast, Palestinian nationalists claim the right to the city based on modern Palestinians' descent from many different peoples who have lived in the region over the centuries, rather than those from a particular period.[77][78][79] Both sides claim the history of the city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their relative claims to the city,[74][80][81] and that this is borne out by the different focuses the different writers place on the various events and eras in the city's history. Overview of Jerusalem's historical periods Further information: Timeline of Jerusalem

Age Any city, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
included, can be defined either in current administrative terms, as the area declared by legal means to be part of a municipality; or in historical terms, as the city which resulted from a process of urban development, united into one entity by a common territory, history and by virtue of its natural and social characteristics.[citation needed] The administrative inclusion of several outlying towns and villages after 1967, which are not fully and organically included in the social, economic, and political fabric of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
proper, creates confusion regarding any definition of the city of Jerusalem. This spreads to any related issue, such as defining the age of the city.[citation needed] After the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
in 1967, Shuafat
Shuafat
and other places defined as East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
were incorporated into the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
municipal district, in a move not internationally recognized.[82][83] Shuafat lies about 6 kilometres north of Jerusalem's oldest historical part, the so-called City of David, and about 5 kilometres north of the walled Old City. Shuafat's history is distinct of that of its neighbour, Jerusalem, from its prehistoric beginnings through the biblical period, and throughout its later history until 1967.[citation needed] Prehistory In 2016 Israeli archaeologists announced they had unearthed a 7,000-year-old settlement from the early Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
period.[84] The archaeologists describe the discovery as the oldest of its kind in the region.[73] The Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority asserts that the stone houses and artifacts confirm "the existence of a well-established settlement in the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
area as long ago as the fifth millennium BCE."[85] Ceramic evidence indicates occupation of the City of David, an area considered to be the initial nucleus of historical Jerusalem, as far back as the Copper Age (c. 4th millennium BCE).[8][86] Ancient period Further information: City of David
City of David
and History of ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah

Stepped Stone Structure
Stepped Stone Structure
in Ophel/City of David, the oldest part of Jerusalem

There is no evidence of a permanent settlement in the City of David area until the early Bronze Age
Bronze Age
(c. 3000–2800 BCE).[86][87] The Execration Texts
Execration Texts
(c. 19th century BCE), which refer to a city called rwš3lmm, variously transcribed as Rušalimum/Urušalimum/Rôsh-ramen[86][88] and the Amarna letters (c. 14th century BCE) may be the earliest mention of the city.[89][90] Nadav Na'aman argues its fortification as the centre of a kingdom dates to around the 18th century BCE.[91] The first settlement lay on what some call the Ophel ridge,[92] i.e. the south-eastern hill at whose foot the Gihon Spring
Gihon Spring
gushes forth. In the late Bronze Age, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was the capital of an Egyptian vassal city-state,[93] a modest settlement governing a few outlying villages and pastoral areas, with a small Egyptian garrison and ruled by appointees such as king Abdi-Heba,[94] At the time of Seti I
Seti I
and Ramesses II, major construction took place as prosperity increased.[95] This period, when Canaan
Canaan
formed part of the Egyptian empire, corresponds in biblical accounts to Joshua's invasion.[96] In the Bible, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is defined as lying within territory allocated to the tribe of Benjamin[97][98] though occupied by Jebusites. David
David
is said to have conquered these in the Siege
Siege
of Jebus, and transferred his capital from Hebron
Hebron
to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
which then became the capital of a united Kingdom of Israel,[99] and one of its several religious centres.[100] The choice was perhaps dictated by the fact that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
did not form part of Israel's tribal system, and was thus suited to serve as the centre of its federation.[95] Opinion is divided over whether a Large Stone Structure
Large Stone Structure
and a nearby Stepped Stone Structure may be identified with King David's palace, or dates to a later period.[101][102]

One plan of Solomon's Temple, as reconstructed from indications in the Bible

According to the Bible, King David
David
reigned for 40 years[103] and was succeeded by his son Solomon,[104] who built the Holy Temple on Mount Moriah. Solomon's Temple
Solomon's Temple
(later known as the First Temple), went on to play a pivotal role in Jewish religion as the repository of the Ark of the Covenant.[105] On Solomon's death, ten of the northern Tribes of Israel
Israel
broke with the United Monarchy to form their own nation, with its kings, prophets, priests, traditions relating to religion, capitals and temples in northern Israel. The southern tribes, together with the Aaronid priesthood, remained in Jerusalem, with the city becoming the capital of the Kingdom of Judah.[106][107] Archeological remains from the ancient Israelite
Israelite
period also include Siloam Tunnel, an aqueduct built by Judean
Judean
king Hezekiah
Hezekiah
and decorated with ancient Hebrew
Hebrew
inscription, known as Siloam Inscription,[108] Broad Wall a defensive fortification built in the 8th century BCE, also by Hezekiah,[109] Monolith of Silwan, Tomb of the Royal Steward, which were decorated with monumental Hebrew
Hebrew
inscriptions,[110] and Israelite Tower, remnants of ancient fortifications, built from large, sturdy rocks with carved cornerstones.[111] A huge water reservoir dating from this period was discovered in 2012 near Robinson's Arch, indicating the existence of a densely built-up quarter across the area west of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
during the Judean
Judean
kingdom.[112] When the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel
Israel
in 722 BCE, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was strengthened by a great influx of refugees from the northern kingdom. The First Temple period ended around 586 BCE, as the Babylonians conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and laid waste to Solomon's Temple.[113] Classical antiquity Main articles: Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period
Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period
and Aelia Capitolina In 538 BCE, the Persian King Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great
invited the Jews
Jews
of Babylon
Babylon
to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple.[114][better source needed] Construction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, 70 years after the destruction of the First Temple.[115][116] Sometime soon after 485 BCE Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was besieged, conquered and largely destroyed by a coalition of neighbouring states.[117] In about 445 BCE, King Artaxerxes I of Persia
Artaxerxes I of Persia
issued a decree allowing the city (including its walls) to be rebuilt.[118][better source needed] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
resumed its role as capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship.

This picture shows the temple as imagined in 1966 in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem

Many Jewish tombs from the Second Temple period
Second Temple period
have been rediscovered in Jerusalem. One example, discovered north of the Old City, contains human remains in an ossuary decorated with the Aramaic inscription "Simon the Temple Builder."[119] The Tomb of Abba, also located north of the Old City, bears an Aramaic inscription with Paleo-Hebrew letters reading: "I, Abba, son of the priest Eleaz(ar), son of Aaron the high (priest), Abba, the oppressed and the persecuted, who was born in Jerusalem, and went into exile into Babylonia and brought (back to Jerusalem) Mattathi(ah), son of Jud(ah), and buried him in a cave which I bought by deed."[120] The Tomb of Benei Hezir
Tomb of Benei Hezir
located in Kidron Valley
Kidron Valley
is decorated by monumental Doric columns
Doric columns
and Hebrew inscription, identifying it as the burial site of Second Temple priests.[119] The Tombs of the Sanhedrin, an underground complex of 63 rock-cut tombs, is located in a public park in the northern Jerusalem neighborhood of Sanhedria. These tombs, probably reserved for members of the Sanhedrin[121][122] and inscribed by ancient Hebrew
Hebrew
and Aramaic writings, are dated to between 100 BCE and 100 CE. When Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
conquered the Persian Empire, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Judea
Judea
came under Macedonian control, eventually falling to the Ptolemaic dynasty
Ptolemaic dynasty
under Ptolemy I. In 198 BCE, Ptolemy V Epiphanes lost Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Judea
Judea
to the Seleucids under Antiochus III. The Seleucid attempt to recast Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as a Hellenized city-state came to a head in 168 BCE with the successful Maccabean revolt of Mattathias
Mattathias
and his five sons against Antiochus IV Epiphanes, and their establishment of the Hasmonean
Hasmonean
Kingdom in 152 BCE with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as its capital. In 63 BCE, Pompey the Great
Pompey the Great
intervened in a struggle for the Hasmonean throne and captured Jerusalem, extending the influence of the Roman Republic over Judea.[123] Following a short invasion by Parthians, backing the rival Hasmonean
Hasmonean
rulers, Judea
Judea
became a scene of struggle between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian forces, eventually leading to the emergence of an Edomite named Herod.

A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel. Year 3". Reverse: " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the Holy", in the Paleo- Hebrew
Hebrew
alphabet

As Rome became stronger, it installed Herod as a Jewish client king. Herod the Great, as he was known, devoted himself to developing and beautifying the city. He built walls, towers and palaces, and expanded the Temple Mount, buttressing the courtyard with blocks of stone weighing up to 100 tons. Under Herod, the area of the Temple Mount doubled in size.[104][124][125] Shortly after Herod's death, in 6 CE Judea
Judea
came under direct Roman rule as the Iudaea Province,[126] although the Herodian dynasty through Agrippa II
Agrippa II
remained client kings of neighbouring territories until 96 CE. Roman rule over Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the region was challenged in the First Jewish–Roman War, which ended with a Roman victory. The Second Temple
Second Temple
was destroyed in 70 CE, and the entire city was destroyed in the war. The contemporary Jewish historian Josephus
Josephus
wrote that the city "was so thoroughly razed to the ground by those that demolished it to its foundations, that nothing was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a place of habitation."[127] Roman rule was again challenged during the Bar Kokhba revolt, beginning in 132 CE and suppressed by the Romans
Romans
in 135 CE.

Roman siege and destruction of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
( David
David
Roberts, 1850)

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Mural depicting the Cardo in Byzantine
Byzantine
era

Following the Bar Kokhba revolt, Emperor Hadrian
Hadrian
combined Iudaea Province with neighboring provinces under the new name of Syria Palaestina, replacing the name of Judea.[128] The city was renamed Aelia Capitolina,[129] and rebuilt it in the style of a typical Roman town. Jews
Jews
were prohibited from entering the city on pain of death, except for one day each year, during the holiday of Tisha B'Av. Taken together, these measures[130][131][132] (which also affected Jewish Christians)[133] essentially "secularized" the city.[134] The ban was maintained until the 7th century,[135] though Christians would soon be granted an exemption: during the 4th century, the Roman Emperor Constantine I
Constantine I
ordered the construction of Christian
Christian
holy sites in the city, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Burial remains from the Byzantine
Byzantine
period are exclusively Christian, suggesting that the population of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Byzantine
Byzantine
times probably consisted only of Christians.[136] In the 5th century, the eastern continuation of the Roman Empire, ruled from the recently renamed Constantinople, maintained control of the city. Within the span of a few decades, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
shifted from Byzantine
Byzantine
to Persian rule, then back to Roman- Byzantine
Byzantine
dominion. Following Sassanid Khosrau II's early 7th century push through Syria, his generals Shahrbaraz
Shahrbaraz
and Shahin attacked Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(Persian: Dej Houdkh‎) aided by the Jews
Jews
of Palaestina Prima, who had risen up against the Byzantines.[137] In the Siege
Siege
of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of 614, after 21 days of relentless siege warfare, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was captured. Byzantine
Byzantine
chronicles relate that the Sassanids and Jews
Jews
slaughtered tens of thousands of Christians in the city, many at the Mamilla
Mamilla
Pool,[138][139] and destroyed their monuments and churches, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. This episode has been the subject of much debate between historians.[140] The conquered city would remain in Sassanid hands for some fifteen years until the Byzantine
Byzantine
Emperor Heraclius
Heraclius
reconquered it in 629.[141] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
reached a peak in size and population at the end of the Second Temple
Second Temple
Period, when the city covered two km2 (0.77 square miles) and had a population of 200,000.[131][142] Middle Ages Main article: History of Jerusalem
History of Jerusalem
during the Middle Ages

1455 painting of the Holy Land. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is viewed from the west; the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
still retains its octagonal shape, to the right stands Al-Aqsa, shown as a church.

Byzantine
Byzantine
Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was conquered by the Arab
Arab
armies of Umar
Umar
ibn al-Khattab in 638 CE.[143] Among Muslims
Muslims
of Islam's earliest era it was referred to as Madinat bayt al-Maqdis ("City of the Temple")[144] which was restricted to the Temple Mount. The rest of the city "... was called Iliya, reflecting the Roman name given the city following the destruction of 70 CE: Aelia Capitolina".[145] Later the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
became known as al-Haram al-Sharif, "The Noble Sanctuary", while the city around it became known as Bayt al-Maqdis,[146] and later still, al-Quds al-Sharif "The Holy, Noble". The Islamization of Jerusalem
Islamization of Jerusalem
began in the first year A.H. (623 CE), when Muslims
Muslims
were instructed to face the city while performing their daily prostrations and, according to Muslim
Muslim
religious tradition, Muhammad's night journey and ascension to heaven took place. After 13 years, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca.[147][148] In 638 CE the Islamic Caliphate
Caliphate
extended its dominion to Jerusalem.[149] With the Arab
Arab
conquest, Jews
Jews
were allowed back into the city.[150] The Rashidun
Rashidun
caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab
Umar ibn al-Khattab
signed a treaty with Christian Patriarch of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Sophronius, assuring him that Jerusalem's Christian
Christian
holy places and population would be protected under Muslim rule.[151] Christian- Arab
Arab
tradition records that, when led to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of the holiest sites for Christians, the caliph Umar
Umar
refused to pray in the church so that Muslims
Muslims
would not request conversion of the church to a mosque.[152] He prayed outside the church, where the Mosque
Mosque
of Umar
Umar
(Omar) stands to this day, opposite the entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. According to the Gaullic bishop Arculf, who lived in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
from 679 to 688, the Mosque
Mosque
of Umar
Umar
was a rectangular wooden structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3,000 worshipers.[153] When the Arab
Arab
armies under Umar
Umar
went to Bayt Al-Maqdes in 637 CE, they searched for the site of the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
("The Farthest Mosque") that was mentioned in Quran
Quran
and Hadith
Hadith
according to Islamic beliefs. Contemporary Arabic and Hebrew
Hebrew
sources say the site was full of rubbish, and that Arabs and Jews
Jews
cleaned it.[154] The Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of a shrine on the Temple Mount, now known as the Dome of the Rock, in the late 7th century.[155] Two of the city's most-distinguished Arab
Arab
citizens of the 10th-century were Al-Muqaddasi, the geographer, and Al-Tamimi, the physician. Al-Muqaddasi
Al-Muqaddasi
writes that Abd al-Malik built the edifice on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem's monumental churches.[153] Over the next four hundred years Jerusalem's prominence diminished as Arab
Arab
powers in the region jockeyed for control.[156] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was captured in 1073 by the Seljuk Turkish commander Atsız.[157] After Atsız was killed, the Seljuk prince Tutush I granted the city to Artuk Bey, another Seljuk commander. After Artuk's death in 1091 his sons Sökmen and Ilghazi governed in the city up to 1098 when the Fatimids recaptured the city.

Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
during the First Crusade, 1099

A messianic Karaite movement to gather in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
took place at the turn of the millennium, leading to a "Golden Age" of Karaite scholarship there, which was only terminated by the Crusades.[158] In 1099, the Fatimid ruler expelled the native Christian
Christian
population before Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was besieged by the soldiers of the First Crusade. After taking the solidly defended city by assault, the Crusaders massacred most of its Muslim
Muslim
and Jewish inhabitants, and made it the capital of their Kingdom of Jerusalem. The city, which had been virtually emptied, was recolonized by a variegated inflow of Greeks, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Georgians, Armenians, Syrians, Egyptians, Nestorians, Maronites, Jacobite Miaphysites, Copts
Copts
and others, to block the return of the surviving Muslims
Muslims
and Jews. The north-eastern quarter was repopulated with Eastern Christians from the Transjordan.[159] As a result, by 1099 Jerusalem's population had climbed back to some 30,000.[160][not in citation given] In 1187, the city was wrested from the Crusaders by Saladin
Saladin
who permitted Jews
Jews
and Muslims
Muslims
to return and settle in the city.[161] Under the terms of surrender, once ransomed, 60,000 Franks were expelled. The Eastern Christian
Christian
populace was permitted to stay.[162] Under the Ayyubid dynasty
Ayyubid dynasty
of Saladin, a period of huge investment began in the construction of houses, markets, public baths, and pilgrim hostels as well as the establishment of religious endowments. However, for most of the 13th century, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
declined to the status of a village due to city's fall of strategic value and Ayyubid internecine struggles.[163] From 1229 to 1244, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
peacefully reverted to Christian
Christian
control as a result of a 1229 treaty agreed between the crusading Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and al-Kamil, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, that ended the Sixth Crusade.[164][165][166][167][168] The Ayyubids retained control of the Muslim
Muslim
holy places, and Arab
Arab
sources suggest that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's fortifications. In 1244, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was sacked by the Khwarezmian Tatars, who decimated the city's Christian
Christian
population and drove out the Jews.[169] The Khwarezmian Tatars
Tatars
were driven out by the Ayyubids in 1247. When Nachmanides
Nachmanides
visited in 1267 he found only two Jewish families, in a population of 2,000, 300 of whom were Christians, in the city.[170] From 1260[171] to 1517, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was ruled by the Mamluks. In the wider region and until around 1300, many clashes occurred between the Mamluks on one side, and the crusaders and the Mongols, on the other side. The area also suffered from many earthquakes and black plague.[172] Ottoman rule (16th–19th centuries)

David's Citadel and the Ottoman walls

Ben-Zakai Synagogue
Synagogue
in 1893

The Garden Tomb
The Garden Tomb
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
– a new holy site established by British Protestants in the 19th century.

In 1517, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who generally remained in control until 1917.[161] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
enjoyed a prosperous period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent – including the rebuilding of magnificent walls around the Old City. Throughout much of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
remained a provincial, if religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade route between Damascus
Damascus
and Cairo.[173] The English reference book Modern history or the present state of all nations, written in 1744, stated that " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is still reckoned the capital city of Palestine, though much fallen from its ancient grandeaur".[174] The Ottomans brought many innovations: modern postal systems run by the various consulates and regular stagecoach and carriage services were among the first signs of modernization in the city.[175] In the mid 19th century, the Ottomans constructed the first paved road from Jaffa
Jaffa
to Jerusalem, and by 1892 the railroad had reached the city.[175] With the annexation of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali of Egypt
Egypt
in 1831, foreign missions and consulates began to establish a foothold in the city. In 1836, Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem's Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva.[176] In the countrywide Peasants' Revolt, Qasim al-Ahmad led his forces from Nablus
Nablus
and attacked Jerusalem, aided by the Abu Ghosh
Abu Ghosh
clan, and entered the city on 31 May 1834. The Christians and Jews
Jews
of Jerusalem were subjected to attacks. Ibrahim's Egyptian army routed Qasim's forces in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the following month.[177] Ottoman rule was reinstated in 1840, but many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Jews
Jews
from Algiers
Algiers
and North Africa began to settle in the city in growing numbers.[176] In the 1840s and 1850s, the international powers began a tug-of-war in Palestine as they sought to extend their protection over the region's religious minorities, a struggle carried out mainly through consular representatives in Jerusalem.[178] According to the Prussian consul, the population in 1845 was 16,410, with 7,120 Jews, 5,000 Muslims, 3,390 Christians, 800 Turkish soldiers and 100 Europeans.[176] The volume of Christian
Christian
pilgrims increased under the Ottomans, doubling the city's population around Easter time.[179] In the 1860s, new neighborhoods began to develop outside the Old City walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor sanitation inside the city. The Russian Compound
Russian Compound
and Mishkenot Sha'ananim were founded in 1860,[180] followed by many others that included Mahane Israel
Israel
(1868), Nahalat Shiv'a
Nahalat Shiv'a
(1869), German Colony (1872), Beit David
David
(1873), Mea Shearim
Mea Shearim
(1874), Shimon HaZadiq (1876), Beit Ya'aqov (1877), Abu Tor
Abu Tor
(1880s), American-Swedish Colony (1882), Yemin Moshe
Yemin Moshe
(1891), and Mamilla, Wadi al-Joz
Wadi al-Joz
around the turn of the century. In 1867 an American Missionary reports an estimated population of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
of 'above' 15,000, with 4,000 to 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims. Every year there were 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Christian
Christian
Pilgrims.[181] In 1872 Jerusalem
Jerusalem
became the center of a special administrative district, independent of the Syria Vilayet
Syria Vilayet
and under the direct authority of Istanbul
Istanbul
called the Mutasarrifate of Jerusalem.[182] Until the 1880s there were no formal orphanages in Jerusalem, as families generally took care of each other. In 1881 the Diskin Orphanage was founded in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
with the arrival of Jewish children orphaned by a Russian pogrom. Other orphanages founded in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at the beginning of the 20th century were Zion
Zion
Blumenthal Orphanage (1900) and General Israel
Israel
Orphan's Home for Girls (1902).[183] British Mandate (1917–1948) Further information: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Subdistrict, Mandatory Palestine In 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem, the British Army, led by General Edmund Allenby, captured the city.[184] In 1922, the League of Nations at the Conference of Lausanne
Conference of Lausanne
entrusted the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
to administer Palestine, neighbouring Transjordan, and Iraq
Iraq
beyond it. The British had to deal with a conflicting demand that was rooted in Ottoman rule. Agreements for the supply of water, electricity, and the construction of a tramway system — all under concessions granted by the Ottoman authorities — had been signed by the city of Jerusalem and a Greek citizen, Euripides Mavromatis, on 27 January 1914. Work under these concessions had not begun and, by the end of the war the British occupying forces refused to recognize their validity. Mavromatis claimed that his concessions overlapped with the Auja Concession that the government had awarded to Rutenberg in 1921 and that he had been deprived of his legal rights. The Mavromatis concession, in effect despite earlier British attempts to abolish it, covered Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and other localities (e.g., Bethlehem) within a radius of 20 km (12 miles) around the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[185] From 1922 to 1948 the total population of the city rose from 52,000 to 165,000, comprised two-thirds of Jews
Jews
and one-third of Arabs (Muslims and Christians).[186] Relations between Arab
Arab
Christians and Muslims and the growing Jewish population in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
deteriorated, resulting in recurring unrest. In Jerusalem, in particular, Arab
Arab
riots occurred in 1920 and in 1929. Under the British, new garden suburbs were built in the western and northern parts of the city[187][188] and institutions of higher learning such as the Hebrew
Hebrew
University were founded.[189] Jordanian and Israeli rule (1948–1967) Further information: Battle for Jerusalem
Battle for Jerusalem
and City Line (Jerusalem) See also: Corpus separatum (Jerusalem), United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly Resolution 194, and Jordanian annexation of the West Bank

United Nations
United Nations
Partition Plan for Palestine Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Corpus Separatum

v t e

Lifta Shu'fat JERUSALEM at-Tur al-Eizariya Abu Dis Silwan Sur Baher Umm Tuba Ramat Rahel Sharafat Beit Safafa Beit Jala BETHLEHEM Beit Sahur al-Maliha Ein Karim Deir Yassin Motza al-'Isawiya

As the British Mandate for Palestine was expiring, the 1947 UN Partition Plan recommended "the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a corpus separatum under the administration of the UN."[190] The international regime (which also included the city of Bethlehem) was to remain in force for a period of ten years, whereupon a referendum was to be held in which the residents were to decide the future regime of their city.[191] However, this plan was not implemented, as the 1948 war erupted, while the British withdrew from Palestine and Israel
Israel
declared its independence.[192] In contradiction to the Partition Plan, which envisioned a city separated from the Arab
Arab
state and the Jewish state, Israel
Israel
took control of the area which later would become West Jerusalem, along with major parts of the Arab
Arab
territory allotted to the future Arab State; Jordan
Jordan
took control of East Jerusalem, along with the West Bank. The war led to displacement of Arab
Arab
and Jewish populations in the city. The 1,500 residents of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City were expelled and a few hundred taken prisoner when the Arab
Arab
Legion captured the quarter on 28 May.[193][194] Arab
Arab
residents of Katamon, Talbiya, and the German Colony were driven from their homes. By the time of the armistice that ended active fighting, Israel
Israel
had control of 12 of Jerusalem's 15 Arab
Arab
residential quarters. An estimated minimum of 30,000 people had become refugees.[195][196]

Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate (circa 1950)

The war of 1948 resulted in the division of Jerusalem, so that the old walled city lay entirely on the Jordanian side of the line. A no-man's land between East and West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
came into being in November 1948: Moshe Dayan, commander of the Israeli forces in Jerusalem, met with his Jordanian counterpart Abdullah el-Tell
Abdullah el-Tell
in a deserted house in Jerusalem's Musrara neighborhood and marked out their respective positions: Israel's position in red and Jordan's in green. This rough map, which was not meant as an official one, became the final line in the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which divided the city and left Mount Scopus as an Israeli exclave inside East Jerusalem.[197] Barbed wire and concrete barriers ran down the center of the city, passing close by Jaffa Gate
Jaffa Gate
on the western side of the old walled city, and a crossing point was established at Mandelbaum Gate
Mandelbaum Gate
slightly to the north of the old walled city. Military skirmishes frequently threatened the ceasefire. After the establishment of the state of Israel, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was declared its capital city.[198] Jordan
Jordan
formally annexed East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
in 1950, subjecting it to Jordanian law, and in 1953 declared it the "second capital" of Jordan.[192][199][200] Only the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and Pakistan
Pakistan
formally recognized such annexation, which, in regard to Jerusalem, was on a de facto basis.[201] Some scholars argue that the view that Pakistan
Pakistan
recognized Jordan's annexation is dubious.[202][203]

King Hussein of Jordan
Jordan
flying over the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in East Jerusalem when it was under Jordanian control, 1965

After 1948, since the old walled city in its entirety was to the east of the armistice line, Jordan
Jordan
was able to take control of all the holy places therein. While Muslim
Muslim
holy sites were maintained and renovated,[204] contrary to the terms of the armistice agreement, Jews were denied access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were destroyed or desecrated. Jordan
Jordan
allowed only very limited access to Christian holy sites,[205] and restrictions were imposed on the Christian population that led many to leave the city. Of the 58 synagogues in the Old City, half were either razed or converted to stables and hen-houses over the course of the next 19 years, including the Hurva and the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue. The 3,000-year-old[206] Mount of Olives Jewish Cemetery was desecrated, with gravestones used to build roads, latrines and Jordanian army fortifications. 38,000 graves in the Jewish Cemetery were destroyed, and Jews
Jews
were forbidden from being buried there.[207][208] The Western Wall
Western Wall
was transformed into an exclusively Muslim
Muslim
holy site associated with al-Buraq.[209] Israeli authorities neglected to protect the tombs in the Muslim
Muslim
Mamilla Cemetery in West Jerusalem, which contains the remains of figures from the early Islamic period,[210] facilitating the creation of a parking lot and public lavatories in 1964.[211] Many other historic and religiously significant buildings were demolished and replaced by modern structures during the Jordanian occupation.[212] During this period, the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
and Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
underwent major renovations.[213] During the 1948 war, the Jewish residents of Eastern Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were expelled by Jordan's Arab
Arab
Legion. Jordan
Jordan
allowed Arab
Arab
Palestinian refugees from the war to settle in the vacated Jewish Quarter, which became known as Harat al-Sharaf.[214] In 1966 the Jordanian authorities relocated 500 of them to the Shua'fat refugee camp as part of plans to turn the Jewish quarter into a public park.[215][216] Israeli rule (1967–present) Main article: Reunification of Jerusalem

Map of East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
(2010)

In 1967, despite Israeli pleas that Jordan
Jordan
remain neutral during the Six-Day War, Jordan, which had concluded a defense agreement with Egypt
Egypt
on May 30, 1967, attacked Israeli-held West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
on the war's second day. After hand-to-hand fighting between Israeli and Jordanian soldiers on the Temple Mount, the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces captured East Jerusalem, along with the entire West Bank. On 27 June 1967, three weeks after the war ended, in the reunification of Jerusalem, Israel
Israel
extended its law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, including the city's Christian
Christian
and Muslim
Muslim
holy sites, along with some nearby West Bank
West Bank
territory which comprised 28 Palestinian villages, incorporating it into the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Municipality,[217][218] although it carefully avoided using the term annexation. On 10 July, Foreign Minister Abba Eban explained to the UN Secretary General: ″The term 'annexation' which was used by supporters of the vote is not accurate. The steps that were taken [by Israel] relate to the integration of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in administrative and municipal areas, and served as a legal basis for the protection of the holy places of Jerusalem.″[219] Israel
Israel
conducted a census of Arab
Arab
residents in the areas annexed. Residents were given permanent residency status and the option of applying for Israeli citizenship. Since 1967, new Jewish residential areas have mushroomed in the eastern sector, while no new Palestinian neighbourhoods have been created.[220] Jewish and Christian
Christian
access to the holy sites inside the old walled city was restored. Israel
Israel
left the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
under the jurisdiction of an Islamic waqf, but opened the Western Wall
Western Wall
to Jewish access. The Moroccan Quarter, which was located adjacent to the Western Wall, was evacuated and razed.[221] to make way for a plaza for those visiting the wall.[222] On 18 April 1968, an expropriation order by the Israeli Ministry of Finance more than doubled the size of the Jewish Quarter, evicting its Arab
Arab
residents and seizing over 700 buildings of which 105 belonged to Jewish inhabitants prior to the Jordanian occupation of the city.[citation needed] The order designated these areas for public use, but they were intended for Jews
Jews
alone.[223] The government offered 200 Jordanian dinars to each displaced Arab
Arab
family. After the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
the population of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
increased by 196%. The Jewish population grew by 155%, while the Arab
Arab
population grew by 314%. The proportion of the Jewish population fell from 74% in 1967 to 72% in 1980, to 68% in 2000, and to 64% in 2010.[224] Israeli Agriculture Minister Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
proposed building a ring of Jewish neighborhoods around the city's eastern edges. The plan was intended to make East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
more Jewish and prevent it from becoming part of an urban Palestinian bloc stretching from Bethlehem
Bethlehem
to Ramallah. On 2 October 1977, the Israeli cabinet approved the plan, and seven neighborhoods were subsequently built on the city's eastern edges. They became known as the Ring Neighborhoods. Other Jewish neighborhoods were built within East Jerusalem, and Israeli Jews
Israeli Jews
also settled in Arab
Arab
neighborhoods.[225][226] The annexation of East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
was met with international criticism. The Israeli Foreign Ministry disputes that the annexation of Jerusalem was a violation of international law.[227][228] The final status of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been one of the most important areas of discord between Palestinian and Israeli negotiators for peace. Areas of discord have included whether the Palestinian flag can be raised over areas of Palestinian custodianship and the specificity of Israeli and Palestinian territorial borders.[229] Political status Main article: Positions on Jerusalem Prior to the creation of the State of Israel, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
served as the administrative capital of Mandatory Palestine, which included present-day Israel
Israel
and Jordan.[230][dubious – discuss] From 1949 until 1967, West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
served as Israel's capital, but was not recognized as such internationally because UN General Assembly Resolution 194 envisaged Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as an international city. As a result of the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
in 1967, the whole of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
came under Israeli control. On 27 June 1967, the government of Levi Eshkol extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed that administration of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
compound would be maintained by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious Endowments.[231] In 1988, Israel
Israel
ordered the closure of Orient House, home of the Arab Studies Society, but also the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization, for security reasons. The building reopened in 1992 as a Palestinian guesthouse.[232][233] The Oslo Accords
Oslo Accords
stated that the final status of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
would be determined by negotiations with the Palestinian Authority. The accords banned any official Palestinian presence in the city until a final peace agreement, but provided for the opening of a Palestinian trade office in East Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority regards East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
as the capital of a future Palestinian state.[234][235] President Mahmoud Abbas
Mahmoud Abbas
has said that any agreement that did not include East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
as the capital of Palestine would be unacceptable.[236] Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
has similarly stated that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
would remain the undivided capital of Israel. Due to its proximity to the city, especially the Temple Mount, Abu Dis, a Palestinian suburb of Jerusalem, has been proposed as the future capital of a Palestinian state by Israel. Israel
Israel
has not incorporated Abu Dis
Abu Dis
within its security wall around Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority has built a possible future parliament building for the Palestinian Legislative Council in the town, and its Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Affairs Offices are all located in Abu Dis.[237] International status

