Jerusalem (/dʒəˈruːsələm/; Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם
Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس al-Quds)[note 2] is
a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean
Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the
oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major
Christianity and Islam. Israelis and
Palestinians both claim
Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel
maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of
Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however,
neither claim is widely recognized internationally.[note 3]
During its long history,
Jerusalem has been destroyed at least twice,
besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44
times. The part of
Jerusalem called the
City of David
City of David was settled
in the 4th millennium BCE.
Jerusalem was named as "Urusalima" on
ancient Mesopotamian cuneiform tablets, probably meaning "City of
Shalem" after a Canaanite deity, during the early Canaanite period
(approximately 2400 BCE). During the
Israelite period, significant
construction activity in
Jerusalem began in the 9th century BCE (Iron
Age II), and in the 8th century the city developed into the religious
and administrative center of the Kingdom of Judah. In 1538, the
city walls were rebuilt for a last time around
Suleiman the Magnificent. Today those walls define the Old City, which
has been traditionally divided into four quarters—known since the
early 19th century as the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim
Quarters. The Old City became a
World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site in 1981, and
is on the List of World Heritage in Danger. Since 1860 Jerusalem
has grown far beyond the Old City's boundaries. In 2015,
a population of some 850,000 residents, comprising approximately
200,000 secular Jewish Israelis, 350,000 Haredi
Jews and 300,000
Palestinians.[note 4] In 2011, the population numbered 801,000, of
Jews comprised 497,000 (62%),
Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians
14,000 (around 2%) and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.
According to the Bible, King
David conquered the city from the
Jebusites and established it as the capital of the united kingdom of
Israel, and his son, King Solomon, commissioned the building of the
First Temple.[note 5] These foundational events, straddling the dawn
of the 1st millennium BCE, assumed central symbolic importance for the
Jewish people. The sobriquet of holy city (עיר הקודש,
transliterated ‘ir haqodesh) was probably attached to
post-exilic times. The holiness of
Christianity, conserved in the Septuagint which Christians adopted
as their own authority, was reinforced by the New Testament
account of Jesus's crucifixion there. In Sunni Islam,
Jerusalem is the
third-holiest city, after
Mecca and Medina. In Islamic
tradition, in 610 CE it became the first qibla, the focal point for
Muslim prayer (salat), and
Muhammad made his Night Journey there
ten years later, ascending to heaven where he speaks to God, according
to the Quran. As a result, despite having an area of only 0.9
square kilometres (0.35 sq mi), the Old City is home to
many sites of seminal religious importance, among them the Temple
Mount with its Western Wall,
Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque, and
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Outside the Old City stands the
Today, the status of
Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War,
West Jerusalem was among the areas captured and later annexed by
Israel while East Jerusalem, including the Old City, was captured and
later annexed by Jordan.
East Jerusalem from Jordan
during the 1967
Six-Day War and subsequently annexed it into
Jerusalem, together with additional surrounding territory.[note 6] One
of Israel's Basic Laws, the 1980
Jerusalem Law, refers to
the country's undivided capital. All branches of the Israeli
government are located in Jerusalem, including the
parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister (Beit Aghion) and
President (Beit HaNassi), and the Supreme Court. Whilst the
international community rejected the annexation as illegal and treats
East Jerusalem as Palestinian territory occupied by
Israel has a stronger claim to sovereignty
over West Jerusalem.
2.1 Overview of Jerusalem's historical periods
2.4 Ancient period
2.5 Classical antiquity
2.6 Middle Ages
2.7 Ottoman rule (16th–19th centuries)
2.8 British Mandate (1917–1948)
2.9 Jordanian and Israeli rule (1948–1967)
2.10 Israeli rule (1967–present)
3 Political status
3.1 International status
3.2 Status under Israeli rule
Jerusalem as capital of Israel
3.3.1 Government precinct and national institutions
Jerusalem as capital of Palestine
4 Municipal administration
6.1 Demographic history
6.2 Current demographics
6.3 Urban planning issues
7 Religious significance
8.1 High-rise construction
12 Twin towns and sister cities
13 See also
16 Further reading
17 External links
Further information: Names of Jerusalem
A city called Rušalim in the execration texts of the Middle Kingdom
Egypt (c. 19th century BCE) is widely, but not universally,
identified as Jerusalem.
Jerusalem is called Urušalim in the
Amarna letters of
Abdi-Heba (1330s BCE).
The name "Jerusalem" is variously etymologized to mean "foundation
(Sumerian yeru, 'settlement'/Semitic yry' 'to found, to lay a
cornerstone') of the god Shalem"; the god Shalem was thus the
original tutelary deity of the
Bronze Age city.
The form Yerushalem or Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) first appears in the
Bible, in the
Book of Joshua. According to a Midrash, the name is a
combination of "Yireh" ("The abiding place", the name given by Abraham
to the place where he began to sacrifice his son) and "Shalem" ("Place
of Peace", given by high priest Shem) then two names were united by
The earliest extra-biblical
Hebrew writing of the word
dated to the sixth or seventh century BCE and was discovered
Khirbet Beit Lei
Khirbet Beit Lei near Beit Guvrin in 1961. The inscription states:
"I am Yahweh thy God, I will accept the cities of Judah and I will
redeem Jerusalem", or as other scholars suggest: "Yahweh
God of the whole earth. The mountains of Judah belong to him,
God of Jerusalem".
Shalim or Shalem was the name of the god of dusk in the Canaanite
religion, whose name is based on the same root
S-L-M from which the
Hebrew word for "peace" is derived (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic
and Hebrew). The name thus offered itself to etymologizations
such as "The City of Peace", "Abode of Peace",
"dwelling of peace" ("founded in safety"), alternately "Vision of
Peace" in some
Christian authors. The ending -ayim indicates the
dual, thus leading to the suggestion that the name Yerushalayim refers
to the fact that the city initially sat on two hills. However,
the pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late
development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the
An ancient settlement of Jerusalem, founded as early as the Bronze Age
on the hill above the Gihon Spring, was according to the
Jebus (e.g., Judges 19:10:יְב֔וּס הִ֖יא
יְרוּשָׁלִָ֑ם: "Jebus, it [is] Jerusalem").
Called the "Fortress of Zion" (metsudat Zion), it was renamed by David
as the City of David, and was known by this name in
antiquity. Another name, "Zion", initially referred to a
distinct part of the city, but later came to signify the city as a
whole and to represent the biblical Land of Israel. In Greek and Latin
the city's name was transliterated Hierosolyma (Greek:
Ἱεροσόλυμα; in Greek hieròs, ἱερός, means holy),
although the city was renamed
Aelia Capitolina for part of the Roman
period of its history.
The Aramaic Apocryphon of Genesis of the
Dead Sea Scrolls (1QapGen
Jerusalem with the earlier "Salem" (שלם), said to be
the kingdom of
Melchizedek in Genesis 14:18. Other early Hebrew
Christian renderings of the verse and
targumim, however, put Salem in Northern
Sichem), now Nablus, a city of some importance in early sacred Hebrew
writing. Possibly the redactor of the Apocryphon of Genesis wanted
Melchizedek from the area of Shechem, which at the time
was in possession of the Samaritans. However that may be, later
Rabbinic sources also equate Salem with Jerusalem, mainly to link
Melchizedek to later Temple traditions.
Jerusalem is most commonly known as القُدس,
transliterated as al-Quds and meaning "The Holy" or "The Holy
Sanctuary". Official Israeli government policy mandates that
أُورُشَلِيمَ, transliterated as Ūršalīm, which is the
cognate of the
Hebrew and English names, be used as the Arabic
language name for the city in conjunction with القُدس.
who hail from this city are often called "Qudsi" or "Maqdisi", while
Muslim Jerusalemites may use these terms as a demonym.
Main article: History of Jerusalem
Given the city's central position in both Jewish nationalism (Zionism)
and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarize
some 5,000 years of inhabited history is often influenced by
ideological bias or background (see Historiography and
nationalism). The periods of Jewish sovereignty in the city's
history are important to Israeli/Jewish nationalists (Zionists), who
claim the right to the city based on Jewish descent from the Israelite
Kingdom of Judah, of which
Jerusalem was the capital. In
contrast, Palestinian nationalists claim the right to the city based
on modern Palestinians' descent from many different peoples who have
lived in the region over the centuries, rather than those from a
particular period. Both sides claim the history of the
city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their
relative claims to the city, and that this is borne out by
the different focuses the different writers place on the various
events and eras in the city's history.
Overview of Jerusalem's historical periods
Further information: Timeline of Jerusalem
Jerusalem included, can be defined either in current
administrative terms, as the area declared by legal means to be part
of a municipality; or in historical terms, as the city which resulted
from a process of urban development, united into one entity by a
common territory, history and by virtue of its natural and social
characteristics. The administrative inclusion of
several outlying towns and villages after 1967, which are not fully
and organically included in the social, economic, and political fabric
Jerusalem proper, creates confusion regarding any definition of the
city of Jerusalem. This spreads to any related issue, such as defining
the age of the city.
Six-Day War in 1967,
Shuafat and other places defined as
East Jerusalem were incorporated into the
district, in a move not internationally recognized. Shuafat
lies about 6 kilometres north of Jerusalem's oldest historical
part, the so-called City of David, and about 5 kilometres north
of the walled Old City. Shuafat's history is distinct of that of its
neighbour, Jerusalem, from its prehistoric beginnings through the
biblical period, and throughout its later history until 1967.[citation
In 2016 Israeli archaeologists announced they had unearthed a
7,000-year-old settlement from the early
Chalcolithic period. The
archaeologists describe the discovery as the oldest of its kind in the
Israel Antiquities Authority asserts that the stone
houses and artifacts confirm "the existence of a well-established
settlement in the
Jerusalem area as long ago as the fifth millennium
BCE." Ceramic evidence indicates occupation of the City of David,
an area considered to be the initial nucleus of historical Jerusalem,
as far back as the Copper Age (c. 4th millennium BCE).
City of David
City of David and History of ancient
Stepped Stone Structure
Stepped Stone Structure in Ophel/City of David, the oldest part of
There is no evidence of a permanent settlement in the City of David
area until the early
Bronze Age (c. 3000–2800 BCE). The
Execration Texts (c. 19th century BCE), which refer to a city
called rwš3lmm, variously transcribed as
Rušalimum/Urušalimum/Rôsh-ramen and the Amarna letters
(c. 14th century BCE) may be the earliest mention of the
city. Nadav Na'aman argues its fortification as the centre of
a kingdom dates to around the 18th century BCE. The first
settlement lay on what some call the
Ophel ridge, i.e. the
south-eastern hill at whose foot the
Gihon Spring gushes forth.
In the late Bronze Age,
Jerusalem was the capital of an Egyptian
vassal city-state, a modest settlement governing a few outlying
villages and pastoral areas, with a small Egyptian garrison and ruled
by appointees such as king Abdi-Heba, At the time of
Seti I and
Ramesses II, major construction took place as prosperity
This period, when
Canaan formed part of the Egyptian empire,
corresponds in biblical accounts to Joshua's invasion. In the
Jerusalem is defined as lying within territory allocated to the
tribe of Benjamin though occupied by Jebusites.
David is said
to have conquered these in the
Siege of Jebus, and transferred his
Jerusalem which then became the capital of a
united Kingdom of Israel, and one of its several religious
centres. The choice was perhaps dictated by the fact that
Jerusalem did not form part of Israel's tribal system, and was thus
suited to serve as the centre of its federation. Opinion is
divided over whether a
Large Stone Structure
Large Stone Structure and a nearby Stepped
Stone Structure may be identified with King David's palace, or dates
to a later period.
One plan of Solomon's Temple, as reconstructed from indications in the
According to the Bible, King
David reigned for 40 years and was
succeeded by his son Solomon, who built the Holy Temple on Mount
Solomon's Temple (later known as the First Temple), went on to
play a pivotal role in Jewish religion as the repository of the Ark of
the Covenant. On Solomon's death, ten of the northern Tribes of
Israel broke with the United Monarchy to form their own nation, with
its kings, prophets, priests, traditions relating to religion,
capitals and temples in northern Israel. The southern tribes, together
with the Aaronid priesthood, remained in Jerusalem, with the city
becoming the capital of the Kingdom of Judah. Archeological
remains from the ancient
Israelite period also include Siloam Tunnel,
an aqueduct built by
Hezekiah and decorated with ancient
Hebrew inscription, known as Siloam Inscription, Broad Wall a
defensive fortification built in the 8th century BCE, also by
Hezekiah, Monolith of Silwan, Tomb of the Royal Steward, which
were decorated with monumental
Hebrew inscriptions, and Israelite
Tower, remnants of ancient fortifications, built from large, sturdy
rocks with carved cornerstones. A huge water reservoir dating
from this period was discovered in 2012 near Robinson's Arch,
indicating the existence of a densely built-up quarter across the area
west of the
Temple Mount during the
When the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of
Israel in 722 BCE,
Jerusalem was strengthened by a great influx of refugees from the
northern kingdom. The First Temple period ended around 586 BCE, as the
Babylonians conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and laid waste to Solomon's
Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period
Jerusalem during the Second Temple Period and Aelia
In 538 BCE, the Persian King
Cyrus the Great
Cyrus the Great invited the
Babylon to return to Judah to rebuild the
Temple.[better source needed] Construction of the
Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the
Great, 70 years after the destruction of the First Temple.
Sometime soon after 485 BCE
Jerusalem was besieged, conquered and
largely destroyed by a coalition of neighbouring states. In about
445 BCE, King
Artaxerxes I of Persia
Artaxerxes I of Persia issued a decree allowing the city
(including its walls) to be
rebuilt.[better source needed]
Jerusalem resumed its
role as capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship.
This picture shows the temple as imagined in 1966 in the Holyland
Model of Jerusalem
Many Jewish tombs from the
Second Temple period
Second Temple period have been rediscovered
in Jerusalem. One example, discovered north of the Old City, contains
human remains in an ossuary decorated with the Aramaic inscription
"Simon the Temple Builder." The Tomb of Abba, also located north
of the Old City, bears an Aramaic inscription with Paleo-Hebrew
letters reading: "I, Abba, son of the priest Eleaz(ar), son of Aaron
the high (priest), Abba, the oppressed and the persecuted, who was
born in Jerusalem, and went into exile into Babylonia and brought
(back to Jerusalem) Mattathi(ah), son of Jud(ah), and buried him in a
cave which I bought by deed." The
Tomb of Benei Hezir
Tomb of Benei Hezir located in
Kidron Valley is decorated by monumental
Doric columns and Hebrew
inscription, identifying it as the burial site of Second Temple
priests. The Tombs of the Sanhedrin, an underground complex of 63
rock-cut tombs, is located in a public park in the northern Jerusalem
neighborhood of Sanhedria. These tombs, probably reserved for members
of the Sanhedrin and inscribed by ancient
Hebrew and Aramaic
writings, are dated to between 100 BCE and 100 CE.