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While the international community regards East Jerusalem, including the entire Old City, as part of the occupied Palestinian territories, neither part, West or East Jerusalem, is recognized as part of the territory of Israel
Israel
or the State of Palestine. Under the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations
United Nations
in 1947, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was envisaged to become a corpus separatum administered by the United Nations. In the war of 1948, the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by Jordan. The international community largely considers the legal status of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to derive from the partition plan, and correspondingly refuses to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the city. Status under Israeli rule

Supreme Court of Israel

Following the 1967 Six-Day War, Israel
Israel
extended its jurisdiction and administration over East Jerusalem, establishing new municipal borders. In 2010, Israel
Israel
approved legislation giving Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the highest national priority status in Israel. The law prioritized construction throughout the city, and offered grants and tax benefits to residents to make housing, infrastructure, education, employment, business, tourism, and cultural events more affordable. Communications Minister Moshe Kahlon
Moshe Kahlon
said that the bill sent "a clear, unequivocal political message that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
will not be divided", and that "all those within the Palestinian and international community who expect the current Israeli government to accept any demands regarding Israel's sovereignty over its capital are mistaken and misleading".[238] The status of the city, and especially its holy places, remains a core issue in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The Israeli government has approved building plans in the Muslim Quarter
Muslim Quarter
of the Old City[239] in order to expand the Jewish presence in East Jerusalem, while some Islamic leaders have made claims that Jews
Jews
have no historical connection to Jerusalem, alleging that the 2,500-year-old Western Wall was constructed as part of a mosque.[240][241] Palestinians regard Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the capital of the State of Palestine,[242] and the city's borders have been the subject of bilateral talks. A team of experts assembled by the then Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
in 2000 concluded that the city must be divided, since Israel
Israel
had failed to achieve any of its national aims there.[243] However, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
said in 2014 that " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
will never be divided".[244] A poll conducted in June 2013 found that 74% of Israeli Jews
Jews
reject the idea of a Palestinian capital in any portion of Jerusalem, though 72% of the public regarded it as a divided city.[245] A poll conducted by Palestinian Center for Public Opinion and American Pechter Middle East
Middle East
Polls for the Council on Foreign Relations, among East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
Arab
Arab
residents in 2011 revealed that 39% of East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
Arab
Arab
residents would prefer Israeli citizenship contrary to 31% who opted for Palestinian citizenship. According to the poll, 40% of Palestinian residents would prefer to leave their neighborhoods if they would be placed under Palestinian rule.[246] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as capital of Israel

Israeli Foreign Ministry building

On 5 December 1949, Israel's first Prime Minister, David
David
Ben-Gurion, proclaimed Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as Israel's "eternal" and "sacred" capital, and eight days later specified that only the war had "compelled" the Israeli leadership "to establish the seat of Government in Tel Aviv", while "for the State of Israel
Israel
there has always been and always will be one capital only - Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the Eternal", and that after the war, efforts had been ongoing for creating the conditions for "the Knesset... returning to Jerusalem."[247] This indeed took place, and since the beginning of 1950 all branches of the Israeli government—legislative, judicial, and executive—have resided there, except for the Ministry of Defense, which is located at HaKirya in Tel Aviv.[248][249] At the time of Ben Gurion's proclamations and the ensuing Knesset
Knesset
vote of 24 January 1950,[249] At the time Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was divided between Israel
Israel
and Jordan, and thus the proclamation only applied to West Jerusalem. In July 1980, Israel
Israel
passed the Jerusalem Law
Jerusalem Law
as Basic Law. The law declared Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the "complete and united" capital of Israel.[250] The Jerusalem Law
Jerusalem Law
was condemned by the international community, which did not recognize Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the capital of Israel. The United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 478 on 20 August 1980, which declared that the Jerusalem Law
Jerusalem Law
is "a violation of international law", is "null and void and must be rescinded forthwith". Member states were called upon to withdraw their diplomatic representation from Jerusalem.[251] Following the resolution, 22 of the 24 countries that previously had their embassy in (West) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
relocated them in Tel Aviv, where many embassies already resided prior to Resolution 478. Costa Rica
Costa Rica
and El Salvador
El Salvador
followed in 2006.[252] Currently, there are no embassies located within the city limits of Jerusalem, although there are two consulates in the city, and two Latin American states maintain embassies in the Jerusalem District
Jerusalem District
town of Mevaseret Zion
Zion
( Bolivia
Bolivia
and Paraguay).[253] There are a number of consulates-general located in Jerusalem, which work primarily either with Israel, or the Palestinian authorities. In 1995, the United States
United States
Congress passed the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Embassy Act, which required, subject to conditions, that its embassy be moved from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
to Jerusalem.[254] On 6 December 2017 U.S. President
U.S. President
Donald Trump officially recognized Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as Israel's capital and announced his intention to move the American embassy to Jerusalem, reversing decades of United States
United States
policy on the issue.[255][256] The move was criticized by many nations.[257] A resolution condemning the US decision was supported by all the 14 other members of the UN Security Council, but was vetoed by the US on 18 December 2017,[258] and a subsequent resolution condemning the US decision was passed in the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly.[259][260][261][262] Due to the non-recognition of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as Israel's capital, some non-Israeli press use Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
as a metonym for Israel.[263][264][265][266] In April 2017, the Russian Foreign Ministry announced it viewed Western Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as Israel's capital in the context of UN-approved principles which include the status of East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
as the capital of the future Palestinian state.[267][268][269] Government precinct and national institutions

The Knesset
Knesset
building in Givat Ram

Many national institutions of Israel
Israel
are located in Kiryat HaMemshala in Givat Ram
Givat Ram
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as a part of the Kiryat HaLeom project which is intended to create a large district that will house most government agencies and national cultural institutions. Some government buildings are located in Kiryat Menachem
Kiryat Menachem
Begin. The city is home to the Knesset,[270] the Supreme Court,[271] the Bank of Israel, the National Headquarters of the Israel
Israel
Police, the official residences of the President and Prime Minister, the Cabinet, and all ministries except for the Ministry of Defense (which is located in central Tel Aviv's HaKirya
HaKirya
district) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (which is located in Rishon LeZion, in the wider Tel Aviv metropolitan area, near Beit Dagan). Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as capital of Palestine See also: East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
§  Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as capital

Orient House
Orient House
in East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
that served as the headquarters of the PLO
PLO
in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by Israel
Israel
in 2001, two days after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.

The Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority
views East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
as occupied territory according to United Nations
United Nations
Security Council Resolution 242. The Palestinian Authority claims Jerusalem, including the Haram al-Sharif, as the capital of the State of Palestine,[242] The PLO claims that West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
is also subject to permanent status negotiations. However, it has stated that it would be willing to consider alternative solutions, such as making Jerusalem
Jerusalem
an open city.[272] The PLO's current position is that East Jerusalem, as defined by the pre-1967 municipal boundaries, shall be the capital of Palestine and West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
the capital of Israel, with each state enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the city and with its own municipality. A joint development council would be responsible for coordinated development.[273] Some states, such as Russia[274] and China,[275] recognize the Palestinian state with East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
as its capital. United Nations General Assembly Resolution 58/292 affirmed that the Palestinian people have the right to sovereignty over East Jerusalem.[276] Municipal administration Main article: Municipality of Jerusalem The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
City Council is a body of 31 elected members headed by the mayor, who serves a five-year term and appoints eight deputies. The former mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski, was elected in 2003.[277] In the November 2008 city elections, Nir Barkat
Nir Barkat
came out as the winner and is now the mayor. Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis. The longest-serving Jerusalem
Jerusalem
mayor was Teddy Kollek, who spent 28 years—-six consecutive terms-—in office. Most of the meetings of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
City Council are private, but each month, it holds a session that is open to the public.[277] Within the city council, religious political parties form an especially powerful faction, accounting for the majority of its seats.[278] The headquarters of the Jerusalem Municipality
Jerusalem Municipality
and the mayor's office are at Safra Square
Safra Square
(Kikar Safra) on Jaffa
Jaffa
Road. The municipal complex, comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings surrounding a large plaza, opened in 1993 moved from the Jerusalem Historical City Hall Building.[279] The city falls under the Jerusalem District, with Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the district's capital. 37% of the population is Palestinian, but only 10% of tax revenues are allocated for them. In East Jerusalem, 52% of the land is excluded from development, 35% designated for Jewish settlements, and 13% for Palestinian use, almost all of which is already built on.[220] Geography

Panorama of the Temple Mount, including Al-Aqsa Mosque, and Dome of the Rock, from the Mount of Olives

Astronauts' view of Jerusalem

Sunset aerial photograph of the Mount of Olives

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is situated on the southern spur of a plateau in the Judaean Mountains, which include the Mount of Olives
Mount of Olives
(East) and Mount Scopus (North East). The elevation of the Old City is approximately 760 m (2,490 ft).[280] The whole of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is surrounded by valleys and dry riverbeds (wadis). The Kidron, Hinnom, and Tyropoeon Valleys intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem.[281] The Kidron Valley
Kidron Valley
runs to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives
Mount of Olives
from the city proper. Along the southern side of old Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the Valley of Hinnom, a steep ravine associated in biblical eschatology with the concept of Gehenna
Gehenna
or Hell.[282] The Tyropoeon Valley
Tyropoeon Valley
commenced in the northwest near the Damascus
Damascus
Gate, ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old City down to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part into two hills, the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
to the east, and the rest of the city to the west (the lower and the upper cities described by Josephus). Today, this valley is hidden by debris that has accumulated over the centuries.[281] In biblical times, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was surrounded by forests of almond, olive and pine trees. Over centuries of warfare and neglect, these forests were destroyed. Farmers in the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
region thus built stone terraces along the slopes to hold back the soil, a feature still very much in evidence in the Jerusalem landscape.[citation needed] Water
Water
supply has always been a major problem in Jerusalem, as attested to by the intricate network of ancient aqueducts, tunnels, pools and cisterns found in the city.[283] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is 60 kilometers (37 mi)[284] east of Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
and the Mediterranean Sea. On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35 kilometers (22 mi)[285] away, is the Dead Sea, the lowest body of water on Earth. Neighboring cities and towns include Bethlehem
Bethlehem
and Beit Jala
Beit Jala
to the south, Abu Dis
Abu Dis
and Ma'ale Adumim
Ma'ale Adumim
to the east, Mevaseret Zion
Zion
to the west, and Ramallah
Ramallah
and Giv'at Ze'ev
Giv'at Ze'ev
to the north.[286][287][288] Mount Herzl, at the western side of the city near the Jerusalem Forest, serves as the national cemetery of Israel. Climate

View from the Mount of Olives
Mount of Olives
overlooking the old city of Jerusalem during the snowfall of the 2013 cold snap

The city is characterized by a hot-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csa ), with hot, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Snow flurries usually occur once or twice a winter, although the city experiences heavy snowfall every three to four years, on average, with short-lived accumulation. January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of 9.1 °C (48.4 °F); July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 24.2 °C (75.6 °F), and the summer months are usually rainless. The average annual precipitation is around 537 mm (21 in), with rain occurring almost entirely between October and May.[289] Snowfall
Snowfall
is rare, and large snowfalls are even more rare.[290][291] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
received over 30 centimetres (12 in) of snow on 13 December 2013, which nearly paralyzed the city.[290][291] A day in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has on average, 9.3 sunshine hours. With summers averaging similar temperatures as the coastline, the maritime influence from the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
is strong, in particular given that Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is located on a similar latitude as scorching hot deserts not far to its east. The highest recorded temperature in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was 44.4 °C (111.9 °F) on 28 and 30 August 1881, and the lowest temperature recorded was −6.7 °C (19.9 °F) on 25 January 1907. Most of the air pollution in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
comes from vehicular traffic.[292] Many main streets in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were not built to accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic congestion and more carbon monoxide released into the air. Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over the city.[292][293]

Climate data for Jerusalem

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 23.4 (74.1) 25.3 (77.5) 27.6 (81.7) 35.3 (95.5) 37.2 (99) 36.8 (98.2) 40.6 (105.1) 38.6 (101.5) 37.8 (100) 33.8 (92.8) 29.4 (84.9) 26 (79) 40.6 (105.1)

Average high °C (°F) 11.8 (53.2) 12.6 (54.7) 15.4 (59.7) 21.5 (70.7) 25.3 (77.5) 27.6 (81.7) 29 (84) 29.4 (84.9) 28.2 (82.8) 24.7 (76.5) 18.8 (65.8) 14 (57) 21.52 (70.71)

Daily mean °C (°F) 9.8 (49.6) 10.5 (50.9) 13.1 (55.6) 16.8 (62.2) 21.0 (69.8) 23.3 (73.9) 25.1 (77.2) 25.0 (77) 23.6 (74.5) 21.1 (70) 16.3 (61.3) 12.1 (53.8) 18.14 (64.65)

Average low °C (°F) 6.4 (43.5) 6.4 (43.5) 8.4 (47.1) 12.6 (54.7) 15.7 (60.3) 17.8 (64) 19.4 (66.9) 19.5 (67.1) 18.6 (65.5) 16.6 (61.9) 12.3 (54.1) 8.4 (47.1) 13.51 (56.31)

Record low °C (°F) −3.4 (25.9) −2.4 (27.7) −0.3 (31.5) 0.8 (33.4) 7.6 (45.7) 11 (52) 14.6 (58.3) 15.5 (59.9) 13.2 (55.8) 9.8 (49.6) 1.8 (35.2) 0.2 (32.4) −3.4 (25.9)

Average rainfall mm (inches) 133.2 (5.244) 118.3 (4.657) 92.7 (3.65) 24.5 (0.965) 3.2 (0.126) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0.3 (0.012) 15.4 (0.606) 60.8 (2.394) 105.7 (4.161) 554.1 (21.815)

Average rainy days 12.9 11.7 9.6 4.4 1.3 0 0 0 0.3 3.6 7.3 10.9 62

Average relative humidity (%) 61 59 52 39 35 37 40 40 40 42 48 56 45.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 192.9 243.6 226.3 266.6 331.7 381.0 384.4 365.8 309.0 275.9 228.0 192.2 3,397.4

Source #1: Israel
Israel
Meteorological Service[294][295][296][297]

Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)[298]

Demographics Demographic history Main article: Demographic history of Jerusalem Jerusalem's population size and composition has shifted many times over its 5,000 year history. Since medieval times, the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been divided into Jewish, Muslim, Christian, and Armenian quarters. Most population data pre-1905 is based on estimates, often from foreign travellers or organisations, since previous census data usually covered wider areas such as the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
District.[299] These estimates suggest that since the end of the Crusades, Muslims
Muslims
formed the largest group in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
until the mid-nineteenth century. Between 1838 and 1876, a number of estimates exist which conflict as to whether Jews
Jews
or Muslims
Muslims
were the largest group during this period, and between 1882 and 1922 estimates conflict as to exactly when Jews became an absolute majority of the population. Current demographics

Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, on a hill directly across from Mount Zion

Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly Arab
Arab
neighborhood on the road to Mount Scopus

The Armenian Quarter

In December 2007, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
had a population of 747,600—64% were Jewish, 32% Muslim, and 2% Christian.[300] At the end of 2005, the population density was 5,750.4/km2 (14,893/sq mi).[301][302] According to a study published in 2000, the percentage of Jews
Jews
in the city's population had been decreasing; this was attributed to a higher Muslim
Muslim
birth rate, and Jewish residents leaving. The study also found that about nine percent of the Old City's 32,488 people were Jews.[303] Of the Jewish population, 200,000 live in East Jerusalem settlements which are considered illegal under international law.[304] In 2005, 2,850 new immigrants settled in Jerusalem, mostly from the United States, France
France
and the former Soviet Union. In terms of the local population, the number of outgoing residents exceeds the number of incoming residents. In 2005, 16,000 left Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and only 10,000 moved in.[301] Nevertheless, the population of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
continues to rise due to the high birth rate, especially in the Haredi Jewish and Arab
Arab
communities. Consequently, the total fertility rate in Jerusalem (4.02) is higher than in Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
(1.98) and well above the national average of 2.90. The average size of Jerusalem's 180,000 households is 3.8 people.[301] In 2005, the total population grew by 13,000 (1.8%)—similar to the Israeli national average, but the religious and ethnic composition is shifting. While 31% of the Jewish population is made up of children below the age fifteen, the figure for the Arab
Arab
population is 42%.[301] This would seem to corroborate the observation that the percentage of Jews
Jews
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has declined over the past four decades. In 1967, Jews
Jews
accounted for 74 percent of the population, while the figure for 2006 is down nine percent.[305] Possible factors are the high cost of housing, fewer job opportunities and the increasingly religious character of the city, although proportionally, young Haredim are leaving in higher numbers.[citation needed] The percentage of secular Jews, or those who 'wear their faith lightly' is dropping, with some 20,000 leaving the city over the past seven years (2012). They now number 31% of the population, the same percentage as the rising Haredi population.[306] Many move to the suburbs and coastal cities in search of cheaper housing and a more secular lifestyle.[307] In 2009, the percentage of Haredim in the city was increasing. As of 2009[update], out of 150,100 schoolchildren, 59,900 or 40% are in state-run secular and National Religious schools, while 90,200 or 60% are in Haredi schools. This correlates with the high number of children in Haredi families.[308][309] While some Israelis avoid Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for its relative lack of development and religious and political tensions, the city has attracted Palestinians, offering more jobs and opportunity than any city in the West Bank
West Bank
or Gaza Strip. Palestinian officials have encouraged Arabs over the years to stay in the city to maintain their claim.[310][311] Palestinians are attracted to the access to jobs, healthcare, social security, other benefits, and quality of life Israel
Israel
provides to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
residents.[312] Arab
Arab
residents of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
who choose not to have Israeli citizenship are granted an Israeli identity card that allows them to pass through checkpoints with relative ease and to travel throughout Israel, making it easier to find work. Residents also are entitled to the subsidized healthcare and social security benefits Israel
Israel
provides its citizens, and have the right to vote in municipal elections. Arabs in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
can send their children to Israeli-run schools, although not every neighborhood has one, and universities. Israeli doctors and highly regarded hospitals such as Hadassah Medical Center
Hadassah Medical Center
are available to residents.[313] Demographics and the Jewish- Arab
Arab
population divide play a major role in the dispute over Jerusalem. In 1998, the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Development Authority proposed expanding city limits to the west to include more areas heavily populated with Jews.[13] Within the past few years, there has been a steady increase in the Jewish birthrate and a steady decrease in the Arab
Arab
birthrate. In May 2012, it was reported that the Jewish birthrate had overtaken the Arab birthrate. Currently, the city's birthrate stands about 4.2 children per Jewish family and 3.9 children per Arab
Arab
family.[314][315] In addition, increasing numbers of Jewish immigrants chose to settle in Jerusalem. In the last few years, thousands of Palestinians have moved to previously fully Jewish neighborhoods of East Jerusalem, built after the 1967 Six-Day War. In 2007, 1,300 Palestinians lived in the previously exclusively Jewish neighborhood of Pisgat Ze'ev
Pisgat Ze'ev
and constituted three percent of the population in Neve Ya'akov. In the French Hill
French Hill
neighborhood, Palestinians today constitute one-sixth of the overall population.[316] At the end of 2008, the population of East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
was 456,300, comprising 60% of Jerusalem's residents. Of these, 195,500 (43%) are Jews, (comprising 40% of the Jewish population of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as a whole), 260,800 (57%) are Muslim
Muslim
(comprising 98% of the Muslim population of Jerusalem).[317] In 2008, the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics reported the number of Palestinians living in East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was 208,000 according to a recently completed census.[318] Jerusalem's Jewish population is overwhelmingly religious. Only 21% of Jewish residents are secular. In addition, Haredi Jews
Jews
comprise 30% of the city's adult Jewish population. In a phenomenon seen rarely around the world, the percentage of Jewish men who work, 47%, is exceeded by the percentage of Jewish women who work, 50%.[319] The young and less religious continue to leave according to a 2016 Central Bureau of Statistics report which noted 6,740 people left. The opening of high speed rail transit to Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
next year and the New Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Gateway Business District[320] currently under construction is designed to alter business, tourism, and hopefully reverse the population exodus.[321] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
had a population of 801,000 in 2011, of which Jews
Jews
comprised 497,000 (62%), Muslims
Muslims
281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.[14] Urban planning issues Critics of efforts to promote a Jewish majority in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
say that government planning policies are motivated by demographic considerations and seek to limit Arab
Arab
construction while promoting Jewish construction.[322] According to a World Bank
World Bank
report, the number of recorded building violations between 1996 and 2000 was four and half times higher in Jewish neighborhoods but four times fewer demolition orders were issued in West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
than in East Jerusalem; Arabs in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were less likely to receive construction permits than Jews, and "the authorities are much more likely to take action against Palestinian violators" than Jewish violators of the permit process.[323] In recent years, private Jewish foundations have received permission from the government to develop projects on disputed lands, such as the City of David
City of David
archaeological park in the 60% Arab
Arab
neighborhood of Silwan
Silwan
(adjacent to the Old City),[324] and the Museum of Tolerance
Museum of Tolerance
on Mamilla
Mamilla
Cemetery (adjacent to Zion Square).[323][325] Religious significance Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem

The Temple Mount, the holiest site in Judaism

The al-Aqsa Mosque, where Muslims
Muslims
believe Muhammad
Muhammad
ascended to heaven

The Western Wall, known as the Kotel

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where some Christians believe Jesus was crucified

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been sacred to Judaism
Judaism
for roughly 3000 years, to Christianity
Christianity
for around 2000 years, and to Islam
Islam
for approximately 1400 years. The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city.[326] Despite efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such as the Temple Mount, have been a continuous source of friction and controversy. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been sacred to the Jews
Jews
since King David
David
proclaimed it his capital in the 10th century BCE.[note 5] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was the site of Solomon's Temple
Solomon's Temple
and the Second Temple.[16] Although not mentioned in the Torah
Torah
/ Pentateuch,[327] it is mentioned in the Bible
Bible
632 times. Today, the Western Wall, a remnant of the wall surrounding the Second Temple, is a Jewish holy site second only to the "Holy of Holies" on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
itself.[328] Synagogues around the world are traditionally built with the Holy Ark facing Jerusalem,[329] and Arks within Jerusalem
Jerusalem
face the Holy of Holies.[330] As prescribed in the Mishna and codified in the Shulchan Aruch, daily prayers are recited while facing towards Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple Mount. Many Jews
Jews
have "Mizrach" plaques hung on a wall of their homes to indicate the direction of prayer.[330][331] Christianity
Christianity
reveres Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for its Old Testament
Old Testament
history, and also for its significance in the life of Jesus. According to the New Testament, Jesus
Jesus
was brought to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
soon after his birth[332] and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple.[333] The Cenacle, believed to be the site of Jesus' Last Supper, is located on Mount Zion
Zion
in the same building that houses the Tomb of King David.[334][335] Another prominent Christian
Christian
site in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is Golgotha, the site of the crucifixion. The Gospel of John
Gospel of John
describes it as being located outside Jerusalem,[336] but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city.[337] The land currently occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
is considered one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian pilgrimage site for the past 2000 years.[337][338][339] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the third-holiest city in Sunni Islam.[22] For approximately a year, before it was permanently switched to the Kaaba in Mecca, the qibla (direction of prayer) for Muslims
Muslims
was Jerusalem.[340][341] The city's lasting place in Islam, however, is primarily due to Muhammad's Night of Ascension (c. CE 620). Muslims believe Muhammad
Muhammad
was miraculously transported one night from Mecca
Mecca
to the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to Heaven to meet previous prophets of Islam.[342][343][344] The first verse in the Qur'an's Surat al-Isra notes the destination of Muhammad's journey as al-Aqsa (the farthest) mosque,[345][346] in reference to the location in Jerusalem. The hadith, the recorded sayings of the Prophet Mohammad, name Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the location of the Al-Aqsa Mosque.[347] The al-Aqsa Mosque, derived from the name mentioned in the Qur'an, was built on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
under the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid to commemorate the place from which Muslims
Muslims
believe Muhammad
Muhammad
ascended to Heaven.[348] Economy

Bank of Israel

Historically, Jerusalem's economy was supported almost exclusively by religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of Jaffa
Jaffa
and Gaza.[349] Jerusalem's religious and cultural landmarks today remain the top draw for foreign visitors, with the majority of tourists visiting the Western Wall
Western Wall
and the Old City,[301] In 2010, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was named the top leisure travel city in Africa and the Middle East
Middle East
by Travel + Leisure
Travel + Leisure
magazine.[350] in 2013, 75% of the 3.5 million tourists to Israel
Israel
visited Jerusalem.[351]

Har Hotzvim
Har Hotzvim
high-tech park

Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the national government has remained a major player in Jerusalem's economy. The government, centered in Jerusalem, generates a large number of jobs, and offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and start-ups.[349] Although Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
remains Israel's financial center, a growing number of high tech companies are moving to Jerusalem, providing 12,000 jobs in 2006.[352] Northern Jerusalem's Har Hotzvim industrial park and the Jerusalem Technology Park
Jerusalem Technology Park
in south Jerusalem are home to large Research and Development
Research and Development
centers of international tech companies, among them Intel, Cisco, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, IBM, Mobileye, Johnson & Johnson, Medtronic
Medtronic
and more .[353] In April 2015, Time Magazine
Time Magazine
picked Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as one of the five emerging tech hubs in the world, proclaiming that "The city has become a flourishing center for biomed, cleantech, Internet/mobile startups, accelerators, investors and supporting service providers."[354]

Mamilla Mall
Mamilla Mall
adorned with upscale shops adjacent to the Old City Walls.

Higher than average percentages are employed in education (17.9% vs. 12.7%); health and welfare (12.6% vs. 10.7%); community and social services (6.4% vs. 4.7%); hotels and restaurants (6.1% vs. 4.7%); and public administration (8.2% vs. 4.7%).[355] During the British Mandate, a law was passed requiring all buildings to be constructed of Jerusalem stone
Jerusalem stone
in order to preserve the unique historic and aesthetic character of the city.[188] Complementing this building code, which is still in force, is the discouragement of heavy industry in Jerusalem; only about 2.2% of Jerusalem's land is zoned for "industry and infrastructure." By comparison, the percentage of land in Tel Aviv zoned for industry and infrastructure is twice as high, and in Haifa, seven times as high.[301] Only 8.5% of the Jerusalem District
Jerusalem District
work force is employed in the manufacturing sector, which is half the national average (15.8%). Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since 1967, East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
has lagged behind the development of West Jerusalem.[349] Nevertheless, the percentage of households with employed persons is higher for Arab
Arab
households (76.1%) than for Jewish households (66.8%). The unemployment rate in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(8.3%) is slightly better than the national average (9.0%), although the civilian labor force accounted for less than half of all persons fifteen years or older—lower in comparison to that of Tel Aviv (58.0%) and Haifa
Haifa
(52.4%).[301] Poverty remains a problem in the city as 37% of the families in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
lived in 2011 below the poverty line. According to a report by the Association for Civil Rights in Israel
Israel
(ACRI), 78% of Arabs in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
lived in poverty in 2012, up from 64% in 2006. While the ACRI attributes the increase to the lack of employment opportunities, infrastructure and a worsening educational system, Ir Amim blames the legal status of Palestinians in Jerusalem.[356] High-rise construction Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has traditionally had a low-rise skyline. About 18 tall buildings were built at different times in the downtown area when there was no clear policy over the matter. One of them, Holyland Tower 1, Jerusalem's tallest building, is a skyscraper by international standards, rising 32 stories. Holyland Tower 2, which has been approved for construction, will reach the same height.[357][358] A new master plan for the city will see many high-rise buildings, including skyscrapers, built in certain, designated areas of downtown Jerusalem. Under the plan, towers will line Jaffa Road
Jaffa Road
and King George Street. One of the proposed towers along King George Street, the Migdal Merkaz HaYekum, is planned as a 65-story building, which would make it one of the tallest buildings in Israel. At the entrance to the city, near the Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
and the Central Bus Station, twelve towers rising between 24 and 33 stories will be built, as part of a complex that will also include an open square and an underground train station serving a new express line between Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Tel Aviv, and will be connected by bridges and underground tunnels. Eleven of the skyscrapers will be either office or apartment buildings, and one will be a 2,000-room hotel. The complex is expected to attract many businesses from Tel Aviv, and become the city's main business hub. In addition, a complex for the city's courts and the prosecutor's office will be built, as well as new buildings for Central Zionist Archives and Israel
Israel
State Archives.[359][360][361] The skyscrapers built throughout the city are expected to contain public space, shops, restaurants, and entertainment venues, and it has been speculated that this may lead to a revitalization of downtown Jerusalem.[362][363] In August 2015, the city council approved construction of a 344-foot pyramid-shaped skyscraper designed by Daniel Libeskind and Yigal Levi, in place of a rejected previous design by Libeskind; it is set to break ground by 2019.[364] Transportation Main article: Transport in Jerusalem

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Chords Bridge

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is served by highly developed communication infrastructures, making it a leading logistics hub for Israel. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Central Bus Station, located on Jaffa
Jaffa
Road, is the busiest bus station in Israel. It is served by Egged Bus Cooperative, which is the second-largest bus company in the world,[365] The Dan serves the Bnei Brak- Jerusalem
Jerusalem
route along with Egged, and Superbus serves the routes between Jerusalem, Modi'in Illit, and Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut. The companies operate from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Central Bus Station. Arab
Arab
neighborhoods in East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
and routes between Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and locations in the West Bank
West Bank
are served by the East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Central Bus Station, a transportation hub located near the Old City's Damascus
Damascus
Gate. The Jerusalem Light Rail
Jerusalem Light Rail
initiated service in August 2011. According to plans, the first rail line will be capable of transporting an estimated 200,000 people daily, and has 23 stops. The route is from Pisgat Ze'ev
Pisgat Ze'ev
in the north via the Old City and city center to Mt. Herzl in the south.

Light Rail tram on Jaffa
Jaffa
Road

Another work in progress[366] is a new high-speed rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which is scheduled to be completed in 2017. Its terminus will be a new underground station (80 m (262.47 ft) deep) serving the International Convention Center and the Central Bus Station,[367] and is planned to be extended eventually to Malha station. Israel
Israel
Railways operates train services to Malha
Malha
train station from Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
via Beit Shemesh.[368][369] Begin Expressway is one of Jerusalem's major north-south thoroughfares; it runs on the western side of the city, merging in the north with Route 443, which continues toward Tel Aviv. Route 60 runs through the center of the city near the Green Line between East and West Jerusalem. Construction is progressing on parts of a 35-kilometer (22 mi) ring road around the city, fostering faster connection between the suburbs.[370][371] The eastern half of the project was conceptualized decades ago, but reaction to the proposed highway is still mixed.[370] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is served by Ben Gurion Airport, some 50 kilometres (31 miles) northwest of the Jerusalem, on the route to Tel Aviv. In the past it was also served by the local Atarot
Atarot
Airport. Atarot
Atarot
ceased operation in 2000. Education

Hebrew
Hebrew
University of Jerusalem, Mount Scopus
Mount Scopus
campus

Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish- Arab
Arab
school in Jerusalem

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is home to several prestigious universities offering courses in Hebrew, Arabic and English. Founded in 1925, the Hebrew
Hebrew
University of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been ranked among the top 100 schools in the world.[372] The Board of Governors has included such prominent Jewish intellectuals as Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein
and Sigmund Freud.[189] The university has produced several Nobel laureates; recent winners associated with Hebrew
Hebrew
University include Avram Hershko,[373] David Gross,[374] and Daniel Kahneman.[375] One of the university's major assets is the Jewish National and University Library, which houses over five million books.[376] The library opened in 1892, over three decades before the university was established, and is one of the world's largest repositories of books on Jewish subjects. Today it is both the central library of the university and the national library of Israel.[377] The Hebrew
Hebrew
University operates three campuses in Jerusalem, on Mount Scopus, on Giv'at Ram and a medical campus at the Hadassah Ein Kerem
Ein Kerem
hospital. the Academy of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Language are located in the Hebrew
Hebrew
university in Givat Ram
Givat Ram
and the Israel
Israel
Academy of Sciences and Humanities located near the Presidents house. Al-Quds University
Al-Quds University
was established in 1984[378] to serve as a flagship university for the Arab
Arab
and Palestinian peoples. It describes itself as the "only Arab
Arab
university in Jerusalem".[379] New York Bard College and Al-Quds University
Al-Quds University
agreed to open a joint college in a building originally built to house the Palestinian Legislative Council
Palestinian Legislative Council
and Yasser Arafat's office. The college gives Master of Arts in Teaching degrees.[380] Al-Quds University
Al-Quds University
resides southeast of the city proper on a 190,000 square metres (47 acres) Abu Dis
Abu Dis
campus.[378] Other institutions of higher learning in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
are the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Academy of Music and Dance[381] and Bezalel Academy of Art and Design,[382] whose buildings are located on the campuses of the Hebrew
Hebrew
University.