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire,
Judea came under Macedonian control, eventually falling to the
Ptolemaic dynasty under Ptolemy I. In 198 BCE, Ptolemy V Epiphanes
Judea to the Seleucids under Antiochus III. The
Seleucid attempt to recast
Jerusalem as a Hellenized city-state came
to a head in 168 BCE with the successful Maccabean revolt of
Mattathias and his five sons against Antiochus IV Epiphanes, and their
establishment of the
Hasmonean Kingdom in 152 BCE with
In 63 BCE,
Pompey the Great
Pompey the Great intervened in a struggle for the Hasmonean
throne and captured Jerusalem, extending the influence of the Roman
Republic over Judea. Following a short invasion by Parthians,
backing the rival
Judea became a scene of struggle
between pro-Roman and pro-Parthian forces, eventually leading to the
emergence of an Edomite named Herod.
A coin issued by the Jewish rebels in 68 CE. Obverse: "Shekel, Israel.
Year 3". Reverse: "
Jerusalem the Holy", in the Paleo-
As Rome became stronger, it installed Herod as a Jewish client king.
Herod the Great, as he was known, devoted himself to developing and
beautifying the city. He built walls, towers and palaces, and expanded
the Temple Mount, buttressing the courtyard with blocks of stone
weighing up to 100 tons. Under Herod, the area of the Temple Mount
doubled in size. Shortly after Herod's death, in 6 CE
Judea came under direct Roman rule as the Iudaea Province,
although the Herodian dynasty through
Agrippa II remained client kings
of neighbouring territories until 96 CE. Roman rule over
the region was challenged in the First Jewish–Roman War, which ended
with a Roman victory. The
Second Temple was destroyed in 70 CE, and
the entire city was destroyed in the war. The contemporary Jewish
Josephus wrote that the city "was so thoroughly razed to the
ground by those that demolished it to its foundations, that nothing
was left that could ever persuade visitors that it had once been a
place of habitation." Roman rule was again challenged during the
Bar Kokhba revolt, beginning in 132 CE and suppressed by the
Roman siege and destruction of
David Roberts, 1850)
Jerusalem Mural depicting the Cardo in
Following the Bar Kokhba revolt, Emperor
Hadrian combined Iudaea
Province with neighboring provinces under the new name of Syria
Palaestina, replacing the name of Judea. The city was renamed
Aelia Capitolina, and rebuilt it in the style of a typical Roman
Jews were prohibited from entering the city on pain of death,
except for one day each year, during the holiday of Tisha B'Av. Taken
together, these measures (which also affected Jewish
Christians) essentially "secularized" the city. The ban was
maintained until the 7th century, though Christians would soon be
granted an exemption: during the 4th century, the Roman Emperor
Constantine I ordered the construction of
Christian holy sites in the
city, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Burial remains from
Byzantine period are exclusively Christian, suggesting that the
Byzantine times probably consisted only of
In the 5th century, the eastern continuation of the Roman Empire,
ruled from the recently renamed Constantinople, maintained control of
the city. Within the span of a few decades,
Jerusalem shifted from
Byzantine to Persian rule, then back to Roman-
Following Sassanid Khosrau II's early 7th century push through Syria,
Shahrbaraz and Shahin attacked
Jerusalem (Persian: Dej
Houdkh) aided by the
Jews of Palaestina Prima, who had risen up
against the Byzantines.
Jerusalem of 614, after 21 days of relentless siege
Jerusalem was captured.
Byzantine chronicles relate that the
Jews slaughtered tens of thousands of Christians in the
city, many at the
Mamilla Pool, and destroyed their
monuments and churches, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
This episode has been the subject of much debate between
historians. The conquered city would remain in Sassanid hands for
some fifteen years until the
it in 629.
Jerusalem reached a peak in size and population at the end of the
Second Temple Period, when the city covered two km2 (0.77 square
miles) and had a population of 200,000.
History of Jerusalem
History of Jerusalem during the Middle Ages
1455 painting of the Holy Land.
Jerusalem is viewed from the west; the
Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock still retains its octagonal shape, to the right
stands Al-Aqsa, shown as a church.
Jerusalem was conquered by the
Arab armies of
al-Khattab in 638 CE. Among
Muslims of Islam's earliest era it
was referred to as Madinat bayt al-Maqdis ("City of the Temple")
which was restricted to the Temple Mount. The rest of the city
"... was called Iliya, reflecting the Roman name given the city
following the destruction of 70 CE: Aelia Capitolina". Later the
Temple Mount became known as al-Haram al-Sharif, "The Noble
Sanctuary", while the city around it became known as Bayt
al-Maqdis, and later still, al-Quds al-Sharif "The Holy, Noble".
Islamization of Jerusalem
Islamization of Jerusalem began in the first year A.H. (623 CE),
Muslims were instructed to face the city while performing their
daily prostrations and, according to
Muslim religious tradition,
Muhammad's night journey and ascension to heaven took place. After 13
years, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca. In 638
CE the Islamic
Caliphate extended its dominion to Jerusalem. With
Jews were allowed back into the city. The
Umar ibn al-Khattab
Umar ibn al-Khattab signed a treaty with Christian
Jerusalem Sophronius, assuring him that Jerusalem's
Christian holy places and population would be protected under Muslim
Arab tradition records that, when led to pray at
the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, one of the holiest sites for
Christians, the caliph
Umar refused to pray in the church so that
Muslims would not request conversion of the church to a mosque.
He prayed outside the church, where the
Umar (Omar) stands
to this day, opposite the entrance to the Church of the Holy
Sepulchre. According to the Gaullic bishop Arculf, who lived in
Jerusalem from 679 to 688, the
Umar was a rectangular wooden
structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3,000
Arab armies under
Umar went to Bayt Al-Maqdes in 637 CE, they
searched for the site of the
Al-Aqsa Mosque ("The Farthest Mosque")
that was mentioned in
Hadith according to Islamic beliefs.
Contemporary Arabic and
Hebrew sources say the site was full of
rubbish, and that Arabs and
Jews cleaned it. The Umayyad caliph
Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of a shrine on the Temple
Mount, now known as the Dome of the Rock, in the late 7th
century. Two of the city's most-distinguished
Arab citizens of
the 10th-century were Al-Muqaddasi, the geographer, and Al-Tamimi, the
Al-Muqaddasi writes that Abd al-Malik built the edifice on
Temple Mount in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem's
Over the next four hundred years Jerusalem's prominence diminished as
Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control.
captured in 1073 by the Seljuk Turkish commander Atsız. After
Atsız was killed, the Seljuk prince
Tutush I granted the city to
Artuk Bey, another Seljuk commander. After Artuk's death in 1091 his
sons Sökmen and
Ilghazi governed in the city up to 1098 when the
Fatimids recaptured the city.
Medieval illustration of capture of
Jerusalem during the First
A messianic Karaite movement to gather in
Jerusalem took place at the
turn of the millennium, leading to a "Golden Age" of Karaite
scholarship there, which was only terminated by the Crusades. In
1099, the Fatimid ruler expelled the native
Jerusalem was besieged by the soldiers of the First Crusade.
After taking the solidly defended city by assault, the Crusaders
massacred most of its
Muslim and Jewish inhabitants, and made it the
capital of their Kingdom of Jerusalem. The city, which had been
virtually emptied, was recolonized by a variegated inflow of Greeks,
Bulgarians, Hungarians, Georgians, Armenians, Syrians, Egyptians,
Nestorians, Maronites, Jacobite Miaphysites,
Copts and others, to
block the return of the surviving
Muslims and Jews. The north-eastern
quarter was repopulated with Eastern Christians from the
Transjordan. As a result, by 1099 Jerusalem's population had
climbed back to some 30,000.[not in citation given]
In 1187, the city was wrested from the Crusaders by
Muslims to return and settle in the city.
Under the terms of surrender, once ransomed, 60,000 Franks were
expelled. The Eastern
Christian populace was permitted to stay.
Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin, a period of huge investment
began in the construction of houses, markets, public baths, and
pilgrim hostels as well as the establishment of religious endowments.
However, for most of the 13th century,
Jerusalem declined to the
status of a village due to city's fall of strategic value and Ayyubid
From 1229 to 1244,
Jerusalem peacefully reverted to
as a result of a 1229 treaty agreed between the crusading Holy Roman
Emperor Frederick II and al-Kamil, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, that
ended the Sixth Crusade. The Ayyubids
retained control of the
Muslim holy places, and
Arab sources suggest
that Frederick was not permitted to restore Jerusalem's
Jerusalem was sacked by the Khwarezmian Tatars, who decimated
Christian population and drove out the Jews. The
Tatars were driven out by the Ayyubids in 1247. When
Nachmanides visited in 1267 he found only two Jewish families, in a
population of 2,000, 300 of whom were Christians, in the city.
From 1260 to 1517,
Jerusalem was ruled by the Mamluks. In the
wider region and until around 1300, many clashes occurred between the
Mamluks on one side, and the crusaders and the Mongols, on the other
side. The area also suffered from many earthquakes and black
Ottoman rule (16th–19th centuries)
David's Citadel and the Ottoman walls
Synagogue in 1893
The Garden Tomb
The Garden Tomb in
Jerusalem – a new holy site established by
British Protestants in the 19th century.
Jerusalem and environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who
generally remained in control until 1917.
Jerusalem enjoyed a
prosperous period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent
– including the rebuilding of magnificent walls around the Old City.
Throughout much of Ottoman rule,
Jerusalem remained a provincial, if
religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade
Damascus and Cairo. The English reference book
Modern history or the present state of all nations, written in 1744,
stated that "
Jerusalem is still reckoned the capital city of
Palestine, though much fallen from its ancient grandeaur".
The Ottomans brought many innovations: modern postal systems run by
the various consulates and regular stagecoach and carriage services
were among the first signs of modernization in the city. In the
mid 19th century, the Ottomans constructed the first paved road from
Jaffa to Jerusalem, and by 1892 the railroad had reached the
With the annexation of
Muhammad Ali of
Egypt in 1831,
foreign missions and consulates began to establish a foothold in the
city. In 1836, Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem's Jewish residents to
restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva. In the
countrywide Peasants' Revolt,
Qasim al-Ahmad led his forces from
Nablus and attacked Jerusalem, aided by the
Abu Ghosh clan, and
entered the city on 31 May 1834. The Christians and
Jews of Jerusalem
were subjected to attacks. Ibrahim's Egyptian army routed Qasim's
Jerusalem the following month.
Ottoman rule was reinstated in 1840, but many Egyptian Muslims
Algiers and North Africa began to
settle in the city in growing numbers. In the 1840s and 1850s,
the international powers began a tug-of-war in Palestine as they
sought to extend their protection over the region's religious
minorities, a struggle carried out mainly through consular
representatives in Jerusalem. According to the Prussian consul,
the population in 1845 was 16,410, with 7,120 Jews, 5,000 Muslims,
3,390 Christians, 800 Turkish soldiers and 100 Europeans. The
Christian pilgrims increased under the Ottomans, doubling
the city's population around Easter time.
In the 1860s, new neighborhoods began to develop outside the Old City
walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor
sanitation inside the city. The
Russian Compound and Mishkenot
Sha'ananim were founded in 1860, followed by many others that
Nahalat Shiv'a (1869), German Colony
Mea Shearim (1874), Shimon HaZadiq (1876),
Beit Ya'aqov (1877),
Abu Tor (1880s), American-Swedish Colony (1882),
Yemin Moshe (1891), and Mamilla,
Wadi al-Joz around the turn of the
century. In 1867 an American Missionary reports an estimated
Jerusalem of 'above' 15,000, with 4,000 to 5,000 Jews
and 6,000 Muslims. Every year there were 5,000 to 6,000 Russian
Christian Pilgrims. In 1872
Jerusalem became the center of a
special administrative district, independent of the
Syria Vilayet and
under the direct authority of
Istanbul called the Mutasarrifate of
Until the 1880s there were no formal orphanages in Jerusalem, as
families generally took care of each other. In 1881 the Diskin
Orphanage was founded in
Jerusalem with the arrival of Jewish children
orphaned by a Russian pogrom. Other orphanages founded in
the beginning of the 20th century were
Zion Blumenthal Orphanage
(1900) and General
Israel Orphan's Home for Girls (1902).
British Mandate (1917–1948)
Jerusalem Subdistrict, Mandatory Palestine
In 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem, the British Army, led by
General Edmund Allenby, captured the city. In 1922, the League of
Nations at the
Conference of Lausanne
Conference of Lausanne entrusted the
United Kingdom to
administer Palestine, neighbouring Transjordan, and
Iraq beyond it.
The British had to deal with a conflicting demand that was rooted in
Ottoman rule. Agreements for the supply of water, electricity, and the
construction of a tramway system — all under concessions granted by
the Ottoman authorities — had been signed by the city of Jerusalem
and a Greek citizen, Euripides Mavromatis, on 27 January 1914. Work
under these concessions had not begun and, by the end of the war the
British occupying forces refused to recognize their validity.
Mavromatis claimed that his concessions overlapped with the Auja
Concession that the government had awarded to Rutenberg in 1921 and
that he had been deprived of his legal rights. The Mavromatis
concession, in effect despite earlier British attempts to abolish it,
Jerusalem and other localities (e.g., Bethlehem) within a
radius of 20 km (12 miles) around the Church of the Holy
From 1922 to 1948 the total population of the city rose from 52,000 to
165,000, comprised two-thirds of
Jews and one-third of Arabs (Muslims
and Christians). Relations between
Arab Christians and Muslims
and the growing Jewish population in
Jerusalem deteriorated, resulting
in recurring unrest. In Jerusalem, in particular,
Arab riots occurred
in 1920 and in 1929. Under the British, new garden suburbs were built
in the western and northern parts of the city and
institutions of higher learning such as the
Hebrew University were
Jordanian and Israeli rule (1948–1967)
Battle for Jerusalem
Battle for Jerusalem and City Line (Jerusalem)
See also: Corpus separatum (Jerusalem),
United Nations General
Assembly Resolution 194, and Jordanian annexation of the West Bank
United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine
Jerusalem Corpus Separatum
As the British Mandate for Palestine was expiring, the 1947 UN
Partition Plan recommended "the creation of a special international
regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a corpus separatum
under the administration of the UN." The international regime
(which also included the city of Bethlehem) was to remain in force for
a period of ten years, whereupon a referendum was to be held in which
the residents were to decide the future regime of their city.
However, this plan was not implemented, as the 1948 war erupted, while
the British withdrew from Palestine and
Israel declared its
In contradiction to the Partition Plan, which envisioned a city
separated from the
Arab state and the Jewish state,
control of the area which later would become West Jerusalem, along
with major parts of the
Arab territory allotted to the future Arab
Jordan took control of East Jerusalem, along with the West
Bank. The war led to displacement of
Arab and Jewish populations in
the city. The 1,500 residents of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City
were expelled and a few hundred taken prisoner when the
captured the quarter on 28 May.
Arab residents of Katamon,
Talbiya, and the German Colony were driven from their homes. By the
time of the armistice that ended active fighting,
Israel had control
of 12 of Jerusalem's 15
Arab residential quarters. An estimated
minimum of 30,000 people had become refugees.
Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum
Gate (circa 1950)
The war of 1948 resulted in the division of Jerusalem, so that the old
walled city lay entirely on the Jordanian side of the line. A no-man's
land between East and
West Jerusalem came into being in November 1948:
Moshe Dayan, commander of the Israeli forces in Jerusalem, met with
his Jordanian counterpart
Abdullah el-Tell in a deserted house in
Jerusalem's Musrara neighborhood and marked out their respective
positions: Israel's position in red and Jordan's in green. This rough
map, which was not meant as an official one, became the final line in
the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which divided the city and left Mount
Scopus as an Israeli exclave inside East Jerusalem. Barbed wire
and concrete barriers ran down the center of the city, passing close
Jaffa Gate on the western side of the old walled city, and a
crossing point was established at
Mandelbaum Gate slightly to the
north of the old walled city. Military skirmishes frequently
threatened the ceasefire.
After the establishment of the state of Israel,
Jerusalem was declared
its capital city.
Jordan formally annexed
East Jerusalem in 1950,
subjecting it to Jordanian law, and in 1953 declared it the "second
capital" of Jordan. Only the
United Kingdom and
Pakistan formally recognized such annexation, which, in regard to
Jerusalem, was on a de facto basis. Some scholars argue that the
Pakistan recognized Jordan's annexation is
King Hussein of
Jordan flying over the
Temple Mount in East Jerusalem
when it was under Jordanian control, 1965
After 1948, since the old walled city in its entirety was to the east
of the armistice line,
Jordan was able to take control of all the holy
places therein. While
Muslim holy sites were maintained and
renovated, contrary to the terms of the armistice agreement, Jews
were denied access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were destroyed
Jordan allowed only very limited access to Christian
holy sites, and restrictions were imposed on the Christian
population that led many to leave the city. Of the 58 synagogues in
the Old City, half were either razed or converted to stables and
hen-houses over the course of the next 19 years, including the Hurva
and the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue. The 3,000-year-old Mount of
Olives Jewish Cemetery was desecrated, with gravestones used to build
roads, latrines and Jordanian army fortifications. 38,000 graves in
the Jewish Cemetery were destroyed, and
Jews were forbidden from being
buried there. The
Western Wall was transformed into an
Muslim holy site associated with al-Buraq. Israeli
authorities neglected to protect the tombs in the
Cemetery in West Jerusalem, which contains the remains of figures from
the early Islamic period, facilitating the creation of a parking
lot and public lavatories in 1964. Many other historic and
religiously significant buildings were demolished and replaced by
modern structures during the Jordanian occupation. During this
Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock and
Al-Aqsa Mosque underwent major
During the 1948 war, the Jewish residents of Eastern
expelled by Jordan's
refugees from the war to settle in the vacated Jewish Quarter, which
became known as Harat al-Sharaf. In 1966 the Jordanian
authorities relocated 500 of them to the Shua'fat refugee camp as part
of plans to turn the Jewish quarter into a public park.
Israeli rule (1967–present)
Main article: Reunification of Jerusalem
East Jerusalem (2010)
In 1967, despite Israeli pleas that
Jordan remain neutral during the
Six-Day War, Jordan, which had concluded a defense agreement with
Egypt on May 30, 1967, attacked Israeli-held
West Jerusalem on the
war's second day. After hand-to-hand fighting between Israeli and
Jordanian soldiers on the Temple Mount, the
Israel Defense Forces
captured East Jerusalem, along with the entire West Bank. On 27 June
1967, three weeks after the war ended, in the reunification of
Israel extended its law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem,
including the city's
Muslim holy sites, along with some
West Bank territory which comprised 28 Palestinian villages,
incorporating it into the
Jerusalem Municipality, although
it carefully avoided using the term annexation. On 10 July, Foreign
Minister Abba Eban explained to the UN Secretary General: ″The term
'annexation' which was used by supporters of the vote is not accurate.
The steps that were taken [by Israel] relate to the integration of
Jerusalem in administrative and municipal areas, and served as a legal
basis for the protection of the holy places of Jerusalem.″
Israel conducted a census of
Arab residents in the areas annexed.
Residents were given permanent residency status and the option of
applying for Israeli citizenship. Since 1967, new Jewish residential
areas have mushroomed in the eastern sector, while no new Palestinian
neighbourhoods have been created.
Christian access to the holy sites inside the old walled
city was restored.
Israel left the
Temple Mount under the jurisdiction
of an Islamic waqf, but opened the
Western Wall to Jewish access. The
Moroccan Quarter, which was located adjacent to the Western Wall, was
evacuated and razed. to make way for a plaza for those visiting
the wall. On 18 April 1968, an expropriation order by the Israeli
Ministry of Finance more than doubled the size of the Jewish Quarter,
Arab residents and seizing over 700 buildings of which
105 belonged to Jewish inhabitants prior to the Jordanian occupation
of the city. The order designated these areas for
public use, but they were intended for
Jews alone. The government
offered 200 Jordanian dinars to each displaced
Six-Day War the population of
Jerusalem increased by 196%.
The Jewish population grew by 155%, while the
Arab population grew by
314%. The proportion of the Jewish population fell from 74% in 1967 to
72% in 1980, to 68% in 2000, and to 64% in 2010. Israeli
Ariel Sharon proposed building a ring of Jewish
neighborhoods around the city's eastern edges. The plan was intended
East Jerusalem more Jewish and prevent it from becoming part
of an urban Palestinian bloc stretching from
Bethlehem to Ramallah. On
2 October 1977, the Israeli cabinet approved the plan, and seven
neighborhoods were subsequently built on the city's eastern edges.
They became known as the Ring Neighborhoods. Other Jewish
neighborhoods were built within East Jerusalem, and
Israeli Jews also
The annexation of
East Jerusalem was met with international criticism.
The Israeli Foreign Ministry disputes that the annexation of Jerusalem
was a violation of international law. The final status of
Jerusalem has been one of the most important areas of discord between
Palestinian and Israeli negotiators for peace. Areas of discord have
included whether the Palestinian flag can be raised over areas of
Palestinian custodianship and the specificity of Israeli and
Palestinian territorial borders.
Main article: Positions on Jerusalem
Prior to the creation of the State of Israel,
Jerusalem served as the
administrative capital of Mandatory Palestine, which included
Israel and Jordan.[dubious – discuss]
From 1949 until 1967,
West Jerusalem served as Israel's capital, but
was not recognized as such internationally because UN General Assembly
Resolution 194 envisaged
Jerusalem as an international city. As a
result of the
Six-Day War in 1967, the whole of
Jerusalem came under
Israeli control. On 27 June 1967, the government of Levi Eshkol
extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed
that administration of the
Temple Mount compound would be maintained
by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious
Israel ordered the closure of Orient House, home of the Arab
Studies Society, but also the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation
Organization, for security reasons. The building reopened in 1992 as a
Palestinian guesthouse. The
Oslo Accords stated that the
final status of
Jerusalem would be determined by negotiations with the
Palestinian Authority. The accords banned any official Palestinian
presence in the city until a final peace agreement, but provided for
the opening of a Palestinian trade office in East Jerusalem. The
Palestinian Authority regards
East Jerusalem as the capital of a
future Palestinian state. President
Mahmoud Abbas has said
that any agreement that did not include
East Jerusalem as the capital
of Palestine would be unacceptable. Israeli Prime Minister
Benjamin Netanyahu has similarly stated that
Jerusalem would remain
the undivided capital of Israel. Due to its proximity to the city,
especially the Temple Mount, Abu Dis, a Palestinian suburb of
Jerusalem, has been proposed as the future capital of a Palestinian
state by Israel.
Israel has not incorporated
Abu Dis within its
security wall around Jerusalem. The Palestinian Authority has built a
possible future parliament building for the Palestinian Legislative
Council in the town, and its
Jerusalem Affairs Offices are all located
in Abu Dis.
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While the international community regards East Jerusalem, including
the entire Old City, as part of the occupied Palestinian territories,
neither part, West or East Jerusalem, is recognized as part of the
Israel or the State of Palestine. Under the United
Nations Partition Plan for Palestine adopted by the General Assembly
United Nations in 1947,
Jerusalem was envisaged to become a
corpus separatum administered by the United Nations. In the war of
1948, the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the
nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by
Jordan. The international community largely considers the legal status
Jerusalem to derive from the partition plan, and correspondingly
refuses to recognize Israeli sovereignty over the city.
Status under Israeli rule
Supreme Court of Israel
Following the 1967 Six-Day War,
Israel extended its jurisdiction and
administration over East Jerusalem, establishing new municipal
Israel approved legislation giving
Jerusalem the highest
national priority status in Israel. The law prioritized construction
throughout the city, and offered grants and tax benefits to residents
to make housing, infrastructure, education, employment, business,
tourism, and cultural events more affordable. Communications Minister
Moshe Kahlon said that the bill sent "a clear, unequivocal political
Jerusalem will not be divided", and that "all those
within the Palestinian and international community who expect the
current Israeli government to accept any demands regarding Israel's
sovereignty over its capital are mistaken and misleading".
The status of the city, and especially its holy places, remains a core
issue in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The Israeli government
has approved building plans in the
Muslim Quarter of the Old City
in order to expand the Jewish presence in East Jerusalem, while some
Islamic leaders have made claims that
Jews have no historical
connection to Jerusalem, alleging that the 2,500-year-old Western Wall
was constructed as part of a mosque. Palestinians regard
Jerusalem as the capital of the State of Palestine, and the
city's borders have been the subject of bilateral talks. A team of
experts assembled by the then Israeli Prime Minister
Ehud Barak in
2000 concluded that the city must be divided, since
Israel had failed
to achieve any of its national aims there. However, Israeli Prime
Benjamin Netanyahu said in 2014 that "
Jerusalem will never be
divided". A poll conducted in June 2013 found that 74% of Israeli
Jews reject the idea of a Palestinian capital in any portion of
Jerusalem, though 72% of the public regarded it as a divided
city. A poll conducted by Palestinian Center for Public Opinion
and American Pechter
Middle East Polls for the Council on Foreign
Arab residents in 2011 revealed that
Arab residents would prefer Israeli citizenship
contrary to 31% who opted for Palestinian citizenship. According to
the poll, 40% of Palestinian residents would prefer to leave their
neighborhoods if they would be placed under Palestinian rule.
Jerusalem as capital of Israel
Israeli Foreign Ministry building
On 5 December 1949, Israel's first Prime Minister,
Jerusalem as Israel's "eternal" and "sacred" capital, and
eight days later specified that only the war had "compelled" the
Israeli leadership "to establish the seat of Government in Tel Aviv",
while "for the State of
Israel there has always been and always will
be one capital only -
Jerusalem the Eternal", and that after the war,
efforts had been ongoing for creating the conditions for "the
Knesset... returning to Jerusalem." This indeed took place, and
since the beginning of 1950 all branches of the Israeli
government—legislative, judicial, and executive—have resided
there, except for the Ministry of Defense, which is located at HaKirya
in Tel Aviv. At the time of Ben Gurion's proclamations and
Knesset vote of 24 January 1950, At the time
Jerusalem was divided between
Israel and Jordan, and thus the
proclamation only applied to West Jerusalem.
In July 1980,
Israel passed the
Jerusalem Law as Basic Law. The law
Jerusalem the "complete and united" capital of Israel.
Jerusalem Law was condemned by the international community, which
did not recognize
Jerusalem as the capital of Israel. The United
Nations Security Council passed Resolution 478 on 20 August 1980,
which declared that the
Jerusalem Law is "a violation of international
law", is "null and void and must be rescinded forthwith". Member
states were called upon to withdraw their diplomatic representation
from Jerusalem. Following the resolution, 22 of the 24 countries
that previously had their embassy in (West)
Jerusalem relocated them
in Tel Aviv, where many embassies already resided prior to Resolution
Costa Rica and
El Salvador followed in 2006. Currently,
there are no embassies located within the city limits of Jerusalem,
although there are two consulates in the city, and two Latin American
states maintain embassies in the
Jerusalem District town of Mevaseret
Bolivia and Paraguay). There are a number of
consulates-general located in Jerusalem, which work primarily either
with Israel, or the Palestinian authorities.
In 1995, the
United States Congress passed the
Jerusalem Embassy Act,
which required, subject to conditions, that its embassy be moved from
Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. On 6 December 2017
U.S. President Donald
Trump officially recognized
Jerusalem as Israel's capital and
announced his intention to move the American embassy to Jerusalem,
reversing decades of
United States policy on the issue. The
move was criticized by many nations. A resolution condemning the
US decision was supported by all the 14 other members of the UN
Security Council, but was vetoed by the US on 18 December 2017,
and a subsequent resolution condemning the US decision was passed in
United Nations General Assembly. Due to the
Jerusalem as Israel's capital, some non-Israeli
Tel Aviv as a metonym for Israel.
In April 2017, the Russian Foreign Ministry announced it viewed
Jerusalem as Israel's capital in the context of UN-approved
principles which include the status of
East Jerusalem as the capital
of the future Palestinian state.
Government precinct and national institutions
Knesset building in Givat Ram
Many national institutions of
Israel are located in Kiryat HaMemshala
Givat Ram in
Jerusalem as a part of the
Kiryat HaLeom project which
is intended to create a large district that will house most government
agencies and national cultural institutions. Some government buildings
are located in
Kiryat Menachem Begin. The city is home to the
Knesset, the Supreme Court, the Bank of Israel, the National
Headquarters of the
Israel Police, the official residences of the
President and Prime Minister, the Cabinet, and all ministries except
for the Ministry of Defense (which is located in central Tel Aviv's
HaKirya district) and the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development (which is located in Rishon LeZion, in the wider Tel Aviv
metropolitan area, near Beit Dagan).
Jerusalem as capital of Palestine
East Jerusalem §
Jerusalem as capital
Orient House in
East Jerusalem that served as the headquarters of the
PLO in the 1980s and 1990s. It was closed by
Israel in 2001, two days
after the Sbarro restaurant suicide bombing.
Palestinian National Authority
Palestinian National Authority views
East Jerusalem as occupied
territory according to
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242.
The Palestinian Authority claims Jerusalem, including the Haram
al-Sharif, as the capital of the State of Palestine, The PLO
West Jerusalem is also subject to permanent status
negotiations. However, it has stated that it would be willing to
consider alternative solutions, such as making
Jerusalem an open
The PLO's current position is that East Jerusalem, as defined by the
pre-1967 municipal boundaries, shall be the capital of Palestine and
West Jerusalem the capital of Israel, with each state enjoying full
sovereignty over its respective part of the city and with its own
municipality. A joint development council would be responsible for
Some states, such as Russia and China, recognize the
Palestinian state with
East Jerusalem as its capital. United Nations
General Assembly Resolution 58/292 affirmed that the Palestinian
people have the right to sovereignty over East Jerusalem.
Main article: Municipality of Jerusalem
Jerusalem City Council is a body of 31 elected members headed by
the mayor, who serves a five-year term and appoints eight deputies.
The former mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski, was elected in
2003. In the November 2008 city elections,
Nir Barkat came out as
the winner and is now the mayor. Apart from the mayor and his
deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a
voluntary basis. The longest-serving
Jerusalem mayor was Teddy Kollek,
who spent 28 years—-six consecutive terms-—in office. Most of the
meetings of the
Jerusalem City Council are private, but each month, it
holds a session that is open to the public. Within the city
council, religious political parties form an especially powerful
faction, accounting for the majority of its seats. The
headquarters of the
Jerusalem Municipality and the mayor's office are
Safra Square (Kikar Safra) on
Jaffa Road. The municipal complex,
comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings
surrounding a large plaza, opened in 1993 moved from the Jerusalem
Historical City Hall Building. The city falls under the Jerusalem
Jerusalem as the district's capital. 37% of the
population is Palestinian, but only 10% of tax revenues are allocated
for them. In East Jerusalem, 52% of the land is excluded from
development, 35% designated for Jewish settlements, and 13% for
Palestinian use, almost all of which is already built on.
Panorama of the Temple Mount, including Al-Aqsa Mosque, and Dome of
the Rock, from the Mount of Olives
Astronauts' view of Jerusalem
Sunset aerial photograph of the Mount of Olives
Jerusalem is situated on the southern spur of a plateau in the Judaean
Mountains, which include the
Mount of Olives
Mount of Olives (East) and Mount Scopus
(North East). The elevation of the Old City is approximately
760 m (2,490 ft). The whole of
Jerusalem is surrounded
by valleys and dry riverbeds (wadis). The Kidron, Hinnom, and
Tyropoeon Valleys intersect in an area just south of the Old City of
Kidron Valley runs to the east of the Old City and
Mount of Olives
Mount of Olives from the city proper. Along the southern
side of old
Jerusalem is the Valley of Hinnom, a steep ravine
associated in biblical eschatology with the concept of
Tyropoeon Valley commenced in the northwest near the
Damascus Gate, ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old
City down to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part into two
Temple Mount to the east, and the rest of the city to the
west (the lower and the upper cities described by Josephus). Today,
this valley is hidden by debris that has accumulated over the
centuries. In biblical times,
Jerusalem was surrounded by forests
of almond, olive and pine trees. Over centuries of warfare and
neglect, these forests were destroyed. Farmers in the
thus built stone terraces along the slopes to hold back the soil, a
feature still very much in evidence in the Jerusalem
Water supply has always been a major problem in Jerusalem, as attested
to by the intricate network of ancient aqueducts, tunnels, pools and
cisterns found in the city.
Jerusalem is 60 kilometers (37 mi) east of
Tel Aviv and the
Mediterranean Sea. On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35
kilometers (22 mi) away, is the Dead Sea, the lowest body of
water on Earth. Neighboring cities and towns include
Beit Jala to the south,
Abu Dis and
Ma'ale Adumim to the east,
Zion to the west, and
Giv'at Ze'ev to the
Mount Herzl, at the western side of the city near the Jerusalem
Forest, serves as the national cemetery of Israel.
View from the
Mount of Olives
Mount of Olives overlooking the old city of Jerusalem
during the snowfall of the 2013 cold snap
The city is characterized by a hot-summer Mediterranean climate
(Köppen: Csa ), with hot, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Snow
flurries usually occur once or twice a winter, although the city
experiences heavy snowfall every three to four years, on average, with
January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature
of 9.1 °C (48.4 °F); July and August are the hottest
months, with an average temperature of 24.2 °C (75.6 °F),
and the summer months are usually rainless. The average annual
precipitation is around 537 mm (21 in), with rain occurring
almost entirely between October and May.
Snowfall is rare, and
large snowfalls are even more rare.
Jerusalem received over
30 centimetres (12 in) of snow on 13 December 2013, which nearly
paralyzed the city. A day in
Jerusalem has on average, 9.3
sunshine hours. With summers averaging similar temperatures as the
coastline, the maritime influence from the
Mediterranean Sea is
strong, in particular given that
Jerusalem is located on a similar
latitude as scorching hot deserts not far to its east.
The highest recorded temperature in
Jerusalem was 44.4 °C
(111.9 °F) on 28 and 30 August 1881, and the lowest temperature
recorded was −6.7 °C (19.9 °F) on 25 January 1907.
Most of the air pollution in
Jerusalem comes from vehicular
traffic. Many main streets in
Jerusalem were not built to
accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic
congestion and more carbon monoxide released into the air. Industrial
pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on
the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over
Climate data for Jerusalem
Record high °C (°F)
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Record low °C (°F)
Average rainfall mm (inches)
Average rainy days
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Israel Meteorological Service
Source #2: NOAA (sun, 1961–1990)
Main article: Demographic history of Jerusalem
Jerusalem's population size and composition has shifted many times
over its 5,000 year history. Since medieval times, the Old City of
Jerusalem has been divided into Jewish, Muslim, Christian, and
Most population data pre-1905 is based on estimates, often from
foreign travellers or organisations, since previous census data
usually covered wider areas such as the
Jerusalem District. These
estimates suggest that since the end of the Crusades,
the largest group in
Jerusalem until the mid-nineteenth century.
Between 1838 and 1876, a number of estimates exist which conflict as
Muslims were the largest group during this period,
and between 1882 and 1922 estimates conflict as to exactly when Jews
became an absolute majority of the population.
Guesthouse in Mishkenot Sha'ananim, the first Jewish neighborhood
built outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem, on a hill
directly across from Mount Zion
Sheikh Jarrah, a predominantly
Arab neighborhood on the road to Mount
The Armenian Quarter
In December 2007,
Jerusalem had a population of 747,600—64% were
Jewish, 32% Muslim, and 2% Christian. At the end of 2005, the
population density was 5,750.4/km2 (14,893/sq mi).
According to a study published in 2000, the percentage of
Jews in the
city's population had been decreasing; this was attributed to a higher
Muslim birth rate, and Jewish residents leaving. The study also found
that about nine percent of the Old City's 32,488 people were
Jews. Of the Jewish population, 200,000 live in East Jerusalem
settlements which are considered illegal under international law.
In 2005, 2,850 new immigrants settled in Jerusalem, mostly from the
France and the former Soviet Union. In terms of the
local population, the number of outgoing residents exceeds the number
of incoming residents. In 2005, 16,000 left
Jerusalem and only 10,000
moved in. Nevertheless, the population of
Jerusalem continues to
rise due to the high birth rate, especially in the Haredi Jewish and
Arab communities. Consequently, the total fertility rate in Jerusalem
(4.02) is higher than in
Tel Aviv (1.98) and well above the national
average of 2.90. The average size of Jerusalem's 180,000 households is
In 2005, the total population grew by 13,000 (1.8%)—similar to the
Israeli national average, but the religious and ethnic composition is
shifting. While 31% of the Jewish population is made up of children
below the age fifteen, the figure for the
Arab population is 42%.
This would seem to corroborate the observation that the percentage of
Jerusalem has declined over the past four decades. In 1967,
Jews accounted for 74 percent of the population, while the figure for
2006 is down nine percent. Possible factors are the high cost of
housing, fewer job opportunities and the increasingly religious
character of the city, although proportionally, young Haredim are
leaving in higher numbers. The percentage of secular
Jews, or those who 'wear their faith lightly' is dropping, with some
20,000 leaving the city over the past seven years (2012). They now
number 31% of the population, the same percentage as the rising Haredi
population. Many move to the suburbs and coastal cities in search
of cheaper housing and a more secular lifestyle. In 2009, the
percentage of Haredim in the city was increasing. As of 2009[update],
out of 150,100 schoolchildren, 59,900 or 40% are in state-run secular
and National Religious schools, while 90,200 or 60% are in Haredi
schools. This correlates with the high number of children in Haredi
While some Israelis avoid
Jerusalem for its relative lack of
development and religious and political tensions, the city has
attracted Palestinians, offering more jobs and opportunity than any
city in the
West Bank or Gaza Strip. Palestinian officials have
encouraged Arabs over the years to stay in the city to maintain their
claim. Palestinians are attracted to the access to jobs,
healthcare, social security, other benefits, and quality of life
Israel provides to
Arab residents of
Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship are granted an
Israeli identity card that allows them to pass through checkpoints
with relative ease and to travel throughout Israel, making it easier
to find work. Residents also are entitled to the subsidized healthcare
and social security benefits
Israel provides its citizens, and have
the right to vote in municipal elections. Arabs in
Jerusalem can send
their children to Israeli-run schools, although not every neighborhood
has one, and universities. Israeli doctors and highly regarded
hospitals such as
Hadassah Medical Center
Hadassah Medical Center are available to
Demographics and the Jewish-
Arab population divide play a major role
in the dispute over Jerusalem. In 1998, the
Authority proposed expanding city limits to the west to include more
areas heavily populated with Jews.
Within the past few years, there has been a steady increase in the
Jewish birthrate and a steady decrease in the
Arab birthrate. In May
2012, it was reported that the Jewish birthrate had overtaken the Arab
birthrate. Currently, the city's birthrate stands about 4.2 children
per Jewish family and 3.9 children per
Arab family. In
addition, increasing numbers of Jewish immigrants chose to settle in
Jerusalem. In the last few years, thousands of Palestinians have moved
to previously fully Jewish neighborhoods of East Jerusalem, built
after the 1967 Six-Day War. In 2007, 1,300 Palestinians lived in the
previously exclusively Jewish neighborhood of
Pisgat Ze'ev and
constituted three percent of the population in Neve Ya'akov. In the
French Hill neighborhood, Palestinians today constitute one-sixth of
the overall population.
At the end of 2008, the population of
East Jerusalem was 456,300,
comprising 60% of Jerusalem's residents. Of these, 195,500 (43%) are
Jews, (comprising 40% of the Jewish population of
Jerusalem as a
whole), 260,800 (57%) are
Muslim (comprising 98% of the Muslim
population of Jerusalem). In 2008, the Palestinian Central Bureau
of Statistics reported the number of Palestinians living in East
Jerusalem was 208,000 according to a recently completed census.
Jerusalem's Jewish population is overwhelmingly religious. Only 21% of
Jewish residents are secular. In addition, Haredi
Jews comprise 30% of
the city's adult Jewish population. In a phenomenon seen rarely around
the world, the percentage of Jewish men who work, 47%, is exceeded by
the percentage of Jewish women who work, 50%. The young and less
religious continue to leave according to a 2016 Central Bureau of
Statistics report which noted 6,740 people left. The opening of high
speed rail transit to
Tel Aviv next year and the New
Business District currently under construction is designed to
alter business, tourism, and hopefully reverse the population
Jerusalem had a population of 801,000 in 2011, of which
Muslims 281,000 (35%), Christians 14,000 (around 2%)
and 9,000 (1%) were not classified by religion.
Urban planning issues
Critics of efforts to promote a Jewish majority in
Jerusalem say that
government planning policies are motivated by demographic
considerations and seek to limit
Arab construction while promoting
Jewish construction. According to a
World Bank report, the number
of recorded building violations between 1996 and 2000 was four and
half times higher in Jewish neighborhoods but four times fewer
demolition orders were issued in
West Jerusalem than in East
Jerusalem; Arabs in
Jerusalem were less likely to receive construction
permits than Jews, and "the authorities are much more likely to take
action against Palestinian violators" than Jewish violators of the
permit process. In recent years, private Jewish foundations have
received permission from the government to develop projects on
disputed lands, such as the
City of David
City of David archaeological park in the
Arab neighborhood of
Silwan (adjacent to the Old City), and
Museum of Tolerance
Museum of Tolerance on
Mamilla Cemetery (adjacent to Zion
Main article: Religious significance of Jerusalem
The Temple Mount, the holiest site in Judaism
The al-Aqsa Mosque, where
Muhammad ascended to heaven
The Western Wall, known as the Kotel
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, where some Christians believe Jesus
Jerusalem has been sacred to
Judaism for roughly 3000 years, to
Christianity for around 2000 years, and to
Islam for approximately
1400 years. The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of
Jerusalem lists 1204
synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city. Despite
efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such
as the Temple Mount, have been a continuous source of friction and
Jerusalem has been sacred to the
Jews since King
David proclaimed it
his capital in the 10th century BCE.[note 5]
Jerusalem was the site of
Solomon's Temple and the Second Temple. Although not mentioned in
Torah / Pentateuch, it is mentioned in the
Bible 632 times.
Today, the Western Wall, a remnant of the wall surrounding the Second
Temple, is a Jewish holy site second only to the "Holy of Holies" on
Temple Mount itself. Synagogues around the world are
traditionally built with the Holy Ark facing Jerusalem, and Arks
Jerusalem face the Holy of Holies. As prescribed in the
Mishna and codified in the Shulchan Aruch, daily prayers are recited
while facing towards
Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. Many
"Mizrach" plaques hung on a wall of their homes to indicate the
direction of prayer.
Jerusalem for its
Old Testament history, and also
for its significance in the life of Jesus. According to the New
Jesus was brought to
Jerusalem soon after his birth
and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple. The Cenacle,
believed to be the site of Jesus' Last Supper, is located on Mount
Zion in the same building that houses the Tomb of King
David. Another prominent
Christian site in
Golgotha, the site of the crucifixion. The
Gospel of John
Gospel of John describes it
as being located outside Jerusalem, but recent archaeological
evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City
walls, within the present-day confines of the city. The land
currently occupied by the
Church of the Holy Sepulchre
Church of the Holy Sepulchre is considered
one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian
pilgrimage site for the past 2000 years.
Jerusalem is the third-holiest city in Sunni Islam. For
approximately a year, before it was permanently switched to the Kaaba
in Mecca, the qibla (direction of prayer) for
Jerusalem. The city's lasting place in Islam, however, is
primarily due to Muhammad's Night of Ascension (c. CE 620). Muslims
Muhammad was miraculously transported one night from
Temple Mount in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to Heaven to meet
previous prophets of Islam. The first verse in the
Qur'an's Surat al-Isra notes the destination of Muhammad's journey as
al-Aqsa (the farthest) mosque, in reference to the location
in Jerusalem. The hadith, the recorded sayings of the Prophet
Jerusalem as the location of the Al-Aqsa Mosque.
The al-Aqsa Mosque, derived from the name mentioned in the Qur'an, was
built on the
Temple Mount under the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid to
commemorate the place from which
Muhammad ascended to
Bank of Israel
Historically, Jerusalem's economy was supported almost exclusively by
religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of
Jaffa and Gaza. Jerusalem's religious and cultural landmarks
today remain the top draw for foreign visitors, with the majority of
tourists visiting the
Western Wall and the Old City, In 2010,
Jerusalem was named the top leisure travel city in Africa and the
Middle East by
Travel + Leisure
Travel + Leisure magazine. in 2013, 75% of the 3.5
million tourists to
Israel visited Jerusalem.