Hebron
Hebron
Yeshiva
Yeshiva
in Givat Mordechai
Givat Mordechai
neighborhood

The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
College of Technology, founded in 1969, combines training in engineering and other high-tech industries with a Jewish studies program.[383] It is one of many schools in Jerusalem, from elementary school and up, that combine secular and religious studies. Numerous religious educational institutions and Yeshivot, including some of the most prestigious yeshivas, among them the Brisk, Chevron, Midrash
Midrash
Shmuel and Mir, are based in the city, with the Mir Yeshiva claiming to be the largest.[384] There were nearly 8,000 twelfth-grade students in Hebrew-language schools during the 2003–2004 school year.[301] However, due to the large portion of students in Haredi Jewish frameworks, only fifty-five percent of twelfth graders took matriculation exams (Bagrut) and only thirty-seven percent were eligible to graduate. Unlike public schools, many Haredi schools do not prepare students to take standardized tests.[301] To attract more university students to Jerusalem, the city has begun to offer a special package of financial incentives and housing subsidies to students who rent apartments in downtown Jerusalem.[385] Schools for Arabs in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and other parts of Israel
Israel
have been criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering to Israeli Jewish students.[386] While many schools in the heavily Arab
Arab
East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
are filled to capacity and there have been complaints of overcrowding, the Jerusalem Municipality
Jerusalem Municipality
is currently building over a dozen new schools in the city's Arab neighborhoods.[387] Schools in Ras el-Amud and Umm Lison opened in 2008.[388] In March 2007, the Israeli government approved a 5-year plan to build 8,000 new classrooms in the city, 40 percent in the Arab sector and 28 percent in the Haredi sector. A budget of 4.6 billion shekels was allocated for this project.[389] In 2008, Jewish British philanthropists donated $3 million for the construction of schools for Arabs in East Jerusalem.[388] Arab
Arab
high school students take the Bagrut
Bagrut
matriculation exams, so that much of their curriculum parallels that of other Israeli high schools and includes certain Jewish subjects.[386] Culture

The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea
Dead Sea
Scrolls, at the Israel Museum

Although Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is known primarily for its religious significance, the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. The Israel Museum attracts nearly one million visitors a year, approximately one-third of them tourists.[390] The 20-acre (81,000 m2) museum complex comprises several buildings featuring special exhibits and extensive collections of Judaica, archaeological findings, and Israeli and European art. The Dead Sea
Dead Sea
scrolls, discovered in the mid-20th century in the Qumran Caves
Qumran Caves
near the Dead Sea, are housed in the Museum's Shrine of the Book.[391] The Youth Wing, which mounts changing exhibits and runs an extensive art education program, is visited by 100,000 children a year. The museum has a large outdoor sculpture garden and a scale-model of the Second Temple.[390] The Ticho House
Ticho House
in downtown Jerusalem
Jerusalem
houses the paintings of Anna Ticho and the Judaica collections of her husband, an ophthalmologist who opened Jerusalem's first eye clinic in this building in 1912.[392]

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Biblical Zoo

Next to the Israel
Israel
Museum is the Bible
Bible
Lands Museum, near The National Campus for the Archaeology of Israel, which includes the Israel Antiquities Authority offices. A World Bible
Bible
Center is planned to be built adjacent to Mount Zion
Zion
at a site called the " Bible
Bible
Hill". A planned World Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Center is to be located on the nearby promenade, overlooking the Old City. The Rockefeller Museum, located in East Jerusalem, was the first archaeological museum in the Middle East. It was built in 1938 during the British Mandate.[393][394] In 2006, a 38 km (24 mi) Jerusalem Trail
Jerusalem Trail
was opened, a hiking trail that goes to many cultural sites and national parks in and around Jerusalem. The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
has ranked consistently as Israel's top tourist attraction for Israelis.[395][396] The national cemetery of Israel
Israel
is located at the city's western edge, near the Jerusalem Forest
Jerusalem Forest
on Mount Herzl. The western extension of Mount Herzl
Mount Herzl
is the Mount of Remembrance, where the main Holocaust museum of Israel
Israel
is located. Yad Vashem, Israel's national memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, houses the world's largest library of Holocaust-related information.[397] It houses an estimated 100,000 books and articles. The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum that explores the genocide of the Jews
Jews
through exhibits that focus on the personal stories of individuals and families killed in the Holocaust. An art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished is also present. Further, Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
commemorates the 1.5 million Jewish children murdered by the Nazis, and honors the Righteous among the Nations.[398]

National Library of Israel

The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Symphony Orchestra, established in the 1940s,[399] has appeared around the world.[399] The International Convention Center (Binyanei HaUma) near the entrance to city houses the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Cinemateque, the Gerard Behar Center (formerly Beit Ha'Am) in downtown Jerusalem, the Jerusalem Music Center in Yemin Moshe,[400] and the Targ Music Center in Ein Kerem also present the arts. The Israel
Israel
Festival, featuring indoor and outdoor performances by local and international singers, concerts, plays, and street theater has been held annually since 1961, and Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been the major organizer of this event. The Jerusalem Theater in the Talbiya
Talbiya
neighborhood hosts over 150 concerts a year, as well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from overseas.[401] The Khan Theater, located in a caravanserai opposite the old Jerusalem
Jerusalem
train station, is the city's only repertoire theater.[402] The station itself has become a venue for cultural events in recent years as the site of Shav'ua Hasefer (an annual week-long book fair) and outdoor music performances.[403] The Jerusalem Film Festival
Jerusalem Film Festival
is held annually, screening Israeli and international films.[404] In 1974 the Jerusalem Cinematheque
Jerusalem Cinematheque
was founded. In 1981 it was moved to a new building on Hebron
Hebron
Road near the Valley of Hinnom
Valley of Hinnom
and the Old City. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was declared the Capital of Arab
Arab
Culture in 2009.[405] Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is home to the Palestinian National Theatre, which engages in cultural preservation as well as innovation, working to rekindle Palestinian interest in the arts.[406] The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music sponsors the Palestine Youth Orchestra[407] which toured Arab states of the Persian Gulf
Arab states of the Persian Gulf
and other Middle East countries in 2009.[408] The Islamic Museum
Islamic Museum
on the Temple Mount, established in 1923, houses many Islamic artifacts, from tiny kohl flasks and rare manuscripts to giant marble columns.[409] Al-Hoash, established in 2004, is a gallery for the preservation of Palestinian art.[410] While Israel
Israel
approves and financially supports some Arab cultural activities,[citation needed] Arab
Arab
Capital of Culture events were banned because they were sponsored by the Palestine National Authority.[405] In 2009, a four-day culture festival was held in the Beit 'Anan
Beit 'Anan
suburb of Jerusalem, attended by more than 15,000 people[411] The Museum on the Seam, which explores issues of coexistence through art, is situated on the road dividing eastern and western Jerusalem.[412] The Abraham
Abraham
Fund and the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Intercultural Center] (JICC) promote joint Jewish-Palestinian cultural projects. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Center for Middle Eastern Music and Dance[413] is open to Arabs and Jews
Jews
and offers workshops on Jewish- Arab
Arab
dialogue through the arts.[414] The Jewish- Arab
Arab
Youth Orchestra performs both European classical and Middle Eastern music.[415] In 2008, the Tolerance Monument, an outdoor sculpture by Czesław Dźwigaj, was erected on a hill between Jewish Armon HaNetziv and Arab
Arab
Jebl Mukaber as a symbol of Jerusalem's quest for peace.[416] Media Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the state broadcasting center of Israel. The Israel Broadcasting Authority's main office is located in Jerusalem, as well as the TV and radio studios for Israel
Israel
Radio, Channel 2, Channel 10, and part of the radio studios of BBC
BBC
News. The Jerusalem Post
The Jerusalem Post
and The Times of Israel
Israel
are also headquartered in Jerusalem. Local newspapers include Kol Ha'Ir and The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Times. God
God
TV, an international Christian
Christian
television network is also based in the city. Sports See also: Beitar Jerusalem
Jerusalem
F.C., Hapoel Jerusalem
Jerusalem
B.C., and Jerusalem Marathon

Teddy Stadium, Malha

The two most popular sports are football (soccer) and basketball.[417] Beitar Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Football Club is one of the most well known in Israel. Fans include political figures who often attend its games.[418] Jerusalem's other major football team, and one of Beitar's top rivals, is Hapoel Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C.
Whereas Beitar has been Israel State Cup champion seven times,[419] Hapoel has won the Cup only once. Beitar has won the top league six times, while Hapoel has never succeeded. Beitar plays in the more prestigious Ligat HaAl, while Hapoel is in the second division Liga Leumit. Since its opening in 1992, Teddy Stadium
Teddy Stadium
has been Jerusalem's primary football stadium, with a capacity of 31,733.[420] The most popular Palestinian football club is Jabal Al Mukaber (since 1976) which plays in West Bank
West Bank
Premier League. The club hails from Mount Scopus
Mount Scopus
at Jerusalem, part of the Asian Football Confederation, and plays at the Faisal Al-Husseini International Stadium at Al-Ram, across the West Bank Barrier.[421][422] In basketball, Hapoel Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is one of the top teams in the top division. The club has won Israel's championship in 2015, the State Cup four times, and the ULEB Cup in 2004.[423] The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Marathon, established in 2011, is an international marathon race held annually in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the month of March. The full 42-kilometer race begins at the Knesset, passes through Mount Scopus and the Old City's Armenian Quarter, and concludes at Sacher Park. In 2012, the Jerusalem Marathon
Jerusalem Marathon
drew 15,000 runners, including 1,500 from fifty countries outside Israel.[424][425][426][427][428] A popular non-competitive sports event is the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
March, held annually during the Sukkot
Sukkot
festival. Twin towns and sister cities See also: List of Israeli twin towns and sister cities

Prague, Czech Republic[429] Ayabe, Japan[430] New York City, United States
United States
(since 1993)[431][432]

Partner city

Marseille, France[citation needed]

See also

Greater Jerusalem List of people from Jerusalem List of places in Jerusalem List of songs about Jerusalem

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
portal Israel
Israel
portal Palestine portal Judaism
Judaism
portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Islam
Islam
portal

Notes

^ The State of Palestine
State of Palestine
(according to the Basic Law of Palestine, Title One: Article 3) regards Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as its capital.[1] But the documents of the PLO's Negotiations Affairs Department (NAD) often refer to East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
(rather than the whole of Jerusalem) as a future capital, and sometimes as the current capital. One of its 2010 documents, described as "for discussion purposes only", says that Palestine has a '"vision"' for a future in which " East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
... shall be the capital of Palestine, and West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
shall be the capital of Israel",[2] and one of its 2013 documents refers to "Palestine's capital, East Jerusalem", and states that "Occupied East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the natural socio-economic and political center for the future Palestinian state", while also stating that " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has always been and remains the political, administrative and spiritual heart of Palestine" and that "The Palestinian acceptance of the 1967 border, which includes East Jerusalem, is a painful compromise".[3] ^ In other languages: official Arabic in Israel: Arabic: أورشليم القدس‎, translit. Ûrshalîm-Al Quds (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); Ancient Greek: Ἱερουσαλήμ/Ἰεροσόλυμα, translit. Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; Armenian: Երուսաղեմ, translit. Erusałēm. ^ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the capital under Israeli law. The presidential residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament (Knesset) are located there. The State of Palestine
State of Palestine
(according to the Basic Law of Palestine, Title One: Article 3) regards Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as its capital.[1] The UN and most countries do not recognize Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as Israel's capital, taking the position that the final status of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is pending future negotiations between Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in Tel Aviv and its suburbs or suburbs of Jerusalem, such as Mevaseret Zion (see CIA Factbook and "Map of Israel" (PDF).  (319 KB)) See Status of Jerusalem
Status of Jerusalem
for more information. ^ Statistics regarding the demographics of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
refer to the unified and expanded Israeli municipality, which includes the pre-1967 Israeli and Jordanian municipalities as well as several additional Palestinian villages and neighborhoods to the northeast. Some of the Palestinian villages and neighborhoods have been relinquished to the West Bank
West Bank
de facto by way of the Israeli West Bank
West Bank
barrier,[13] but their legal statuses have not been reverted. ^ a b Much of the information regarding King David's conquest of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
comes from Biblical accounts, but some modern-day historians have begun to give them credit due to a 1993 excavation.[15] ^ West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
comprises approximately one third of the current municipal area of Jerusalem, with East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
comprising approximately two thirds. On the annexation of East Jerusalem, Israel also incorporated an area of the West Bank
West Bank
into the Jerusalem municipal area which represented more than ten times the area of East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
under Jordanian rule.[28][29][30]

References

^ a b 2003 Amended Basic Law. Basic Law of Palestine. Retrieved: 9 December 2012. ^ PLO-NAD, June 2010, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Non-Paper Archived 6 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. on Statements and Speeches Archived 2016-04-18 at the Wayback Machine., nad-plo.org; accessed 25 November 2014. Extracts from page 2:"This paper is for discussion purposes only. Nothing is agreed until everything is agreed.

Palestinian vision for Jerusalem ... Pursuant to our vision, East Jerusalem, as defined by its pre-1967 occupation municipal borders, shall be the capital of Palestine, and West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
shall be the capital of Israel, with each state enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the city." ^ PLO-Negotiations Affairs Department (NAD), August 2013, East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
today – Palestine's Capital: The 1967 border in Jerusalem and Israel's illegal policies on the ground Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine., nad-plo.org; accessed 25 November 2014, Quotes:" ... Palestine's capital, East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
... The Palestinian acceptance of the 1967 border, which includes East Jerusalem, is a painful compromise: ... Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has always been and remains the political, administrative and spiritual heart of Palestine. Occupied East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is the natural socio-economic and political center for the future Palestinian state." ^ "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF). Israel
Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved September 26, 2017.  ^ "Localities, Population and Density per Sq. Km., by Metropolitan Area and Selected Localities". Israel
Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics. 6 September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.  ^ "Facts and Figures". jerusalem.muni.il. Archived from the original on 31 October 2016.  ^ "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.  According to Eric H. Cline's tally in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Besieged. ^ a b "Timeline for the History of Jerusalem". Jewish Virtual Library. American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 16 April 2007.  ^ Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (17 May 2011). "Biblical History and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the Bible
Bible
and History". Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing – via Google Books.  ^ Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua (1984). Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the 19th Century, The Old City. Yad Izhak Ben Zvi & St. Martin's Press. p. 14. ISBN 0-312-44187-8.  ^ " Old City of Jerusalem
Old City of Jerusalem
and its Walls". UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Convention. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ Tom Teicholz (20 July 2015). "Mr. Jerusalem: Nir Hasson of Haaretz's 'The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Blog'". Forbes Israel. Retrieved 4 August 2017.  ^ a b Laub, Karin (2 December 2006). " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Barrier Causes Major Upheaval". The Associated Press
Associated Press
via The Washington Post. Retrieved 10 March 2007.  ^ a b "Selected Data on the Occasion of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2014.  ^ Pellegrino, Charles R. (1 December 1995). Return to Sodom & Gomorrah (Second revised ed.). Harper Paperbacks. p. 271. ISBN 0-380-72633-5. [see footnote]  ^ a b Since the 10th century BCE:

" Israel
Israel
was first forged into a unified nation from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
some 3,000 years ago, when King David
David
seized the crown and united the twelve tribes from this city... For a thousand years Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was the seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. To Rule Jerusalem, University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7 "The centrality of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Judaism
Judaism
is so strong that even secular Jews
Jews
express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot conceive of a modern State of Israel
Israel
without it.... For Jews
Jews
Jerusalem is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred character goes back three millennia...". Leslie J. Hoppe. The Holy City: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the theology of the Old Testament, Liturgical Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3 "Ever since King David
David
made Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the capital of Israel
Israel
3,000 years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence." Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict, Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7 " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
became the center of the Jewish people
Jewish people
some 3,000 years ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And Beyond, Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6 "The Jewish people
Jewish people
are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics, culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000 BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Archived 4 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007.

^ Reinoud Oosting, The Role of Zion/ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Isaiah 40–55: A Corpus-Linguistic Approach, p. 117, at Google Books
Google Books
BRILL 2012 p. 117-118. Isaiah 48:2;51:1; Nehemiah 11:1,18; cf. Joel 4:17: Daniel 5:24. The Isaiah section where they occur belong to deutero-Isaiah. ^ Shalom M. Paul, Isaiah 40–66, p. 306, at Google Books
Google Books
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2012 p.306. The ‘holiness’ (qodesh) arises from the temple in its midst, the root q-d-š referring to a sanctuary. The concept is attested in Mesopotamian literature, and the epithet may serve to distinguish Babylon, the city of exiles, from the city of the Temple, to where they are enjoined to return. ^ Golb, Norman (1997). "Karen Armstrong's Jerusalem—One City, Three Faiths". The Bible
Bible
and Interpretation. Retrieved 10 July 2013. The available texts of antiquity indicate that the concept was created by one or more personalities among the Jewish spiritual leadership, and that this occurred no later than the 6th century B.C.  ^ Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία. ^ Joseph
Joseph
T. Lienhard, The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon of the Christian
Christian
Bible
Bible
in History and Theology, Liturgical Press, 1995 pp.65–66:'The Septuagint
Septuagint
is a Jewish translation and was also used in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews ceased to use the Septuagint
Septuagint
because the early Christians had adopted it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian translation.' ^ a b Third-holiest city in Islam:

Esposito, John L. (2 November 2002). What Everyone Needs to Know about Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-19-515713-3. The Night Journey made Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the third holiest city in Islam  Brown, Leon Carl (15 September 2000). "Setting the Stage: Islam
Islam
and Muslims". Religion and State: The Muslim
Muslim
Approach to Politics. Columbia University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-231-12038-9. The third holiest city of Islam—Jerusalem—is also very much in the center...  Hoppe, Leslie J. (August 2000). The Holy City: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the Theology of the Old Testament. Michael Glazier Books. p. 14. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has always enjoyed a prominent place in Islam. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is often referred to as the third holiest city in Islam... 

^ Middle East
Middle East
peace plans by Willard A. Beling: "The Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
is the third holiest site in Sunni Islam
Islam
after Mecca and Medina". ^ Lewis, Bernard; Holt, P. M.; Lambton, Ann, eds. (1986). Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press.  ^ Quran 17:1–3 ^ Buchanan, Allen (2004). States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of Making Boundaries. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-52575-6. Retrieved 9 June 2008.  ^ Kollek, Teddy (1977). "Afterword". In John Phillips. A Will to Survive – Israel: the Faces of the Terror 1948-the Faces of Hope Today. Dial Press/James Wade. about 225 acres (0.91 km2)  ^ Walid Khalidi (1996) Islam, the West and Jerusalem. Center for Contemporary Arab
Arab
Studies & Center for Muslim–Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, quotes the breakdown as follows: West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
in 1948: 16,261 dunums (14%); West Jerusalem
West Jerusalem
added in 1967: 23,000 dunums (20%); East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
under Jordanian rule: 6,000 dunums (5%); West Bank
West Bank
area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
by Israel: 67,000 dunums (61%) ^ Aronson, Geoffrey (1995). "Settlement Monitor: Quarterly Update on Developments". Journal of Palestine Studies. University of California Press, Institute for Palestine Studies. 25 (1): 131–40. doi:10.2307/2538120. JSTOR 2538120. West Jerusalem: 35%; East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
under Jordanian rule: 4%; West Bank
West Bank
area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
by Israel: 59%  ^ Benvenisti, Meron (1976). Jerusalem, the Torn City. Books on Demand. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7837-2978-7. East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
under Jordanian rule: 6,000 dunums; West Bank
West Bank
area annexed and incorporated into East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
by Israel: 67,000  ^ " Israel
Israel
plans 1,300 East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
Jewish settler homes". BBC
BBC
News. 9 November 2010. East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
is regarded as occupied Palestinian territory by the international community, but Israel
Israel
says it is part of its territory.  ^ "The status of Jerusalem" (PDF). The Question of Palestine & the United Nations. United Nations
United Nations
Department of Public Information. East Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory.  ^ "Israeli authorities back 600 new East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
homes". BBC
BBC
News. 2010-02-26. Retrieved 2013-09-18.  ^ Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: Archived 19 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine. "Recalling its resolutions... concerning measures and actions by Israel
Israel
designed to change the status of the Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,..." ^ Bisharat, George (23 December 2010). "Maximizing Rights". In Susan M. Akram; Michael Dumper; Michael Lynk. International Law and the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East Peace. Routledge. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-136-85098-1. As we have noted previously the international legal status of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is contested and Israel's designation of it as its capital has not been recognized by the international community. However its claims of sovereign rights to the city are stronger with respect to West Jerusalem
Jerusalem
than with respect to East Jerusalem.  ^ Moshe Hirsch; Deborah Housen-Couriel; Ruth Lapidot (28 June 1995). Whither Jerusalem?: Proposals and Positions Concerning the Future of Jerusalem. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 15. ISBN 90-411-0077-6. What, then, is Israel's status in west Jerusalem? Two main answers have been adduced: (a) Israel
Israel
has sovereignty in this area; and (b) sovereignty lies with the Palestinian people
Palestinian people
or is suspended.  ^ David
David
Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Astrid B. Beck (2000). Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 694–695. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4. Retrieved 19 August 2010.  Nadav Na'aman, Canaan
Canaan
in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E., Eisenbrauns, 2005 pp.177ff. offers a dissenting opinion, arguing for the transcription Rôsh-ramen, etymologized to r'š (head) and rmm (be exalted), to mean 'the exalted Head', and not referring to Jerusalem. ^ G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren (eds.) Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, (tr. David
David
E. Green) William B. Eerdmann, Grand Rapids Michigan, Cambridge, UK 1990, Vol. VI, p. 348 ^ "The El Amarna Letters from Canaan". Tau.ac.il. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ Meir Ben-Dov, Historical Atlas of Jerusalem, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2002, p. 23. ^ a b Binz, Stephen J. (2005). Jerusalem, the Holy City. Connecticut, USA.: Twenty-Third Publications. p. 2. ISBN 9781585953653. Retrieved 17 December 2011.  ^ G. Johannes Bottereck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry, (eds.) Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, tr. David
David
E. Green, vol. XV, pp. 48–49 William B. Eeerdmanns Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan/Cambridge UK 2006, pp. 45–6 ^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the Jews
Jews
Volume I: The Akedah (Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society. ^ Writing, Literacy, and Textual Transmission: The Production of Literary by Jessica N. Whisenant p. 323 ^ King Manasseh and Child Sacrifice: Biblical Distortions of Historical Realities by Francesca Stavrakopoulou p. 98 ^ Oral World and Written Word: Ancient Israelite
Israelite
Literature by Susan Niditch p. 48 ^ The Mountain of the Lord by Benyamin Mazar p. 60 ^ Blessing and Curse in Syro-Palestinian Inscriptions by T. G Crawford p. 137 ^ Joseph
Joseph
Naveh (2001). " Hebrew
Hebrew
Graffiti from the First Temple Period". Israel
Israel
Exploration Journal. 51 (2): 194–207.  ^ Discovering the World of the Bible
Bible
by LaMar C. Berrett p. 178 ^ Elon, Amos. Jerusalem. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-00-637531-6. Archived from the original on 10 March 2003. Retrieved 26 April 2007. The epithet may have originated in the ancient name of Jerusalem—Salem (after the pagan deity of the city), which is etymologically connected in the Semitic languages with the words for peace (shalom in Hebrew, salam in Arabic).  ^ Ringgren, H., Die Religionen des Alten Orients (Göttingen, 1979), 212. ^ Hastings, James (2004). A Dictionary of the Bible: Volume II: (Part II: I – Kinsman), Volume 2. Honolulu, Hawaii: Reprinted from 1898 edition by University Press of the Pacific. p. 584. ISBN 1-4102-1725-6. Retrieved 17 December 2011.  ^ a b Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic cities of the Islamic world. The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. pp. 225–226. ISBN 90-04-15388-8. Retrieved 17 December 2011.  ^ a b Denise DeGarmo (9 September 2011). "Abode of Peace?". Wandering Thoughts. Center for Conflict Studies. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2011.  ^ Marten H. Wouldstra, The Book
Book
of Joshua, William B. Eerdmanns Co. Grand Rapids, Michigan (1981) 1995, p. 169 n.2 ^ Bosworth, Francis Edward (1968). Millennium: a Latin reader, A. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 183. ASIN B0000CO4LE. Retrieved 17 December 2011.  ^ Wallace, Edwin Sherman (August 1977). Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the Holy. New York: Arno Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-405-10298-4. A similar view was held by those who give the Hebrew
Hebrew
dual to the word  ^ Smith, George Adam
Adam
(1907). Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics and History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70. Hodder and Stoughton. p. 251. ISBN 0-7905-2935-1. The termination -aim or -ayim used to be taken as the ordinary termination of the dual of nouns, and was explained as signifying the upper and lower cities  (see here [1], p. 251, at Google Books) ^ "Bible, King James Version". umich.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-12.  ^ The Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Greece and Rome, Volume 1, p. 113, at Google Books, p. 113 ^ 2 Samuel
Samuel
5:7,9. cited Israel
Israel
Finkelstein, Amihay Mazar, Brian B. Schmidt, (eds) The Quest for the Historical Israel, Society of Biblical Literature, 2007 p.127. ^ Bar-Kochva, Bezalel (2002). Judas Maccabeus: The Jewish Struggle Against the Seleucids. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 447. ISBN 0-521-01683-5.  ^ Mazar, Eilat (2002). The Complete Guide to the Temple Mount Excavations. Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication. p. 1. ISBN 965-90299-1-8.  ^ E.g., Jubilees 1:30, the Septuagint
Septuagint
version of Jeremias 48:5 (as Συχὲμ) and possibly the Masoretic text of Genesis 33:18 (see KJV and the margin translation of the Revised Version). ^ E.g., the Vulgate
Vulgate
and Peshitta
Peshitta
versions. J.A. Emerton, "The site of Salem: the City of Melchizedek
Melchizedek
(Genesis xiv 18)," pp. 45–72 of Studies in the Pentateuch
Pentateuch
ed. by J.A. Emerton, vol. 41 of Supplements to Vetus Testamentum (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1990) ("Emerton"), p. 45. See also John 3:23 where "Salim" or "Sylem" (Συχὲμ) is said to be near Ænon, thought to be in the valley of Mount Ebal, one of two mountains in the vicinity of Nablus. ^ Onklelos, Pseudo-Jonathan and Neofiti I. Emerton, p. 45. ^ Genesis 12:6–7 (where Abram built an altar), Genesis 33:18–20, Deuteronomy 11:29 & 28:11, Joshua
Joshua
8:33, 1 Kings 12. Emerton, p. 63. ^ Paul Winter, "Note on Salem – Jerusalem", Novum Testamentum, vol. 2, pp. 151–52 (1957). ^ Raymond Hayward. " Melchizedek
Melchizedek
as Priest of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Temple in Talmud, Midrash, and Targum" (PDF). The Temple Studies Group. Retrieved 24 January 2015.  ^ "The Official Website of Jerusalem". Municipality of Jerusalem. 19 September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007.  ^ Sonbol, Amira (1996). Women, the Family, and Divorce Laws in Islamic History. p. 133.  ^ a b Israeli Archaeologists Discover 7,000-Year-Old Settlement The New York Time, Feb 17, 2016 ^ a b Azmi Bishara. "A brief note on Jerusalem". Retrieved 22 September 2010.  ^ "No city in the world, not even Athens or Rome, ever played as great a role in the life of a nation for so long a time, as Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has done in the life of the Jewish people." David
David
Ben-Gurion, 1947 ^ "For three thousand years, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has been the center of Jewish hope and longing. No other city has played such a dominant role in the history, culture, religion and consciousness of a people as has Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Throughout centuries of exile, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
remained alive in the hearts of Jews
Jews
everywhere as the focal point of Jewish history, the symbol of ancient glory, spiritual fulfillment and modern renewal. This heart and soul of the Jewish people
Jewish people
engenders the thought that if you want one simple word to symbolize all of Jewish history, that word would be ‘Jerusalem.’" Teddy Kollek
Teddy Kollek
(DC: Washington Institute For Near East Policy, 1990), pp. 19–20. ^ John Quigley (1 July 1998). The Palestine Yearbook of International Law, 1996–1997. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 32–. ISBN 90-411-1009-7. Palestine's claim to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
is founded on the longtime status of the Palestinian Arabs as the majority population of Palestine. On that basis the Palestinians claim sovereignty over all of Palestine. including Jerusalem, both East and West. The Palestinians claim descent from the Canaanites, the earliest recorded inhabitants of Palestine. Although political control changed hands many times through history, this population, which was Arabized by the Arab
Arab
conquest of the seventh century A.D., remained into the twentieth century.  ^ Ali Hussein Qleibo, 'Canaanites, Christians, and the Palestinian Agricultural Calendar,' Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies, Vol.3 No.1 July 2009 pp.9–20, pp.15–16:"Ancient Canaanites
Canaanites
had forged the first spiritual relationship with Palestine. Their initial perception of Palestine's geography: the rocks, caves, water springs, and trees have come to imbue the holy land with its mythos. Their perception, intuition, and interaction with the natural environment, structured and conditioned the unique socio-economic system, religion, and spiritual legacy that the diverse Semitic and non-Semitic ethnic later settlers adapted themselves to. The dynamic process of ecological adaptation to an ever-shifting environment, the cultural diversity of which the Canaanite nascent city-states were composed, and the influences of the various peoples with whom the Palestinians came into contact have never ceased. The rain-dependent frail ecosystem, which is vulnerable to dramatic climatic changes, has dynamically prodded an ever-shifting process of adaptations. These peoples are innumerable and include the Hurrites, Jebusites, Canaanites, Hebrews, Edomites, Arameans, and Arabs. Ancient non-Semitic peoples were composed of diverse Greeks
Greeks
from Crete, Ionia, the Black Sea, Anatolia, and Lydia, and were followed by Hellenic Greeks, Roman legions, Persians, Byzantines, Crusaders, Kurds, Turks. In modern history Egyptians, British, Jordanians, and Israelis played an ever-increasing role in reorganizing the ecological system, expanding our resources in new directions, and reshaping Palestinian modern identity. Heirs to all these peoples and cultures, Palestinians can claim neither racial genetic purity nor ontological cultural homogeneity." ^ "(With reference to Palestinians in Ottoman times) Although proud of their Arab
Arab
heritage and ancestry, the Palestinians considered themselves to be descended not only from Arab
Arab
conquerors of the seventh century but also from indigenous peoples who had lived in the country since time immemorial, including the ancient Hebrews
Hebrews
and the Canaanites
Canaanites
before them. Acutely aware of the distinctiveness of Palestinian history, the Palestinians saw themselves as the heirs of its rich associations." Walid Khalidi, 1984, Before Their Diaspora: A Photographic History of the Palestinians, 1876–1948. Institute for Palestine Studies ^ Eric H. Cline. "How Jews
Jews
and Arabs Use (and Misuse) the History of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to Score Points". Retrieved 22 September 2010.  ^ Eli E. Hertz. "One Nation's Capital Throughout History" (PDF). Retrieved 22 September 2010.  ^ Isabel Kershner (June 5, 2007). "Under a Divided City, Evidence of a Once United One". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-29.  ^ Noah
Noah
Browning, 'In bleak Arab
Arab
hinterland, hints of Jerusalem's partition,' Reuters
Reuters
December 20, 2013. ^ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Even Older Than Thought: Archaeologists Find 7,000-year-old Houses Haaretz, Feb 17, 2016 ^ 7,000-YEAR-OLD TOWN UNEARTHED IN JERUSALEM Newsweek, Feb 17, 2016 ^ a b c Freedman, David
David
Noel (1 January 2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 694–95. ISBN 0-8028-2400-5.  ^ "TABLE 3. – POPULATION(1) OF LOCALITIES NUMBERING ABOVE 2,000 RESIDENTS AND OTHER RURAL POPULATION ON 31/12/2008" (PDF). Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 October 2009.  ^ Nadav Na'aman, op.cit pp.178–179. ^ Vaughn, Andrew G.; Ann E. Killebrew (1 August 2003). " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at the Time of the United Monarchy". Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Bible
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and Archaeology: the First Temple Period. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. pp. 32–33. ISBN 1-58983-066-0.  ^ Shalem, Yisrael (3 March 1997). " History of Jerusalem
History of Jerusalem
from its Beginning to David". Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy City. Bar-Ilan University
Bar-Ilan University
Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem Studies. Retrieved 18 January 2007.  ^ Nadav Naʼaman, Canaan
Canaan
in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E., p.180. ^ Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, Keys to Jerusalem: Collected Essays, Oxford University Press, 2012 p.4. ^ Jane M. Cahill, ‘ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at the time of the United Monarchy’, in Andrew G. Vaughn, Ann E. Killebrew (eds.) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Bible
Bible
and Archaeology: The First Temple Period, Society of Biblical Literature, 2003p.33. ^ Israel
Israel
Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible
Bible
Unearthed: Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient Israel
Israel
and the Origin of Sacred Texts, Simon and Schuster 2002 p.239. ^ a b Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, Keys to Jerusalem: Collected Essays, Oxford University Press, 2012 pp.5–6. ^ K. L. Noll, Canaan
Canaan
and Israel
Israel
in Antiquity: An Introduction, Continuum Publishing, 2002 p.78. ^ Joshua
Joshua
18:28 ^ Nadav Naʼaman, Canaan
Canaan
in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E., p.189:'The book of Joshua
Joshua
cannot be treated as a reliable source for the reconstruction of the network of Canaanite cities. Neither the mention of kings at Jericho, Ai, Bethel, Hebron
Hebron
and Debir, nor the presentation of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as the head of a Canaanite coalition can be taken as evidence for reconstructing the reality in the late Bronze Age. One should not select evidence at random from the biblical source to support a theory. Conclusions must be drawn only on the basis of the early sources and the archaeological evidence’. ^ Nadav Naʼaman Canaan
Canaan
in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E., p.183. ^ Israel
Israel
Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman, The Bible
Bible
Unearthed, p.238. ^ Erlanger, Steven (5 August 2005). "King David's Palace Is Found, Archaeologist Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2007.  ^ Israel
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Finkelstein, Amihay Mazar, Brian B. Schmidt, (eds.) The Quest for the Historical Israel, Society of Biblical Literature, 2007 pp.104,113, 125–8,165,174. ^ 1 Samuel
Samuel
31:1–13:2 Samuel
Samuel
5:4–5; Finkelstein, Silberman, op.cit.p.20. ^ a b Michael, E.; Sharon O. Rusten; Philip Comfort; Walter A. Elwell (28 February 2005). The Complete Book
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of When and Where: In The Bible And Throughout History. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc. pp. 20–1, 67. ISBN 0-8423-5508-1.  ^ Merling, David
David
(26 August 1993). "Where is the Ark of the Covenant?". Andrew's University. Archived from the original on 2006-09-17. Retrieved 22 January 2007.  ^ Richard A. Freund,Digging Through the Bible: Modern Archaeology and the Ancient Bible, p. 9, at Google Books, Rowman & Littlefield, 2009, p.9. ^ Zank, Michael. "Capital of Judah (930–586)". Boston University. Retrieved 22 January 2007.  ^ Robb Andrew Young, Hezekiah
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in History and Tradition, P:49. ^ "The Broad Wall – Jerusalem
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Attractions, Israel". GoJerusalem.com. 3 December 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012.  ^ "Department of Archaeology – Silwan, Jerusalem: The Survey of the Iron Age Necropolis". Tau.ac.il. Retrieved 7 December 2012.  ^ "The Israelite
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Tower". The Jewish Quarter. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012.  ^ Matti Friedman (6 September 2012). "Cistern dated to First Temple period found in Jerusalem". Times of Israel.  ^ Zank, Michael. "Capital of Judah I (930–722)". Boston University. Retrieved 22 January 2007.  ^ "Ezra 1:1–4; 6:1–5". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ Sicker, Martin (30 January 2001). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300 Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. Praeger Publishers. p. 2. ISBN 0-275-97140-6.  ^ Zank, Michael. "Center of the Persian Satrapy of Judah (539–323)". Boston University. Retrieved 22 January 2007.  ^ Julian Morgenstern. "A Chapter in the History of the High-Priesthood (Concluded)". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures. The University of Chicago Press. 55 (October 1938) (4): 360–377. JSTOR 3088118. ...there is a great mass of evidence scattered throughout biblical literature that at some time very soon after the accession of Xerxes to the Persian throne in 485 B.C. Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was besieged and captured by a coalition of hostile neighboring states, Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, and Philistia. Its walls were torn down, its buildings razed, the Temple itself burned and destroyed, at least in part, and the great mass of the people scattered...  ^ "Nehemiah 1:3; 2:1–8". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ a b " Jerusalem
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Second Temple
Period". GxMSDev. Archived from the original on 31 July 2016.  ^ Golden Jerusalem
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By Menashe Har-El. Retrieved 18 September 2013.  ^ Hannah M. Cotton; Leah
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Roll; Ada Yardeni, eds. (23 December 2010). Jerusalem, Part 1: 1–704. Walter de Gruyter. p. 79. Retrieved 18 September 2013.  ^ Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple
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Avni, The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An Archaeological Approach, p. 144, at Google Books, Oxford University Press 2014 p.144. ^ Conybeare, Frederick C. (1910). The Capture of Jerusalem
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Topography of Early Islamic Jerusalem, Brepols Publishers, 2009 p.56: 'Persian control of Jerusalem
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E. Sklare, 'Yūsuf al-Bașīr:Theological Aspects of his Halakhic Works,' in Daniel Frank (ed.) The Jews
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in the Time of the Crusades, Routledge 2001, pp. 14,35. ^ Hull, Michael D. (June 1999). "First Crusade: Siege
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in the Time of the Crusades, Routledge 2001, pp. 16,19 ^ Abu-Lughod, Janet L.; Dumper, Michael (2007). Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-57607-919-5. Retrieved 22 July 2009.  ^ Larry H. Addington (1990). The Patterns of War Through the Eighteenth Century. Midland book. Indiana University Press. p. 59. ISBN 9780253205513. Retrieved 30 May 2014. ... in the Sixth Crusade, Frederick II ...concluded a treaty with the Saracens in 1229 that placed Jerusalem
Jerusalem
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Christian
control but allowed Muslim and Christian
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alike freedom of access to the religious shrines of the city. ... Within fifteen years of Frederick's departure from the Holy Land, the Khwarisimian Turks, successors to the Seljuks, rampaged through Syria and Palestine, capturing Jerusalem
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in 1244. (Jerusalem would not be ruled again by Christians until the British occupied it in December 1917, during World War I).  ^ Denys Pringle (2007). The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: Volume 3, The City of Jerusalem: A Corpus. The Churches of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780521390385. Retrieved 30 May 2014. During the period of Christian
Christian
control of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
between 1229 and 1244 ...  ^ Annabel Jane Wharton (2006). Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. University of Chicago Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780226894225. Retrieved 30 May 2014. (footnote 19): It is perhaps worth noting that the same sultan, al-Malik al-Kamil, was later involved in the negotiations with Emperor Frederick II that briefly reestablished Latin control in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
between 1229 and 1244.  ^ Hossein Askari
Hossein Askari
(2013). Conflicts in the Persian Gulf: Origins and Evolution. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 52. ISBN 9781137358387. Retrieved 30 May 2014. Later, during the years 1099 through 1187 AD and 1229 through 1244 AD, Christian
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Crusaders occupied Jerusalem ...  ^ Moshe Ma'oz, ed. (2009). The Meeting of Civilizations: Muslim, Christian, and Jewish. Sussex Academic Press. p. 3. ISBN 9781845193959. Retrieved 30 May 2014. (Introduction by Moshe Ma'oz) ... When the Christian
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Crusaders occupied Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(AD 1099–1187, 1229–1244) ...  ^ Jerusalem: Illustrated History Atlas Martin Gilbert, Macmillan Publishing, New York, 1978, p. 25. ^ Hunt Janin, Four Paths to Jerusalem: Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Secular Pilgrimages, 1000 BCE to 2001 CE, McFarland, 2002 p.120. ^ Grove Encyclopedia of Islamic Art & Architecture: Three-Volume Set. Oxford University Press. p. 348. ISBN 9780195309911. Retrieved 30 May 2014. After 1260 Jerusalem
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Joel Beinin (2001) Workers and peasants in the modern Middle East Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-62903-9, p. 33 Beshara, Doumani. (1995). Rediscovering Palestine: Egyptian rule, 1831–1840 University of California Press.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 2 April 2013. Retrieved 7 March 2007.  ^ "בית"ר ירושלים האתר הרשמי – דף הבית". Bjerusalem.co.il. Archived from the original on 23 August 2007. Retrieved 11 September 2010.  ^ Eldar, Yishai (1 December 2001). "Jerusalem: Architecture Since 1948". Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 7 March 2007.  ^ "Palestinian Football Association, Jabal Al-Mokaber". Pfa.ps. Archived from the original on 2 May 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.  ^ Football and the wall: The divided soccer community of Jerusalem, by James Montague, CNN
CNN
17 September 2010 ^ "Home" (in Hebrew). Hapoel Migdal Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 2 January 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2007.  (The listing of championship wins are located at the bottom after the completion of the Flash intro.) ^ Baskin, Rebecca (20 January 2010). "First Jerusalem
Jerusalem
marathon to be held in 2011". The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  ^ Davidovich, Joshua
Joshua
(16 March 2012). "Kenyan slogs out Jerusalem marathon win through soggy weather". The Times of Israel. AP. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  ^ Ward, Harold (16 March 2012). "Thousands brave rain, wind for Jerusalem
Jerusalem
marathon". AFP. Archived from the original on 5 March 2014. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  ^ Pazornik, Amanda (27 January 2011). " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
hills won't faze local marathon runners". Jweekly. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  ^ "Interactive course map". Municipality of Jerusalem. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007. Retrieved 2 February 2013.  ^ "Partnerská města HMP" [ Prague
Prague
– Twin Cities HMP]. Portál "Zahraniční vztahy" [ Portal
Portal
"Foreign Affairs"] (in Czech). 18 July 2013. Archived from the original on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013.  ^ "International Exchange: List of Sister Cities / Kyoto prefecture Multilingual Site". Pref.kyoto.jp. Retrieved 18 September 2013.  ^ "Online Directory: Israel, Middle East". Sister Cities International. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 5 April 2007.  ^ "NYC's Partner Cities". The City of New York. Archived from the original on 14 August 2013. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 