Har Hotzvim high-tech park
Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the national
government has remained a major player in Jerusalem's economy. The
government, centered in Jerusalem, generates a large number of jobs,
and offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and
Tel Aviv remains Israel's financial center, a
growing number of high tech companies are moving to Jerusalem,
providing 12,000 jobs in 2006. Northern Jerusalem's Har Hotzvim
industrial park and the
Jerusalem Technology Park
Jerusalem Technology Park in south Jerusalem
are home to large
Research and Development
Research and Development centers of international
tech companies, among them Intel, Cisco, Teva Pharmaceutical
Industries, IBM, Mobileye, Johnson & Johnson,
Medtronic and more
. In April 2015,
Time Magazine picked
Jerusalem as one of the
five emerging tech hubs in the world, proclaiming that "The city has
become a flourishing center for biomed, cleantech, Internet/mobile
startups, accelerators, investors and supporting service
Mamilla Mall adorned with upscale shops adjacent to the Old City
Higher than average percentages are employed in education (17.9% vs.
12.7%); health and welfare (12.6% vs. 10.7%); community and social
services (6.4% vs. 4.7%); hotels and restaurants (6.1% vs. 4.7%); and
public administration (8.2% vs. 4.7%). During the British
Mandate, a law was passed requiring all buildings to be constructed of
Jerusalem stone in order to preserve the unique historic and aesthetic
character of the city. Complementing this building code, which is
still in force, is the discouragement of heavy industry in Jerusalem;
only about 2.2% of Jerusalem's land is zoned for "industry and
infrastructure." By comparison, the percentage of land in Tel Aviv
zoned for industry and infrastructure is twice as high, and in Haifa,
seven times as high. Only 8.5% of the
Jerusalem District work
force is employed in the manufacturing sector, which is half the
national average (15.8%).
Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since
East Jerusalem has lagged behind the development of West
Jerusalem. Nevertheless, the percentage of households with
employed persons is higher for
Arab households (76.1%) than for Jewish
households (66.8%). The unemployment rate in
Jerusalem (8.3%) is
slightly better than the national average (9.0%), although the
civilian labor force accounted for less than half of all persons
fifteen years or older—lower in comparison to that of Tel Aviv
Haifa (52.4%). Poverty remains a problem in the city
as 37% of the families in
Jerusalem lived in 2011 below the poverty
line. According to a report by the Association for Civil Rights in
Israel (ACRI), 78% of Arabs in
Jerusalem lived in poverty in 2012, up
from 64% in 2006. While the ACRI attributes the increase to the lack
of employment opportunities, infrastructure and a worsening
Ir Amim blames the legal status of Palestinians in
Jerusalem has traditionally had a low-rise skyline. About 18 tall
buildings were built at different times in the downtown area when
there was no clear policy over the matter. One of them, Holyland Tower
1, Jerusalem's tallest building, is a skyscraper by international
standards, rising 32 stories. Holyland Tower 2, which has been
approved for construction, will reach the same height.
A new master plan for the city will see many high-rise buildings,
including skyscrapers, built in certain, designated areas of downtown
Jerusalem. Under the plan, towers will line
Jaffa Road and King George
Street. One of the proposed towers along King George Street, the
Migdal Merkaz HaYekum, is planned as a 65-story building, which would
make it one of the tallest buildings in Israel. At the entrance to the
city, near the
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Jerusalem Chords Bridge and the Central Bus Station,
twelve towers rising between 24 and 33 stories will be built, as part
of a complex that will also include an open square and an underground
train station serving a new express line between
Jerusalem and Tel
Aviv, and will be connected by bridges and underground tunnels. Eleven
of the skyscrapers will be either office or apartment buildings, and
one will be a 2,000-room hotel. The complex is expected to attract
many businesses from Tel Aviv, and become the city's main business
hub. In addition, a complex for the city's courts and the prosecutor's
office will be built, as well as new buildings for Central Zionist
Israel State Archives. The skyscrapers
built throughout the city are expected to contain public space, shops,
restaurants, and entertainment venues, and it has been speculated that
this may lead to a revitalization of downtown Jerusalem. In
August 2015, the city council approved construction of a 344-foot
pyramid-shaped skyscraper designed by Daniel Libeskind and Yigal Levi,
in place of a rejected previous design by Libeskind; it is set to
break ground by 2019.
Main article: Transport in Jerusalem
Jerusalem Chords Bridge
Jerusalem is served by highly developed communication infrastructures,
making it a leading logistics hub for Israel.
Jerusalem Central Bus Station, located on
Jaffa Road, is the
busiest bus station in Israel. It is served by Egged Bus Cooperative,
which is the second-largest bus company in the world, The Dan
serves the Bnei Brak-
Jerusalem route along with Egged, and Superbus
serves the routes between Jerusalem, Modi'in Illit, and
Modi'in-Maccabim-Re'ut. The companies operate from
Arab neighborhoods in
East Jerusalem and routes between
Jerusalem and locations in the
West Bank are served by the East
Jerusalem Central Bus Station, a transportation hub located near the
Damascus Gate. The
Jerusalem Light Rail
Jerusalem Light Rail initiated service
in August 2011. According to plans, the first rail line will be
capable of transporting an estimated 200,000 people daily, and has 23
stops. The route is from
Pisgat Ze'ev in the north via the Old City
and city center to Mt. Herzl in the south.
Light Rail tram on
Another work in progress is a new high-speed rail line from Tel
Aviv to Jerusalem, which is scheduled to be completed in 2017. Its
terminus will be a new underground station (80 m (262.47 ft)
deep) serving the International Convention Center and the Central Bus
Station, and is planned to be extended eventually to Malha
Israel Railways operates train services to
Tel Aviv via Beit Shemesh.
Begin Expressway is one of Jerusalem's major north-south
thoroughfares; it runs on the western side of the city, merging in the
north with Route 443, which continues toward Tel Aviv. Route 60 runs
through the center of the city near the Green Line between East and
West Jerusalem. Construction is progressing on parts of a 35-kilometer
(22 mi) ring road around the city, fostering faster connection
between the suburbs. The eastern half of the project was
conceptualized decades ago, but reaction to the proposed highway is
Jerusalem is served by Ben Gurion Airport, some 50 kilometres (31
miles) northwest of the Jerusalem, on the route to Tel Aviv. In the
past it was also served by the local
operation in 2000.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem,
Mount Scopus campus
Hand in Hand, a bilingual Jewish-
Arab school in Jerusalem
Jerusalem is home to several prestigious universities offering courses
in Hebrew, Arabic and English. Founded in 1925, the
Jerusalem has been ranked among the top 100 schools in the
world. The Board of Governors has included such prominent Jewish
Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud. The
university has produced several Nobel laureates; recent winners
Hebrew University include Avram Hershko, David
Gross, and Daniel Kahneman. One of the university's major
assets is the Jewish National and University Library, which houses
over five million books. The library opened in 1892, over three
decades before the university was established, and is one of the
world's largest repositories of books on Jewish subjects. Today it is
both the central library of the university and the national library of
Hebrew University operates three campuses in
Jerusalem, on Mount Scopus, on Giv'at Ram and a medical campus at the
Ein Kerem hospital. the Academy of the
Hebrew Language are
located in the
Hebrew university in
Givat Ram and the
of Sciences and Humanities located near the Presidents house.
Al-Quds University was established in 1984 to serve as a flagship
university for the
Arab and Palestinian peoples. It describes itself
as the "only
Arab university in Jerusalem". New York Bard College
Al-Quds University agreed to open a joint college in a building
originally built to house the
Palestinian Legislative Council
Palestinian Legislative Council and
Yasser Arafat's office. The college gives Master of Arts in Teaching
Al-Quds University resides southeast of the city proper
on a 190,000 square metres (47 acres)
Abu Dis campus. Other
institutions of higher learning in
Jerusalem are the
of Music and Dance and Bezalel Academy of Art and Design,
whose buildings are located on the campuses of the
Givat Mordechai neighborhood
Jerusalem College of Technology, founded in 1969, combines
training in engineering and other high-tech industries with a Jewish
studies program. It is one of many schools in Jerusalem, from
elementary school and up, that combine secular and religious studies.
Numerous religious educational institutions and Yeshivot, including
some of the most prestigious yeshivas, among them the Brisk, Chevron,
Midrash Shmuel and Mir, are based in the city, with the Mir Yeshiva
claiming to be the largest. There were nearly 8,000 twelfth-grade
students in Hebrew-language schools during the 2003–2004 school
year. However, due to the large portion of students in Haredi
Jewish frameworks, only fifty-five percent of twelfth graders took
matriculation exams (Bagrut) and only thirty-seven percent were
eligible to graduate. Unlike public schools, many Haredi schools do
not prepare students to take standardized tests. To attract more
university students to Jerusalem, the city has begun to offer a
special package of financial incentives and housing subsidies to
students who rent apartments in downtown Jerusalem.
Schools for Arabs in
Jerusalem and other parts of
Israel have been
criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering
to Israeli Jewish students. While many schools in the heavily
East Jerusalem are filled to capacity and there have been
complaints of overcrowding, the
Jerusalem Municipality is currently
building over a dozen new schools in the city's Arab
neighborhoods. Schools in Ras el-Amud and Umm Lison opened in
2008. In March 2007, the Israeli government approved a 5-year
plan to build 8,000 new classrooms in the city, 40 percent in the Arab
sector and 28 percent in the Haredi sector. A budget of
4.6 billion shekels was allocated for this project. In 2008,
Jewish British philanthropists donated $3 million for the construction
of schools for Arabs in East Jerusalem.
Arab high school students
Bagrut matriculation exams, so that much of their curriculum
parallels that of other Israeli high schools and includes certain
The Shrine of the Book, housing the
Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel
Jerusalem is known primarily for its religious significance,
the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. The Israel
Museum attracts nearly one million visitors a year, approximately
one-third of them tourists. The 20-acre (81,000 m2) museum
complex comprises several buildings featuring special exhibits and
extensive collections of Judaica, archaeological findings, and Israeli
and European art. The
Dead Sea scrolls, discovered in the mid-20th
century in the
Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea, are housed in the
Museum's Shrine of the Book. The Youth Wing, which mounts
changing exhibits and runs an extensive art education program, is
visited by 100,000 children a year. The museum has a large outdoor
sculpture garden and a scale-model of the Second Temple. The
Ticho House in downtown
Jerusalem houses the paintings of Anna Ticho
and the Judaica collections of her husband, an ophthalmologist who
opened Jerusalem's first eye clinic in this building in 1912.
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
Next to the
Israel Museum is the
Bible Lands Museum, near The National
Campus for the Archaeology of Israel, which includes the Israel
Antiquities Authority offices. A World
Bible Center is planned to be
built adjacent to Mount
Zion at a site called the "
Bible Hill". A
Kabbalah Center is to be located on the nearby
promenade, overlooking the Old City. The Rockefeller Museum, located
in East Jerusalem, was the first archaeological museum in the Middle
East. It was built in 1938 during the British Mandate. In
2006, a 38 km (24 mi)
Jerusalem Trail was opened, a hiking
trail that goes to many cultural sites and national parks in and
around Jerusalem. The
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo
Jerusalem Biblical Zoo has ranked consistently
as Israel's top tourist attraction for Israelis.
The national cemetery of
Israel is located at the city's western edge,
Jerusalem Forest on Mount Herzl. The western extension of
Mount Herzl is the Mount of Remembrance, where the main Holocaust
Israel is located. Yad Vashem, Israel's national memorial to
the victims of the Holocaust, houses the world's largest library of
Holocaust-related information. It houses an estimated 100,000
books and articles. The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum
that explores the genocide of the
Jews through exhibits that focus on
the personal stories of individuals and families killed in the
Holocaust. An art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished
is also present. Further,
Yad Vashem commemorates the 1.5 million
Jewish children murdered by the Nazis, and honors the Righteous among
National Library of Israel
Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, established in the 1940s, has
appeared around the world. The International Convention Center
(Binyanei HaUma) near the entrance to city houses the Israel
Philharmonic Orchestra. The
Jerusalem Cinemateque, the Gerard Behar
Center (formerly Beit Ha'Am) in downtown Jerusalem, the Jerusalem
Music Center in Yemin Moshe, and the Targ Music Center in Ein
Kerem also present the arts. The
Israel Festival, featuring indoor and
outdoor performances by local and international singers, concerts,
plays, and street theater has been held annually since 1961, and
Jerusalem has been the major organizer of this event. The Jerusalem
Theater in the
Talbiya neighborhood hosts over 150 concerts a year, as
well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from
overseas. The Khan Theater, located in a caravanserai opposite
Jerusalem train station, is the city's only repertoire
theater. The station itself has become a venue for cultural
events in recent years as the site of Shav'ua Hasefer (an annual
week-long book fair) and outdoor music performances. The
Jerusalem Film Festival
Jerusalem Film Festival is held annually, screening Israeli and
international films. In 1974 the
Jerusalem Cinematheque was
founded. In 1981 it was moved to a new building on
Hebron Road near
Valley of Hinnom
Valley of Hinnom and the Old City.
Jerusalem was declared the Capital of
Arab Culture in 2009.
Jerusalem is home to the Palestinian National Theatre, which engages
in cultural preservation as well as innovation, working to rekindle
Palestinian interest in the arts. The Edward Said National
Conservatory of Music sponsors the Palestine Youth Orchestra
Arab states of the Persian Gulf
Arab states of the Persian Gulf and other Middle East
countries in 2009. The
Islamic Museum on the Temple Mount,
established in 1923, houses many Islamic artifacts, from tiny kohl
flasks and rare manuscripts to giant marble columns. Al-Hoash,
established in 2004, is a gallery for the preservation of Palestinian
Israel approves and financially supports some Arab
cultural activities,
Arab Capital of Culture events
were banned because they were sponsored by the Palestine National
Authority. In 2009, a four-day culture festival was held in the
Beit 'Anan suburb of Jerusalem, attended by more than 15,000
The Museum on the Seam, which explores issues of coexistence through
art, is situated on the road dividing eastern and western
Abraham Fund and the
Center] (JICC) promote joint Jewish-Palestinian cultural projects. The
Jerusalem Center for Middle Eastern Music and Dance is open to
Jews and offers workshops on Jewish-
Arab dialogue through
the arts. The Jewish-
Arab Youth Orchestra performs both European
classical and Middle Eastern music. In 2008, the Tolerance
Monument, an outdoor sculpture by Czesław Dźwigaj, was erected on a
hill between Jewish Armon HaNetziv and
Arab Jebl Mukaber as a symbol
of Jerusalem's quest for peace.
Jerusalem is the state broadcasting center of Israel. The Israel
Broadcasting Authority's main office is located in Jerusalem, as well
as the TV and radio studios for
Israel Radio, Channel 2, Channel 10,
and part of the radio studios of
The Jerusalem Post
The Jerusalem Post and The
Israel are also headquartered in Jerusalem. Local newspapers
include Kol Ha'Ir and The
God TV, an international
Christian television network is also based in the city.
See also: Beitar
Jerusalem F.C., Hapoel
Jerusalem B.C., and Jerusalem
Teddy Stadium, Malha
The two most popular sports are football (soccer) and basketball.
Jerusalem Football Club is one of the most well known in
Israel. Fans include political figures who often attend its
games. Jerusalem's other major football team, and one of Beitar's
top rivals, is
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C.