Further reading

Cheshin, Amir S.; Bill Hutman and Avi Melamed (1999). Separate and Unequal: the Inside Story of Israeli Rule in East Jerusalem
East Jerusalem
Harvard University Press ISBN 978-0-674-80136-3 Cline, Eric (2004) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Besieged: From Ancient Canaan
Canaan
to Modern Israel. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press ISBN 0-472-11313-5. Collins, Larry, and La Pierre, Dominique (1988). O Jerusalem!. New York: Simon & Schuster ISBN 0-671-66241-4 Gold, Dore (2007) The Fight for Jerusalem: Radical Islam, The West, and the Future of the Holy City. International Publishing Company J-M, Ltd. ISBN 978-1-59698-029-7 Köchler, Hans (1981) The Legal Aspects of the Palestine Problem with Special
Special
Regard to the Question of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Vienna: Braumüller ISBN 3-7003-0278-9 The Holy Cities: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
produced by Danae Film Production, distributed by HDH Communications; 2006 Wasserstein, Bernard (2002) Divided Jerusalem: The Struggle for the Holy City New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-09730-1 "Keys to Jerusalem: A Brief Overview", The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Center, Amman, Jordan, 2010. http://www.rissc.jo/docs/J101-10-10-10.pdf Sebag Montefiore, Simon (2011) Jerusalem: The Biography, London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, ISBN 978-0-297-85265-0 Young, Robb A (2012) Hezekiah
Hezekiah
in History and Tradition Brill Global Oriental Hotei Publishing, Netherlands

External links

Find more aboutJerusalemat's sister projects

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Official website of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Municipality Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at Encyclopædia Britannica What makes Jerusalem
Jerusalem
so holy? BBC The Status of Jerusalem. United Nations
United Nations
document related to the dispute over the city English translation of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Law, the Israeli law making Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the capital of Israel Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Virtual Library, joint project by Al-Quds University
Al-Quds University
and the Hebrew
Hebrew
University of Jerusalem Official website of the Hebrew
Hebrew
University of Jerusalem, the city's foremost institution of higher education Official website of Al-Quds University, the only Palestinian university in Jerusalem Geographic data related to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at OpenStreetMap Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at Curlie (based on DMOZ)

v t e

Old City of Jerusalem
Old City of Jerusalem
and its walls

World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO

Judaism (Sephardic/ Ashkenazi Chief Rabbis)

General

Southern Wall Western Wall Western Wall
Western Wall
Tunnel Little Western Wall

Orthodox

Hurva
Hurva
Synagogue Ohel Yitzchak Synagogue Ramban Synagogue Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue

Other

Ari Synagogue Four Sephardic
Sephardic
Synagogues Ohr ha-Chaim Synagogue Tzuf Dvash Synagogue

Areas

Christian Quarter

Muristan

Muslim Quarter

Armenian Quarter

Jewish Quarter

Temple Mount

Gates 1. Jaffa
Jaffa
2. Zion
Zion
3. Dung 4. Golden 5. Lions 6. Herod 7. Damascus
Damascus
8. New (Double, Single, Tanners') Al-Mawazin Surrounding roads:

Hativat Yerushalayim HaTsanhanim Jaffa
Jaffa
Road Jericho Ma'ale HaShalom Ofel Sultan
Sultan
Suleiman

Christianity

"Status quo"

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Deir Es-Sultan

Via Dolorosa See also: New Church of the Theotokos

Catholic (Custody of the Holy Land)

Latin (Patriarch)

Chapel of Simon of Cyrene Monastery
Monastery
of the Flagellation

Church of the Condemnation Church of the Flagellation

Church of the Holy Family Church of Saint James Intercisus Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus Church of Saint Mary of the Germans Church of Saint Mary of the Latins Convent of the Sisters of Zion

Church of Ecce Homo

Monastery
Monastery
of Saint Saviour Church of Saint Anne Templum Domini

Melkite Catholic (Patriarch)

Cathedral of the Annunciation

Armenian Catholic

Church of Our Lady of the Spasm

Eastern Orthodox

Greek Orthodox (Patriarch)

Church of Saint John the Baptist

Oriental Orthodox

Armenian Orthodox (Patriarch)

Cathedral of Saint James Church of the Holy Archangels Church of Saint Toros

Syriac Orthodox

Monastery
Monastery
of Saint Mark

Protestant

Anglican

Christ Church

Lutheran

Church of the Redeemer

Islam (Sunni Islamic Grand Mufti)

Noble Sanctuary (Waqf)

Al-Aqsa Mosque Dome of the Ascension Dome of the Chain Dome of al-Khalili Dome of the Prophet Dome of the Rock Dome of Yusuf Marwani Mosque

Other

Al-Buraq
Al-Buraq
Mosque Al-Yaqoubi Mosque Al-Khanqah al-Salahiyya Mosque Mosque
Mosque
of Omar

Remnants or rebuilt buildings in italic (governing authority in small) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
portal Israel
Israel
portal Palestine portal Judaism
Judaism
portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Neighborhoods of Jerusalem

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
neighborhoods east of the 1949 armistice line are depicted in green, those west of the line in blue (see Green Line).

Old City

Armenian Quarter Christian
Christian
Quarter Muristan Jewish Quarter Muslim
Muslim
Quarter Bab al-Huta

Central Neighborhoods

Arzei HaBira Batei Ungarin Beit David Beit Ya'akov Beit Yisrael Bukharim Downtown Triangle Geula Givat HaVradim Givat Ram Katamon Kerem Avraham Kiryat HaLeom Kiryat HaMemshala Kiryat Shmuel Kiryat Shomrei Emunim Kiryat Wolfson Ma'alot Dafna Mahane Israel Mahane Yehuda Mea Shearim Mekor Baruch Mount Zion Musrara Nahalat Shiv'a Nachlaot Nayot Neve Granot Neve Sha'anan Rehavia Romema Russian Compound Sha'arei Hesed Shmuel HaNavi Talbiya Yemin Moshe Zikhron Moshe

Northern Neighborhoods

Al-Ram Beit Hanina Ezrat Torah French Hill Givat HaMivtar Har Hotzvim Kafr 'Aqab Kiryat Belz Kiryat Itri Kiryat Mattersdorf Kiryat Sanz Mount Scopus Neve Yaakov Pisgat Ze'ev Ramat Eshkol Ramat Shlomo Ramot Ramot
Ramot
Polin Sanhedria Sanhedria
Sanhedria
Murhevet Shikun Chabad Shuafat Tel Arza Unsdorf

Eastern Neighborhoods

American Colony Al Bustan Al-Issawiya At-Tur Bab a-Zahara Ir David Jabel Mukaber Kiryat Menachem
Kiryat Menachem
Begin Ma'ale HaZeitim Nahalat Shimon Nof Zion Ras al-Amud Sheikh Jarrah Shimon HaTzadik Silwan Wadi
Wadi
al-Joz

Southern Neighborhoods

Abu Tor Arnona Baka Beit Safafa East Talpiot German Colony Gilo Givat HaMatos Givat Oranim Givat Massuah Greek colony Har Homa Katamonim Malha Mekor Chaim Pat Ramat Rachel San Simon Sharafat Sur Baher Talpiot Umm Tuba

Western Neighborhoods

Bayit VeGan Beit HaKerem Ein Karem Givat Beit HaKerem Givat Shaul Givat Mordechai Har Nof Ir Ganim Kiryat HaYovel Kiryat Menachem Kiryat Moshe Motza Ramat Beit HaKerem Ramat Denya Ramat Sharett Yefeh Nof

Historical Neighborhoods

Atarot Batei Munkacs Batei Saidoff Even Yisrael Ezrat Yisrael Kirya Ne'emana Knesset
Knesset
Yisrael Lifta Mahane Yehuda Mamilla Mazkeret Moshe Mishkenot Sha'ananim Moroccan Quarter Ohel Shlomo Sha'arei Yerushalayim Sheikh Badr Zikhron Tuvya Zikhron Yosef

See also: Courtyard Neighborhoods • Ring Neighborhoods

v t e

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
District

Cities

Beit Shemesh Jerusalem

West Jerusalem East Jerusalem

Local councils

Abu Ghosh Kiryat Ye'arim Mevaseret Zion

Regional councils

Mateh Yehuda

See also:

Greater Jerusalem

West Jerusalem East Jerusalem

Other sub-divisions: Central District Haifa
Haifa
District Judea
Judea
and Samaria Area Northern District Southern District Tel Aviv
Tel Aviv
District

v t e

Capitals of Asia

Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in italics

North and Central Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West and Southwest Asia

Ashgabat, Turkmenistan Astana, Kazakhstan* Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Dushanbe, Tajikistan Moscow, Russia* Tashkent, Uzbekistan

East Asia

Beijing, China Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
(China) Macau, Macau
Macau
(China) Pyongyang, North Korea Seoul, South Korea Taipei, Taiwan
Taiwan
(ROC) Tokyo, Japan Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Kabul, Afghanistan Dhaka, Bangladesh Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK) Islamabad, Pakistan Kathmandu, Nepal Kotte, Sri Lanka Malé, Maldives New Delhi, India Thimphu, Bhutan

Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Bangkok, Thailand Dili, East Timor Flying Fish
Fish
Cove, Christmas Island
Christmas Island
(Australia) Hanoi, Vietnam Jakarta, Indonesia* Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Manila, Philippines Naypyidaw, Myanmar Phnom Penh, Cambodia Singapore Vientiane, Laos West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
(Australia)

Abu Dhabi, United Arab
Arab
Emirates Amman, Jordan Ankara, Turkey* Baghdad, Iraq Baku, Azerbaijan* Beirut, Lebanon Cairo, Egypt* Doha, Qatar Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine † Kuwait
Kuwait
City, Kuwait Manama, Bahrain

Muscat, Oman Nicosia, Cyprus* North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus* Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Sana'a, Yemen Stepanakert, Artsakh* Sukhumi, Abkhazia* Tbilisi, Georgia* Tehran, Iran Tskhinvali, South Ossetia* Yerevan, Armenia*

*Transcontinental country. † Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.

v t e

Israeli cities with a 50,000+ population

200,000 and more

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
(West) Tel Aviv Haifa Rishon LeZion Ashdod Petah Tikva Netanya Beersheba

100,000–199,999

Holon Bnei Brak Ramat Gan Bat Yam Rehovot Ashkelon

50,000–99,999

Herzliya Kfar Saba Ra'anana Hadera Beit Shemesh Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut Lod Nazareth Ramla Givatayim Rahat Nahariya Kiryat Ata Hod HaSharon Umm al-Fahm Kiryat Gat Modi'in Illit
Modi'in Illit
(located in the West Bank)

v t e

Holy sites in Judaism

Temple in Jerusalem

Foundation Stone Holy of Holies Temple Mount Western Wall

Tombs of biblical figures

Israel

Benjamin David Matriarchs

Judea
Judea
and Samaria (West Bank)

Joseph Patriarchs Rachel Samuel

Other countries

Esther and Mordechai

Holy Land

Land of Israel

Application of religious law

Four Holy Cities

Jerusalem

Holiness

Hebron Safed Tiberias

v t e

Jews
Jews
and Judaism

Outline of Judaism Index of Jewish history-related articles

History

Timeline Israelites Origins of Judaism Ancient Israel
Israel
and Judah Second Temple
Second Temple
period Rabbinic Judaism Middle Ages Haskalah Zionism

Population

Assimilation Diaspora

Ashkenazi Sephardi Mizrahi

Languages

Hebrew Judeo-Arabic Judaeo-Spanish Yiddish

Lists of Jews Persecution

Antisemitism

Philosophy

Beliefs

Mitzvah

Chosen people Conversion Eschatology

Messiah

Ethics God Halakha Kabbalah Land of Israel Who is a Jew?

Schisms

Religious movements

Orthodox Haredi Hasidic Conservative Reform Karaite relations

Secularism

Literature

Tanakh

Torah Nevi'im Ketuvim

Rabbinic

Mishnah Talmud Midrash

Kabbalah
Kabbalah
texts

Zohar

Shulchan Aruch Siddur Hebrew
Hebrew
literature

Culture

Calendar

Holidays

Cuisine

Kashrut

Education Leadership

Rabbi

Marriage Music Names Politics Prayer

Synagogue Hazzan

Symbolism

Studies

Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
intelligence Genetics Jew (word) Jewish Virtual Library Relations with other Abrahamic religions

Christianity Islam

 Category: Jews
Jews
and Judaism Judaism
Judaism
portal Judaism
Judaism
– book

v t e

People and things in the Quran

Characters

Non-humans

Allâh ("The God")

Names of Allah
Allah
found in the Quran

Beings in Paradise

Ghilmān or Wildān Ḥūr

Animals

Related

The baqarah (cow) of Israelites The dhi’b (wolf) that Jacob
Jacob
feared could attack Joseph The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians) Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey) The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah

Non-related

Ḥimār (Wild ass) Qaswarah
Qaswarah
('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')

Jinns

‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one") Mârid ("Rebellious one")

Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)

Qarīn

Prophets

Mentioned

Ādam (Adam) Al-Yasa‘ (Elisha) Ayyūb (Job) Dāwūd (David) Dhūl-Kifl (Ezekiel?) Hārūn (Aaron) Hūd (Eber?) Idrīs (Enoch?) Ilyās (Elijah) ‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam) Is-ḥāq (Isaac) Ismā‘īl (Ishmael)

Dhabih Ullah

Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise) Lūṭ (Lot) Ṣāliḥ Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?) Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd ( Solomon
Solomon
son of David) ‘ Uzair
Uzair
(Ezra?) Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā ( John the Baptist
John the Baptist
the son of Zechariah) Ya‘qūb (Jacob)

Isrâ’îl (Israel)

Yūnus (Jonah)

Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)" or "Owner of the Fish
Fish
(or Whale)") Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")

Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb ( Joseph
Joseph
son of Jacob) Zakariyyā (Zechariah)

Ulu-l-‘Azm

Muḥammad

Aḥmad Other names and titles of Muhammad

ʿĪsā (Jesus)

Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah) Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)

Mūsā Kalīmullāh ( Moses
Moses
He who spoke to God) Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh ( Abraham
Abraham
Friend of God) Nūḥ (Noah)

Debatable ones

Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?) Luqmân Maryam (Mary) Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)

Implied

Irmiyā (Jeremiah) Ṣamû’îl (Samuel) Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)

People of Prophets

Evil ones

Āzar (possibly Terah) Fir‘awn ( Pharaoh
Pharaoh
of Moses' time) Hāmān Jâlûṫ (Goliath) Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses) As-Sāmirī Abî Lahab Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)

Good ones

Adam's immediate relatives

Martyred son Wife

Believer of Ya-Sin Family of Noah

Father Lamech Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos

Luqman's son People of Aaron and Moses

Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah) Khidr Magicians of the Pharaoh Moses' wife Moses' sister-in-law Mother Sister

People of Abraham

Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo Ishmael's mother Isaac's mother

People of Jesus

Disciples (including Peter) Mary's mother Zechariah's wife

People of Joseph

Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon) Egyptians

‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin) Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd)) Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)

Mother

People of Solomon

Mother Queen of Sheba Vizier

Zayd

Implied or not specified

Abrahah Bal'am/Balaam Barsisa Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua Luqman's son Nebuchadnezzar II Nimrod Rahmah the wife of Ayyub Shaddad

Groups

Mentioned

Aş-ḥāb al-Jannah

People of Paradise People of the Burnt Garden

Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath) Christian
Christian
apostles

Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)

Companions of Noah's Ark Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim? Companions of the Elephant People of al-Ukhdūd People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin People of Yathrib or Medina Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah) Nation of Noah

Tribes, ethnicities or families

A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)

ʿĀd (people of Hud) Companions of the Rass Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')

People of Saba’ or Sheba

Quraysh Thamûd (people of Saleh)

Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")

Ajam Ar- Rûm (literally "The Romans") Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel) Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah) People of Ibrahim People of Ilyas People of Nuh People of Shuaib

Ahl Madyan People of Madyan) Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah
("Companions of the Wood")

Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah) Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")

Household of Abraham

Brothers of Yūsuf Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.) Progeny of Imran Household of Moses Household of Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim

Daughters of Muhammad Wives of Muhammad

Household of Salih

People of Fir'aun Current Ummah of Islam
Islam
(Ummah of Muhammad)

Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)

Muhajirun (Emigrants) Anṣār Muslims
Muslims
of Medina
Medina
who helped Muhammad
Muhammad
and his Meccan followers, literally 'Helpers')

People of Mecca

Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)

Children of Ayyub Dead son of Sulaiman Qabil/Cain (son of Adam) Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh) Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog) Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)

Implicitly mentioned

Amalek Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) Banu Nadir Banu Qaynuqa Banu Qurayza Iranian people Umayyad Dynasty Aus & Khazraj People of Quba

Religious groups

Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) Kâfirûn (Infidels) Zoroastrians Munāfiqūn (Hypocrites) Muslims People of the Book
Book
(Ahl al-Kiṫāb)

Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)

Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks) Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest)

Yahūd (Jews)

Ahbār (Jewish scholars) Rabbani/Rabbi

Sabians

Polytheists

Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of Abraham
Abraham
and Lot

Locations

Mentioned

Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah
("The Land The Blessed")

Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")

In the Arabian Peninsula
Arabian Peninsula
(excluding Madyan)

Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")

Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)

Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib) ‘Arafāṫ Al-Ḥijr (Hegra) Badr Ḥunayn Makkah (Mecca)

Bakkah Ka‘bah (Kaaba) Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham) Safa and Marwah

Saba’ (Sheba)

‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)

Rass

Jahannam
Jahannam
(Hell) Jannah
Jannah
(Paradise, literally 'Garden') In Mesopotamia:

Al-Jūdiyy

Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")

Bābil (Babylon) Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)

Door of Hittah Madyan (Midian) Majma' al-Bahrain Miṣr (Mainland Egypt) Salsabîl (A river in Paradise) Sinai Region or Tīh Desert

Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)

Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of Tuwa and Mount Sinai)

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
or Mount Tabor

Implied

Antioch

Antakya

Arabia Ayla Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn Bayt al-Muqaddas
Bayt al-Muqaddas
& 'Ariha Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia) Canaan Cave of Seven Sleepers Dār al-Nadwa Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")

Black Stone
Black Stone
(Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il Cave of Hira
Hira
& Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull) Ta'if

Hudaybiyyah Jordan
Jordan
River Nile
Nile
River Palestine River Paradise
Paradise
of Shaddad

Religious locations

Bay'a (Church) Mihrab Monastery Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")

Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām
("The Monument the Sacred") Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The Place-of-Prostration The Farthest") Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred Mosque
Mosque
of Mecca) Masjid al-Dirar A Mosque
Mosque
in the area of Medina, possibly:

Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque) The Prophet's Mosque

Salat
Salat
(Synagogue)

Plant
Plant
matter

Fruits

Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk) Rummān (Pomegranate) Ṫīn (Fig) Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba) Zayṫūn (Olive) In Paradise

Forbidden fruit of Adam

Bushes, trees or plants

Plants of Sheba

Athl (Tamarisk) Sidr (lote-tree)

Līnah (Tender palm tree) Nakhl (date palm) Rayḥān (Scented plant) Sidraṫ al-Munṫahā Zaqqūm

Texts

Al-Injîl (The Gospel
Gospel
of Jesus) Al-Qur’ân (The Book
Book
of Muhammad) Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham) Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)

Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses) Tablets of Stone

Az-Zabûr (The Psalms
Psalms
of David) Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")

Objects of people or beings

Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles Noah's Ark Staff of Musa Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah) Throne of Bilqis Trumpet of Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

'Ansāb Idols of Israelites:

Baal The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites

Idols of Noah's people:

Nasr Suwā‘ Wadd Yaghūth Ya‘ūq

Idols of Quraysh:

Al-Lāṫ Al-‘Uzzá Manāṫ

Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ

Celestial bodies

Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):

Al-Qamar (The Moon) Kawâkib (Planets)

Al-Arḍ (The Earth)

Nujūm (Stars)

Ash-Shams (The Sun)

Liquids

Mā’ ( Water
Water
or fluid)

Nahr (River) Yamm ( River
River
or sea)

Sharâb (Drink)

Events

Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates") Battle of Badr Battle of Hunayn Battle of Khaybar Battle of Tabouk Battle of Uhud Conquest of Mecca Incident of Ifk Laylat al-Mabit Mubahala Sayl al-‘Arim
Sayl al-‘Arim
(Flood of the Great Dam of Marib
Marib
in Sheba) The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage
(Hujja al-Wada') Treaty of Hudaybiyyah Umrah al-Qaza Yawm al-Dār

Implied

Event of Ghadir Khumm

Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Biblical name (title or relationship)

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 131280745 LCCN: n81126877 ISNI: 0000 0001 2158 6491 GND: 4028586-8 SUDOC: 026390183 BNF: cb118646774 (data) NDL: 00628202 NKC: ge13

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