Hapoel Jerusalem F.C. Whereas Beitar has been Israel
State Cup champion seven times, Hapoel has won the Cup only once.
Beitar has won the top league six times, while Hapoel has never
succeeded. Beitar plays in the more prestigious Ligat HaAl, while
Hapoel is in the second division Liga Leumit. Since its opening in
Teddy Stadium has been Jerusalem's primary football stadium,
with a capacity of 31,733. The most popular Palestinian football
club is Jabal Al Mukaber (since 1976) which plays in
West Bank Premier
League. The club hails from
Mount Scopus at Jerusalem, part of the
Asian Football Confederation, and plays at the Faisal Al-Husseini
International Stadium at Al-Ram, across the West Bank
In basketball, Hapoel
Jerusalem is one of the top teams in the top
division. The club has won Israel's championship in 2015, the State
Cup four times, and the ULEB Cup in 2004.
Jerusalem Marathon, established in 2011, is an international
marathon race held annually in
Jerusalem in the month of March. The
full 42-kilometer race begins at the Knesset, passes through Mount
Scopus and the Old City's Armenian Quarter, and concludes at Sacher
Park. In 2012, the
Jerusalem Marathon drew 15,000 runners, including
1,500 from fifty countries outside Israel.
A popular non-competitive sports event is the
Jerusalem March, held
annually during the
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of Israeli twin towns and sister cities
Prague, Czech Republic
New York City,
United States (since 1993)
Marseille, France
List of people from Jerusalem
List of places in Jerusalem
List of songs about Jerusalem
State of Palestine
State of Palestine (according to the Basic Law of Palestine,
Title One: Article 3) regards
Jerusalem as its capital. But the
documents of the PLO's Negotiations Affairs Department (NAD) often
East Jerusalem (rather than the whole of Jerusalem) as a
future capital, and sometimes as the current capital. One of its 2010
documents, described as "for discussion purposes only", says that
Palestine has a '"vision"' for a future in which "
East Jerusalem ...
shall be the capital of Palestine, and
West Jerusalem shall be the
capital of Israel", and one of its 2013 documents refers to
"Palestine's capital, East Jerusalem", and states that "Occupied East
Jerusalem is the natural socio-economic and political center for the
future Palestinian state", while also stating that "
always been and remains the political, administrative and spiritual
heart of Palestine" and that "The Palestinian acceptance of the 1967
border, which includes East Jerusalem, is a painful compromise".
^ In other languages: official Arabic in Israel: Arabic:
أورشليم القدس, translit. Ûrshalîm-Al Quds
(combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); Ancient Greek:
translit. Hierousalḗm/Hierosóluma; Armenian:
Երուսաղեմ, translit. Erusałēm.
Jerusalem is the capital under Israeli law. The presidential
residence, government offices, supreme court and parliament (Knesset)
are located there. The
State of Palestine
State of Palestine (according to the Basic Law
of Palestine, Title One: Article 3) regards
Jerusalem as its
capital. The UN and most countries do not recognize
Israel's capital, taking the position that the final status of
Jerusalem is pending future negotiations between
Israel and the
Palestinian Authority. Most countries maintain their embassies in Tel
Aviv and its suburbs or suburbs of Jerusalem, such as Mevaseret Zion
(see CIA Factbook and "Map of Israel" (PDF). (319 KB))
Status of Jerusalem
Status of Jerusalem for more information.
^ Statistics regarding the demographics of
Jerusalem refer to the
unified and expanded Israeli municipality, which includes the pre-1967
Israeli and Jordanian municipalities as well as several additional
Palestinian villages and neighborhoods to the northeast. Some of the
Palestinian villages and neighborhoods have been relinquished to the
West Bank de facto by way of the Israeli
West Bank barrier, but
their legal statuses have not been reverted.
^ a b Much of the information regarding King David's conquest of
Jerusalem comes from Biblical accounts, but some modern-day historians
have begun to give them credit due to a 1993 excavation.
West Jerusalem comprises approximately one third of the current
municipal area of Jerusalem, with
East Jerusalem comprising
approximately two thirds. On the annexation of East Jerusalem, Israel
also incorporated an area of the
West Bank into the Jerusalem
municipal area which represented more than ten times the area of East
Jerusalem under Jordanian rule.
^ a b 2003 Amended Basic Law. Basic Law of Palestine. Retrieved: 9
^ PLO-NAD, June 2010,
Jerusalem Non-Paper Archived 6 February 2012 at
the Wayback Machine. on Statements and Speeches Archived 2016-04-18 at
the Wayback Machine., nad-plo.org; accessed 25 November 2014. Extracts
from page 2:"This paper is for discussion purposes only. Nothing is
agreed until everything is agreed.
Palestinian vision for Jerusalem
Pursuant to our vision, East Jerusalem, as defined by its pre-1967
occupation municipal borders, shall be the capital of Palestine, and
West Jerusalem shall be the capital of Israel, with each state
enjoying full sovereignty over its respective part of the city."
^ PLO-Negotiations Affairs Department (NAD), August 2013, East
Jerusalem today – Palestine's Capital: The 1967 border in Jerusalem
and Israel's illegal policies on the ground Archived 4 March 2016 at
the Wayback Machine., nad-plo.org; accessed 25 November 2014, Quotes:"
... Palestine's capital,
East Jerusalem ... The Palestinian acceptance
of the 1967 border, which includes East Jerusalem, is a painful
Jerusalem has always been and remains the political,
administrative and spiritual heart of Palestine. Occupied East
Jerusalem is the natural socio-economic and political center for the
future Palestinian state."
^ "List of localities, in Alphabetical order" (PDF).
Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
^ "Localities, Population and Density per Sq. Km., by Metropolitan
Area and Selected Localities".
Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. 6
September 2017. Retrieved 19 September 2017.
^ "Facts and Figures". jerusalem.muni.il. Archived from the original
on 31 October 2016.
^ "Do We Divide the Holiest Holy City?". Moment Magazine. Archived
from the original on 3 June 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
According to Eric H. Cline's tally in
^ a b "Timeline for the History of Jerusalem". Jewish Virtual Library.
American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise. Retrieved 16 April
^ Moore, Megan Bishop; Kelle, Brad E. (17 May 2011). "Biblical History
and Israel's Past: The Changing Study of the
Bible and History". Wm.
B. Eerdmans Publishing – via Google Books.
^ Ben-Arieh, Yehoshua (1984).
Jerusalem in the 19th Century, The Old
City. Yad Izhak Ben Zvi & St. Martin's Press. p. 14.
Old City of Jerusalem
Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls".
UNESCO World Heritage
Convention. Retrieved 11 September 2010.
^ Tom Teicholz (20 July 2015). "Mr. Jerusalem: Nir Hasson of Haaretz's
Jerusalem Blog'". Forbes Israel. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
^ a b Laub, Karin (2 December 2006). "
Jerusalem Barrier Causes Major
Associated Press via The Washington Post. Retrieved 10
^ a b "Selected Data on the Occasion of
Jerusalem Day" (PDF). Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics. 16 May 2012. Retrieved 3 January
^ Pellegrino, Charles R. (1 December 1995). Return to Sodom &
Gomorrah (Second revised ed.). Harper Paperbacks. p. 271.
ISBN 0-380-72633-5. [see footnote]
^ a b Since the 10th century BCE:
Israel was first forged into a unified nation from
3,000 years ago, when King
David seized the crown and united the
twelve tribes from this city... For a thousand years
Jerusalem was the
seat of Jewish sovereignty, the household site of kings, the location
of its legislative councils and courts. In exile, the Jewish nation
came to be identified with the city that had been the site of its
ancient capital. Jews, wherever they were, prayed for its
restoration." Roger Friedland, Richard D. Hecht. To Rule Jerusalem,
University of California Press, 2000, p. 8. ISBN 0-520-22092-7
"The centrality of
Judaism is so strong that even secular
Jews express their devotion and attachment to the city, and cannot
conceive of a modern State of
Israel without it.... For
is sacred simply because it exists... Though Jerusalem's sacred
character goes back three millennia...". Leslie J. Hoppe. The Holy
Jerusalem in the theology of the Old Testament, Liturgical
Press, 2000, p. 6. ISBN 0-8146-5081-3
"Ever since King
Jerusalem the capital of
years ago, the city has played a central role in Jewish existence."
Mitchell Geoffrey Bard, The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East
Conflict, Alpha Books, 2002, p. 330. ISBN 0-02-864410-7
Jerusalem became the center of the
Jewish people some 3,000 years
ago" Moshe Maoz, Sari Nusseibeh, Jerusalem: Points of Friction – And
Beyond, Brill Academic Publishers, 2000, p. 1. ISBN 90-411-8843-6
Jewish people are inextricably bound to the city of Jerusalem. No
other city has played such a dominant role in the history, politics,
culture, religion, national life and consciousness of a people as has
Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Since King David
established the city as the capital of the Jewish state circa 1000
BCE, it has served as the symbol and most profound expression of the
Jewish people's identity as a nation." Basic Facts you should know:
Jerusalem Archived 4 January 2013 at the Wayback Machine.,
Anti-Defamation League, 2007. Retrieved 28 March 2007.
^ Reinoud Oosting, The Role of Zion/
Jerusalem in Isaiah 40–55: A
Corpus-Linguistic Approach, p. 117, at
Google Books BRILL 2012 p.
117-118. Isaiah 48:2;51:1; Nehemiah 11:1,18; cf. Joel 4:17: Daniel
5:24. The Isaiah section where they occur belong to deutero-Isaiah.
^ Shalom M. Paul, Isaiah 40–66, p. 306, at
Google Books Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing, 2012 p.306. The ‘holiness’ (qodesh) arises
from the temple in its midst, the root q-d-š referring to a
sanctuary. The concept is attested in Mesopotamian literature, and the
epithet may serve to distinguish Babylon, the city of exiles, from the
city of the Temple, to where they are enjoined to return.
^ Golb, Norman (1997). "Karen Armstrong's Jerusalem—One City, Three
Bible and Interpretation. Retrieved 10 July 2013. The
available texts of antiquity indicate that the concept was created by
one or more personalities among the Jewish spiritual leadership, and
that this occurred no later than the 6th century B.C.
^ Isaiah 52:1 πόλις ἡ ἁγία.
Joseph T. Lienhard, The Bible, the Church, and Authority: The Canon
Bible in History and Theology, Liturgical Press, 1995
Septuagint is a Jewish translation and was also used
in the synagogue. But at the end of the first century C.E. many Jews
ceased to use the
Septuagint because the early Christians had adopted
it as their own translation, and it began to be considered a Christian
^ a b Third-holiest city in Islam:
Esposito, John L. (2 November 2002). What Everyone Needs to Know about
Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 157. ISBN 0-19-515713-3.
The Night Journey made
Jerusalem the third holiest city in Islam
Brown, Leon Carl (15 September 2000). "Setting the Stage:
Muslims". Religion and State: The
Muslim Approach to Politics.
Columbia University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-231-12038-9. The
third holiest city of Islam—Jerusalem—is also very much in the
Hoppe, Leslie J. (August 2000). The Holy City:
Jerusalem in the
Theology of the Old Testament. Michael Glazier Books. p. 14.
Jerusalem has always enjoyed a prominent
place in Islam.
Jerusalem is often referred to as the third holiest
city in Islam...
Middle East peace plans by Willard A. Beling: "The Aqsa
Temple Mount is the third holiest site in Sunni
Islam after Mecca
^ Lewis, Bernard; Holt, P. M.; Lambton, Ann, eds. (1986). Cambridge
History of Islam. Cambridge University Press.
^ Quran 17:1–3
^ Buchanan, Allen (2004). States, Nations, and Borders: The Ethics of
Making Boundaries. Cambridge University Press.
ISBN 0-521-52575-6. Retrieved 9 June 2008.
^ Kollek, Teddy (1977). "Afterword". In John Phillips. A Will to
Survive – Israel: the Faces of the Terror 1948-the Faces of Hope
Today. Dial Press/James Wade. about 225 acres (0.91 km2)
Walid Khalidi (1996) Islam, the West and Jerusalem. Center for
Arab Studies & Center for Muslim–Christian
Understanding, Georgetown University, quotes the breakdown as follows:
West Jerusalem in 1948: 16,261 dunums (14%);
West Jerusalem added in
1967: 23,000 dunums (20%);
East Jerusalem under Jordanian rule: 6,000
West Bank area annexed and incorporated into East
Jerusalem by Israel: 67,000 dunums (61%)
^ Aronson, Geoffrey (1995). "Settlement Monitor: Quarterly Update on
Developments". Journal of Palestine Studies. University of California
Press, Institute for Palestine Studies. 25 (1): 131–40.
doi:10.2307/2538120. JSTOR 2538120. West Jerusalem: 35%; East
Jerusalem under Jordanian rule: 4%;
West Bank area annexed and
East Jerusalem by Israel: 59%
^ Benvenisti, Meron (1976). Jerusalem, the Torn City. Books on Demand.
p. 113. ISBN 978-0-7837-2978-7.
East Jerusalem under
Jordanian rule: 6,000 dunums;
West Bank area annexed and incorporated
East Jerusalem by Israel: 67,000
Israel plans 1,300
East Jerusalem Jewish settler homes".
9 November 2010.
East Jerusalem is regarded as occupied Palestinian
territory by the international community, but
Israel says it is part
of its territory.
^ "The status of Jerusalem" (PDF). The Question of Palestine & the
United Nations Department of Public Information. East
Jerusalem has been considered, by both the General Assembly and the
Security Council, as part of the occupied Palestinian territory.
^ "Israeli authorities back 600 new
East Jerusalem homes".
2010-02-26. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
^ Resolution 298 September 25, 1971: Archived 19 August 2013 at the
Wayback Machine. "Recalling its resolutions... concerning measures and
Israel designed to change the status of the
Israeli-occupied section of Jerusalem,..."
^ Bisharat, George (23 December 2010). "Maximizing Rights". In Susan
M. Akram; Michael Dumper; Michael Lynk. International Law and the
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Rights-Based Approach to Middle East
Peace. Routledge. p. 311. ISBN 978-1-136-85098-1. As we have
noted previously the international legal status of
contested and Israel's designation of it as its capital has not been
recognized by the international community. However its claims of
sovereign rights to the city are stronger with respect to West
Jerusalem than with respect to East Jerusalem.
^ Moshe Hirsch; Deborah Housen-Couriel; Ruth Lapidot (28 June 1995).
Whither Jerusalem?: Proposals and Positions Concerning the Future of
Jerusalem. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. p. 15.
ISBN 90-411-0077-6. What, then, is Israel's status in west
Jerusalem? Two main answers have been adduced: (a)
sovereignty in this area; and (b) sovereignty lies with the
Palestinian people or is suspended.
David Noel Freedman; Allen C. Myers; Astrid B. Beck (2000). Eerdmans
dictionary of the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.
pp. 694–695. ISBN 978-0-8028-2400-4. Retrieved 19 August
2010. Nadav Na'aman,
Canaan in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E.,
Eisenbrauns, 2005 pp.177ff. offers a dissenting opinion, arguing for
the transcription Rôsh-ramen, etymologized to r'š (head) and rmm (be
exalted), to mean 'the exalted Head', and not referring to Jerusalem.
^ G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren (eds.) Theological
Dictionary of the Old Testament, (tr.
David E. Green) William B.
Eerdmann, Grand Rapids Michigan, Cambridge, UK 1990, Vol. VI, p. 348
^ "The El Amarna Letters from Canaan". Tau.ac.il. Retrieved 11
^ Meir Ben-Dov, Historical Atlas of Jerusalem, Continuum International
Publishing Group, 2002, p. 23.
^ a b Binz, Stephen J. (2005). Jerusalem, the Holy City. Connecticut,
USA.: Twenty-Third Publications. p. 2. ISBN 9781585953653.
Retrieved 17 December 2011.
^ G. Johannes Bottereck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry, (eds.)
Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, tr.
David E. Green, vol.
XV, pp. 48–49 William B. Eeerdmanns Co. Grand Rapids,
Michigan/Cambridge UK 2006, pp. 45–6
^ Ginzberg, Louis (1909). The Legends of the
Jews Volume I: The Akedah
(Translated by Henrietta Szold) Philadelphia: Jewish Publication
^ Writing, Literacy, and Textual Transmission: The Production of
Literary by Jessica N. Whisenant p. 323
^ King Manasseh and Child Sacrifice: Biblical Distortions of
Historical Realities by Francesca Stavrakopoulou p. 98
^ Oral World and Written Word: Ancient
Israelite Literature by Susan
Niditch p. 48
^ The Mountain of the Lord by Benyamin Mazar p. 60
^ Blessing and Curse in Syro-Palestinian Inscriptions by T. G Crawford
Joseph Naveh (2001). "
Hebrew Graffiti from the First Temple Period".
Israel Exploration Journal. 51 (2): 194–207.
^ Discovering the World of the
Bible by LaMar C. Berrett p. 178
^ Elon, Amos. Jerusalem. HarperCollins Publishers Ltd.
ISBN 0-00-637531-6. Archived from the original on 10 March 2003.
Retrieved 26 April 2007. The epithet may have originated in the
ancient name of Jerusalem—Salem (after the pagan deity of the city),
which is etymologically connected in the Semitic languages with the
words for peace (shalom in Hebrew, salam in Arabic).
^ Ringgren, H., Die Religionen des Alten Orients (Göttingen, 1979),
^ Hastings, James (2004). A Dictionary of the Bible: Volume II: (Part
II: I – Kinsman), Volume 2. Honolulu, Hawaii: Reprinted from 1898
edition by University Press of the Pacific. p. 584.
ISBN 1-4102-1725-6. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
^ a b Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic cities of the Islamic
world. The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV. pp. 225–226.
ISBN 90-04-15388-8. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
^ a b Denise DeGarmo (9 September 2011). "Abode of Peace?". Wandering
Thoughts. Center for Conflict Studies. Archived from the original on
26 April 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
^ Marten H. Wouldstra, The
Book of Joshua, William B. Eerdmanns Co.
Grand Rapids, Michigan (1981) 1995, p. 169 n.2
^ Bosworth, Francis Edward (1968). Millennium: a Latin reader, A.
Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. p. 183.
ASIN B0000CO4LE. Retrieved 17 December 2011.
^ Wallace, Edwin Sherman (August 1977).
Jerusalem the Holy. New York:
Arno Press. p. 16. ISBN 0-405-10298-4. A similar view was
held by those who give the
Hebrew dual to the word
^ Smith, George
Adam (1907). Jerusalem: The Topography, Economics and
History from the Earliest Times to A.D. 70. Hodder and Stoughton.
p. 251. ISBN 0-7905-2935-1. The termination -aim or -ayim
used to be taken as the ordinary termination of the dual of nouns, and
was explained as signifying the upper and lower cities (see here
, p. 251, at Google Books)
^ "Bible, King James Version". umich.edu. Retrieved 2016-02-12.
^ The Oxford encyclopedia of ancient Greece and Rome, Volume 1, p.
113, at Google Books, p. 113
Samuel 5:7,9. cited
Israel Finkelstein, Amihay Mazar, Brian B.
Schmidt, (eds) The Quest for the Historical Israel, Society of
Biblical Literature, 2007 p.127.
^ Bar-Kochva, Bezalel (2002). Judas Maccabeus: The Jewish Struggle
Against the Seleucids. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University
Press. p. 447. ISBN 0-521-01683-5.
^ Mazar, Eilat (2002). The Complete Guide to the Temple Mount
Excavations. Jerusalem: Shoham Academic Research and Publication.
p. 1. ISBN 965-90299-1-8.
^ E.g., Jubilees 1:30, the
Septuagint version of Jeremias 48:5 (as
Συχὲμ) and possibly the Masoretic text of Genesis 33:18 (see KJV
and the margin translation of the Revised Version).
^ E.g., the
Peshitta versions. J.A. Emerton, "The site of
Salem: the City of
Melchizedek (Genesis xiv 18)," pp. 45–72 of
Studies in the
Pentateuch ed. by J.A. Emerton, vol. 41 of Supplements
to Vetus Testamentum (Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1990) ("Emerton"), p. 45.
See also John 3:23 where "Salim" or "Sylem" (Συχὲμ) is said to
be near Ænon, thought to be in the valley of Mount Ebal, one of two
mountains in the vicinity of Nablus.
Pseudo-Jonathan and Neofiti I. Emerton, p. 45.
^ Genesis 12:6–7 (where Abram built an altar), Genesis 33:18–20,
Deuteronomy 11:29 & 28:11,
Joshua 8:33, 1 Kings 12. Emerton, p.
^ Paul Winter, "Note on Salem – Jerusalem", Novum Testamentum, vol.
2, pp. 151–52 (1957).
^ Raymond Hayward. "
Melchizedek as Priest of the
Jerusalem Temple in
Talmud, Midrash, and Targum" (PDF). The Temple Studies Group.
Retrieved 24 January 2015.
^ "The Official Website of Jerusalem". Municipality of Jerusalem. 19
September 2011. Archived from the original on 27 April 2007.
^ Sonbol, Amira (1996). Women, the Family, and Divorce Laws in Islamic
History. p. 133.
^ a b Israeli Archaeologists Discover 7,000-Year-Old Settlement The
New York Time, Feb 17, 2016
^ a b Azmi Bishara. "A brief note on Jerusalem". Retrieved 22
^ "No city in the world, not even Athens or Rome, ever played as great
a role in the life of a nation for so long a time, as
done in the life of the Jewish people."
David Ben-Gurion, 1947
^ "For three thousand years,
Jerusalem has been the center of Jewish
hope and longing. No other city has played such a dominant role in the
history, culture, religion and consciousness of a people as has
Jerusalem in the life of Jewry and Judaism. Throughout centuries of
Jerusalem remained alive in the hearts of
Jews everywhere as
the focal point of Jewish history, the symbol of ancient glory,
spiritual fulfillment and modern renewal. This heart and soul of the
Jewish people engenders the thought that if you want one simple word
to symbolize all of Jewish history, that word would be
Teddy Kollek (DC: Washington Institute For Near East
Policy, 1990), pp. 19–20.
^ John Quigley (1 July 1998). The Palestine Yearbook of International
Law, 1996–1997. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 32–.
ISBN 90-411-1009-7. Palestine's claim to
Jerusalem is founded on
the longtime status of the Palestinian Arabs as the majority
population of Palestine. On that basis the Palestinians claim
sovereignty over all of Palestine. including Jerusalem, both East and
West. The Palestinians claim descent from the Canaanites, the earliest
recorded inhabitants of Palestine. Although political control changed
hands many times through history, this population, which was Arabized
Arab conquest of the seventh century A.D., remained into the
^ Ali Hussein Qleibo, 'Canaanites, Christians, and the Palestinian
Agricultural Calendar,' Kyoto Bulletin of Islamic Area Studies, Vol.3
No.1 July 2009 pp.9–20, pp.15–16:"Ancient
Canaanites had forged
the first spiritual relationship with Palestine. Their initial
perception of Palestine's geography: the rocks, caves, water springs,
and trees have come to imbue the holy land with its mythos. Their
perception, intuition, and interaction with the natural environment,
structured and conditioned the unique socio-economic system, religion,
and spiritual legacy that the diverse Semitic and non-Semitic ethnic
later settlers adapted themselves to. The dynamic process of
ecological adaptation to an ever-shifting environment, the cultural
diversity of which the Canaanite nascent city-states were composed,
and the influences of the various peoples with whom the Palestinians
came into contact have never ceased. The rain-dependent frail
ecosystem, which is vulnerable to dramatic climatic changes, has
dynamically prodded an ever-shifting process of adaptations. These
peoples are innumerable and include the Hurrites, Jebusites,
Canaanites, Hebrews, Edomites, Arameans, and Arabs. Ancient
non-Semitic peoples were composed of diverse
Greeks from Crete, Ionia,
the Black Sea, Anatolia, and Lydia, and were followed by Hellenic
Greeks, Roman legions, Persians, Byzantines, Crusaders, Kurds, Turks.
In modern history Egyptians, British, Jordanians, and Israelis played
an ever-increasing role in reorganizing the ecological system,
expanding our resources in new directions, and reshaping Palestinian
modern identity. Heirs to all these peoples and cultures, Palestinians
can claim neither racial genetic purity nor ontological cultural
^ "(With reference to Palestinians in Ottoman times) Although proud of
Arab heritage and ancestry, the Palestinians considered
themselves to be descended not only from
Arab conquerors of the
seventh century but also from indigenous peoples who had lived in the
country since time immemorial, including the ancient
Hebrews and the
Canaanites before them. Acutely aware of the distinctiveness of
Palestinian history, the Palestinians saw themselves as the heirs of
its rich associations." Walid Khalidi, 1984, Before Their Diaspora: A
Photographic History of the Palestinians, 1876–1948. Institute for
^ Eric H. Cline. "How
Jews and Arabs Use (and Misuse) the History of
Jerusalem to Score Points". Retrieved 22 September 2010.
^ Eli E. Hertz. "One Nation's Capital Throughout History" (PDF).
Retrieved 22 September 2010.
Isabel Kershner (June 5, 2007). "Under a Divided City, Evidence of a
Once United One". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
Noah Browning, 'In bleak
Arab hinterland, hints of Jerusalem's
Reuters December 20, 2013.
Jerusalem Even Older Than Thought: Archaeologists Find
7,000-year-old Houses Haaretz, Feb 17, 2016
^ 7,000-YEAR-OLD TOWN UNEARTHED IN JERUSALEM Newsweek, Feb 17, 2016
^ a b c Freedman,
David Noel (1 January 2000). Eerdmans Dictionary of
the Bible. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 694–95.
^ "TABLE 3. – POPULATION(1) OF LOCALITIES NUMBERING ABOVE 2,000
RESIDENTS AND OTHER RURAL POPULATION ON 31/12/2008" (PDF). Israel
Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 26 October 2009.
^ Nadav Na'aman, op.cit pp.178–179.
^ Vaughn, Andrew G.; Ann E. Killebrew (1 August 2003). "
the Time of the United Monarchy".
Bible and Archaeology:
the First Temple Period. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature.
pp. 32–33. ISBN 1-58983-066-0.
^ Shalem, Yisrael (3 March 1997). "
History of Jerusalem
History of Jerusalem from its
Beginning to David". Jerusalem: Life Throughout the Ages in a Holy
Bar-Ilan University Ingeborg Rennert Center for Jerusalem
Studies. Retrieved 18 January 2007.
^ Nadav Naʼaman,
Canaan in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E., p.180.
^ Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, Keys to Jerusalem: Collected Essays, Oxford
University Press, 2012 p.4.
^ Jane M. Cahill, ‘
Jerusalem at the time of the United Monarchy’,
in Andrew G. Vaughn, Ann E. Killebrew (eds.)
Archaeology: The First Temple Period, Society of Biblical Literature,
Israel Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman, The
Archaeology's New Vision of Ancient
Israel and the Origin of Sacred
Texts, Simon and Schuster 2002 p.239.
^ a b Jerome Murphy-O'Connor, Keys to Jerusalem: Collected Essays,
Oxford University Press, 2012 pp.5–6.
^ K. L. Noll,
Israel in Antiquity: An Introduction,
Continuum Publishing, 2002 p.78.
^ Nadav Naʼaman,
Canaan in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E., p.189:'The book
Joshua cannot be treated as a reliable source for the
reconstruction of the network of Canaanite cities. Neither the mention
of kings at Jericho, Ai, Bethel,
Hebron and Debir, nor the
Jerusalem as the head of a Canaanite coalition can be
taken as evidence for reconstructing the reality in the late Bronze
Age. One should not select evidence at random from the biblical source
to support a theory. Conclusions must be drawn only on the basis of
the early sources and the archaeological evidence’.
^ Nadav Naʼaman
Canaan in the 2nd Millennium B.C.E., p.183.
Israel Finkelstein, Neil Asher Silberman, The
^ Erlanger, Steven (5 August 2005). "King David's Palace Is Found,
Archaeologist Says". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
Israel Finkelstein, Amihay Mazar, Brian B. Schmidt, (eds.) The Quest
for the Historical Israel, Society of Biblical Literature, 2007
Samuel 5:4–5; Finkelstein, Silberman,
^ a b Michael, E.; Sharon O. Rusten; Philip Comfort; Walter A. Elwell
(28 February 2005). The Complete
Book of When and Where: In The Bible
And Throughout History. Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.
pp. 20–1, 67. ISBN 0-8423-5508-1.
David (26 August 1993). "Where is the Ark of the
Covenant?". Andrew's University. Archived from the original on
2006-09-17. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
^ Richard A. Freund,Digging Through the Bible: Modern Archaeology and
the Ancient Bible, p. 9, at Google Books, Rowman & Littlefield,
^ Zank, Michael. "Capital of Judah (930–586)". Boston University.
Retrieved 22 January 2007.
^ Robb Andrew Young,
Hezekiah in History and Tradition, P:49.
^ "The Broad Wall –
Jerusalem Attractions, Israel". GoJerusalem.com.
3 December 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
^ "Department of Archaeology – Silwan, Jerusalem: The Survey of the
Iron Age Necropolis". Tau.ac.il. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
Israelite Tower". The Jewish Quarter. Archived from the
original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
^ Matti Friedman (6 September 2012). "Cistern dated to First Temple
period found in Jerusalem". Times of Israel.
^ Zank, Michael. "Capital of Judah I (930–722)". Boston University.
Retrieved 22 January 2007.
^ "Ezra 1:1–4; 6:1–5". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 11 September
^ Sicker, Martin (30 January 2001). Between Rome and Jerusalem: 300
Years of Roman-Judaean Relations. Praeger Publishers. p. 2.
^ Zank, Michael. "Center of the Persian Satrapy of Judah (539–323)".
Boston University. Retrieved 22 January 2007.
^ Julian Morgenstern. "A Chapter in the History of the High-Priesthood
(Concluded)". The American Journal of Semitic Languages and
Literatures. The University of Chicago Press. 55 (October 1938) (4):
360–377. JSTOR 3088118. ...there is a great mass of evidence
scattered throughout biblical literature that at some time very soon
after the accession of Xerxes to the Persian throne in 485 B.C.
Jerusalem was besieged and captured by a coalition of hostile
neighboring states, Edom, Moab, Ammon, Tyre, and Philistia. Its walls
were torn down, its buildings razed, the Temple itself burned and
destroyed, at least in part, and the great mass of the people
^ "Nehemiah 1:3; 2:1–8". Biblegateway.com. Retrieved 11 September
^ a b "
Jerusalem – Burial Sites and Tombs of the Second Temple
Period". Jewishvirtuallibrary.org. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
^ "Archaeological Sites in Israel-Jerusalem- Burial Sites and Tombs of
Second Temple Period". GxMSDev. Archived from the original on 31
Jerusalem By Menashe Har-El. Retrieved 18 September
^ Hannah M. Cotton;
Leah Di Segni; Werner Eck; Benjamin Isaac; Alla
Kushnir-Stein; Haggai Misgav; Jonathan Price;
Israel Roll; Ada
Yardeni, eds. (23 December 2010). Jerusalem, Part 1: 1–704. Walter
de Gruyter. p. 79. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
^ Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of
Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. Ktav Publishing House.
pp. 60–79. ISBN 0-88125-371-5.
^ Har-el, Menashe (1977). This Is Jerusalem.
Canaan Publishing House.
pp. 68–95. ISBN 0-86628-002-2.
^ Zank, Michael. "The Temple Mount". Boston University. Retrieved 22
^ Crossan, John Dominic (26 February 1993). The Historical Jesus: the
life of a Mediterranean Jewish peasant (Reprinted ed.). San Francisco:
HarperCollins. p. 92. ISBN 0-06-061629-6. from 4 BCE until 6
CE, when Rome, after exiling [Herod Archelaus] to Gaul, assumed direct
prefectural control of his territories
^ Josephus, Jewish War, 7:1:1
^ Elizabeth Speller, Following Hadrian: A Second-Century Journey
Through the Roman Empire, p. 218, at Google Books, Oxford University
Press, 2004, p. 218
^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles. "Palestine: People and Places". The On-line
Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. The University of South Dakota.
Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved 18 April
^ Peter Schäfer (2003). The Bar Kokhba war reconsidered: new
perspectives on the second Jewish revolt against Rome. Mohr Siebeck.
pp. 36–. ISBN 978-3-16-148076-8. Retrieved 4 December
^ a b Lehmann, Clayton Miles (22 February 2007). "Palestine: History".
The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. The University of
South Dakota. Archived from the original on 10 March 2008. Retrieved
18 April 2007.
^ Cohen, Shaye J. D. (1996). "
Judaism to Mishnah: 135–220 C.E". In
Christianity and Rabbinic Judaism: A Parallel History
of their Origins and Early Development. Washington DC: Biblical
Archaeology Society. p. 196.
^ Emily Jane Hunt,
Christianity in the second century: the case of
Tatian, p. 7, at Google Books, Psychology Press, 2003, p. 7
^ E. Mary Smallwood The
Jews under Roman rule: from Pompey to
Diocletian : a study in political relations, p. 460, at Google
Books BRILL, 1981, p. 460.
^ Zank, Michael. "Byzantian Jerusalem". Boston University. Retrieved 1
Gideon Avni, The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An
Archaeological Approach, p. 144, at Google Books, Oxford University
Press 2014 p.144.
^ Conybeare, Frederick C. (1910). The Capture of
Jerusalem by the
Persians in 614 AD. English Historical Review 25.
^ Hidden Treasures in Jerusalem, the
Jerusalem Tourism Authority
Jerusalem cursed: Jews, Christians, and Muslims
in the Holy City from David's time to our own. By Thomas A.
Idinopulos, I.R. Dee, 1991, p. 152
^ Horowitz, Elliot. "Modern Historians and the Persian Conquest of
Jerusalem in 614". Jewish Social Studies. Archived from the original
on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
^ Rodney Aist, The
Christian Topography of Early Islamic Jerusalem,
Brepols Publishers, 2009 p.56: 'Persian control of
from 614 to 629'.
^ Har-el, Menashe (1977). This Is Jerusalem.
Canaan Publishing House.
pp. 68–95. ISBN 0-86628-002-2.
^ Dan Bahat (1996). The Illustrated Atlas of Jerusalem.
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purification according to the law of
Moses were accomplished, they
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^ From the King James Version of the Bible: "And they come to
Jesus went into the temple, and began to cast out them
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to (Allah) Who did take His servant for a Journey by night from the
Mosque to the farthest Mosque, whose precincts We did bless,-
in order that We might show him some of Our Signs: for He is the One
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Cheshin, Amir S.; Bill Hutman and Avi Melamed (1999). Separate and
Unequal: the Inside Story of Israeli Rule in
East Jerusalem Harvard
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Jerusalem Besieged: From Ancient
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Young, Robb A (2012)
Hezekiah in History and Tradition Brill Global
Oriental Hotei Publishing, Netherlands
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See also: New Church of the Theotokos
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Church of the Flagellation
Church of the Holy Family
Church of Saint James Intercisus
Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus
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Mosque of Omar
Remnants or rebuilt buildings in italic (governing authority in small)
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Kiryat Shomrei Emunim
Kiryat Menachem Begin
Givat Beit HaKerem
Ramat Beit HaKerem
See also: Courtyard Neighborhoods • Ring Neighborhoods
Other sub-divisions: Central District
Judea and Samaria Area
Tel Aviv District
Capitals of Asia
Dependent territories and states with limited recognition are in
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Hong Kong (China)
Pyongyang, North Korea
Seoul, South Korea
Diego Garcia, BIOT (UK)
Kotte, Sri Lanka
New Delhi, India
Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei
Dili, East Timor
Christmas Island (Australia)
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Phnom Penh, Cambodia
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands
West Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands (Australia)
Abu Dhabi, United
Jerusalem, Israel/Palestine †
Kuwait City, Kuwait
North Nicosia, Northern Cyprus*
Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Tskhinvali, South Ossetia*
† Disputed. See: Positions on Jerusalem.
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The dhi’b (wolf) that
Jacob feared could attack Joseph
The fīl (elephant) of the Abyssinians)
Ḥimār (Domesticated donkey)
The hud-hud (hoopoe) of Solomon
The kalb (dog) of the sleepers of the cave
The nāqaṫ (she-camel) of Saleh
The nūn (fish or whale) of Jonah
Ḥimār (Wild ass)
Qaswarah ('Lion', 'Beast of prey' or 'Hunter')
‘Ifrîṫ ("Strong one")
Mârid ("Rebellious one")
Iblīs the Shayṭān (Devil)
‘Imrān (Joachim the father of Maryam)
Isma'il Ṣādiq al-Wa‘d (Fulfiller of the Promise)
Shu‘ayb (Jethro, Reuel or Hobab?)
Sulaymān ibn Dāwūd (
Solomon son of David)
Yaḥyā ibn Zakariyyā (
John the Baptist
John the Baptist the son of Zechariah)
Dhūn-Nūn ("He of the
Fish (or Whale)" or "Owner of the
Ṣāḥib al-Ḥūṫ ("Companion of the Whale")
Yūsuf ibn Ya‘qūb (
Joseph son of Jacob)
Other names and titles of Muhammad
Al-Masīḥ (The Messiah)
Ibn Maryam (Son of Mary)
Mūsā Kalīmullāh (
Moses He who spoke to God)
Ibrāhīm Khalīlullāh (
Abraham Friend of God)
Dhūl-Qarnain (Cyrus the Great?)
Ṭâlûṫ (Saul or Gideon?)
Yūsha‘ ibn Nūn (Joshua, companion and successor of Moses)
People of Prophets
Āzar (possibly Terah)
Pharaoh of Moses' time)
Qārūn (Korah, cousin of Moses)
Slayers of Saleh's she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda' ibn Dahr)
Adam's immediate relatives
Believer of Ya-Sin
Family of Noah
Mother Shamkhah bint Anush or Betenos
People of Aaron and Moses
Believer of Fir'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura)
Imra’aṫ Fir‘awn (Âsiyá bint Muzâḥim or Bithiah)
Magicians of the Pharaoh
People of Abraham
Mother Abiona or Amtelai the daughter of Karnebo
People of Jesus
Disciples (including Peter)
People of Joseph
Brothers (including Binyāmin (Benjamin) and Simeon)
‘Azîz (Potiphar, Qatafir or Qittin)
Malik (King Ar-Rayyân ibn Al-Walîd))
Wife of ‘Azîz (Zulaykhah)
People of Solomon
Queen of Sheba
Implied or not specified
Caleb or Kaleb the companion of Joshua
Rahmah the wife of Ayyub
People of Paradise
People of the Burnt Garden
Aş-ḥāb as-Sabṫ (Companions of the Sabbath)
Ḥawāriyyūn (Disciples of Jesus)
Companions of Noah's Ark
Aş-ḥāb al-Kahf war-Raqīm (Companions of the Cave and Al-Raqaim?
Companions of the Elephant
People of al-Ukhdūd
People of a township in Surah Ya-Sin
People of Yathrib or Medina
Qawm Lûṭ (People of Sodom and Gomorrah)
Nation of Noah
Tribes, ethnicities or families
A‘rāb (Arabs or Bedouins)
ʿĀd (people of Hud)
Companions of the Rass
Qawm Ṫubba‘ (People of Tubba')
People of Saba’ or Sheba
Thamûd (people of Saleh)
Aṣ-ḥâb al-Ḥijr ("Companions of the Stoneland")
Rûm (literally "The Romans")
Banî Isrâ’îl (Children of Israel)
Mu’ṫafikāṫ (The overthrown cities of Sodom and Gomorrah)
People of Ibrahim
People of Ilyas
People of Nuh
People of Shuaib
Ahl Madyan People of Madyan)
Aṣ-ḥāb al-Aykah ("Companions of the Wood")
Qawm Yûnus (People of Jonah)
Ya'juj and Ma'juj/Gog and Magog
Ahl al-Bayṫ ("People of the Household")
Household of Abraham
Brothers of Yūsuf
Daughters of Abraham's nephew Lot (Ritha, Za'ura, et al.)
Progeny of Imran
Household of Moses
Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abdul-Muttalib ibn Hashim
Daughters of Muhammad
Wives of Muhammad
Household of Salih
People of Fir'aun
Current Ummah of
Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)
Aṣ-ḥāb Muḥammad (Companions of Muhammad)
Medina who helped
Muhammad and his Meccan
followers, literally 'Helpers')
People of Mecca
Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab)
Children of Ayyub
Dead son of Sulaiman
Qabil/Cain (son of Adam)
Wali'ah or Wa'ilah/Waala (wife of Nuh)
Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut)
Ya’jūj wa Ma’jūj (Gog and Magog)
Yam or Kan'an (son of Nuh)
Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah)
Aus & Khazraj
People of Quba
Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi)
People of the
Book (Ahl al-Kiṫāb)
Naṣārā (Christian(s) or People of the Injil)
Ahbār (Jewish scholars)
Meccan polytheists at the time of Muhammad
Mesopotamian polytheists at the time of
Abraham and Lot
Al-Arḍ Al-Mubārakah ("The Land The Blessed")
Al-Arḍ Al-Muqaddasah ("The Land The Holy")
Arabian Peninsula (excluding Madyan)
Al-Aḥqāf ("The Sandy Plains," or "the Wind-curved Sand-hills")
Iram dhāṫ al-‘Imād (Iram of the Pillars)
Al-Madīnah (formerly Yathrib)
Maqām Ibrāhīm (Station of Abraham)
Safa and Marwah
‘Arim Saba’ (Dam of Sheba)
Jannah (Paradise, literally 'Garden')
Munzalanm-Mubārakan ("Place-of-Landing Blessed")
Qaryaṫ Yūnus ("Township of Jonah," that is Nineveh)
Door of Hittah
Miṣr (Mainland Egypt)
Salsabîl (A river in Paradise)
Sinai Region or Tīh Desert
Al-Wād Al-Muqaddas Ṭuwan (The Holy Valley of Tuwa)
Al-Wādil-Ayman (The valley on the 'righthand' side of the Valley of
Tuwa and Mount Sinai)
Mount Sinai or Mount Tabor
Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn
Bayt al-Muqaddas & 'Ariha
Bilād ar-Rāfidayn (Mesopotamia)
Cave of Seven Sleepers
Al-Ḥijāz (literally "The Barrier")
Black Stone (Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) & Al-Hijr of Isma'il
Hira & Ghar al-Thawr (Cave of the Bull)
Paradise of Shaddad
Masjid (Mosque, literally "Place of Prostration")
Al-Mash‘ar Al-Ḥarām ("The Monument the Sacred")
Al-Masjid Al-Aqṣā (Al-Aqsa Mosque, literally "The
Place-of-Prostration The Farthest")
Al-Masjid Al-Ḥarām (The Sacred
Mosque of Mecca)
Mosque in the area of Medina, possibly:
Masjid Qubâ’ (Quba Mosque)
The Prophet's Mosque
Ḥabb dhul-‘aṣf (Corn of the husk)
Ukul khamṭ (Bitter fruit or food of Sheba)
Forbidden fruit of Adam
Bushes, trees or plants
Plants of Sheba
Līnah (Tender palm tree)
Nakhl (date palm)
Rayḥān (Scented plant)
Gospel of Jesus)
Book of Muhammad)
Ṣuḥuf-i Ibrâhîm (Scroll(s) of Abraham)
Aṫ-Ṫawrâṫ (The Torah)
Ṣuḥuf-i-Mûsâ (Scroll(s) of Moses)
Tablets of Stone
Psalms of David)
Umm al-Kiṫâb ("Mother of the Book(s)")
Objects of people or beings
Heavenly Food of
Staff of Musa
Ṫābūṫ as-Sakīnah (Casket of Shekhinah)
Throne of Bilqis
Trumpet of Israfil
Idols of Israelites:
The ‘ijl (golden calf statue) of Israelites
Idols of Noah's people:
Idols of Quraysh:
Jibṫ and Ṭâghûṫ
Maṣābīḥ (literally 'lamps'):
Al-Qamar (The Moon)
Al-Arḍ (The Earth)
Ash-Shams (The Sun)
Water or fluid)
River or sea)
Battle of al-Aḥzāb ("the Confederates")
Battle of Badr
Battle of Hunayn
Battle of Khaybar
Battle of Tabouk
Battle of Uhud
Conquest of Mecca
Incident of Ifk
Sayl al-‘Arim (Flood of the Great Dam of
Marib in Sheba)
The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Farewell Pilgrimage (Hujja al-Wada')
Treaty of Hudaybiyyah
Event of Ghadir Khumm
Note: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name
/ Biblical name (title or relationship)
ISNI: 0000 0001 2158 6491
BNF: cb118646774 (data)