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Jaqi
Aymaran (also Jaqi, Aru, Jaqui, Aimara, Haki) is one of the two dominant language families of the central Andes, along with Quechuan. Hardman (1978) proposed the name Jaqi for the family of languages (1978), Alfredo Torero Aru 'to speak', and Rodolfo Cerrón Palomino Aymaran, with two branches, Southern (or Altiplano) Aymaran and Central Aymaran ( Jaqaru
Jaqaru
and Kawki). Quechuan languages, especially those of the south, share a large amount of vocabu
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South America
South America
South America
is a continent located in the western hemisphere, mostly in the southern hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the northern hemisphere. It may also be considered a subcontinent of the Americas,[3][4] which is how it is viewed in the Spanish and Portuguese-speaking regions of the Americas. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America
Latin America
or the Southern Cone) has increased in the last decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[5] It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Atlantic
Ocean; North America
North America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
lie to the northwest
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Chilean Spanish
Chilean Spanish (Spanish: español chileno, español de Chile
Chile
or castellano de Chile) is any of several varieties of Spanish spoken in most of Chile
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Approximant Consonant
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough[1] nor with enough articulatory precision[2] to create turbulent airflow
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Bolivia
Coordinates: 16°42′43″S 64°39′58″W / 16.712°S 64.666°W / -16.712; -64.666Plurinational State of BoliviaEstado Plurinacional de Bolivia  (Spanish) Tetã Hetãvoregua Volívia  (Guaraní) Buliwya Mamallaqta  (Quechua) Wuliwya Suyu  (Aymara)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "La Unión es la Fuerza" (Spanish) "Unity is Strength"[1]Anthem: Himno Nacional de Bolivia  (Spanish)Location of  Bolivia  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital Sucre
Sucre
<

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Peru
Coordinates: 10°S 76°W / 10°S 76°W / -10; -76 Republic
Republic
of Peru República del Perú  (Spanish)[a]FlagCoat of armsMotto: "Firme y feliz por la unión" (Spanish) "Firm and Happy for the Union"Anthem: "Himno Nacional del Perú"  (Spanish) "National Anthem of Peru"National SealGran Sello del Estado  (Spanish) Great Seal of the StateLocation of  Peru  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Lima 12°2.6′S 77°1.7′W / 12.0433°S 77
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Chile
Coordinates: 30°S 71°W / 30°S 71°W / -30; -71Republic of Chile República de Chile  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: Por la razón o la fuerza (Spanish) (English: "By Right or Might") [1]Anthem:  National Anthem of ChileLocation of  Chile  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Santiagoa 33°26′S 70°40′W / 33.433°S 70.667°W / -33.433; -70.667National language SpanishEthnic groups (2012[2])64% White 30% Mestizo 5% Mapuche 0.7% Aymara 0.1% Other 0.2% UnspecifiedDemonym ChileanGovernment Unitary presidential constitutional republic• PresidentSebastián Piñera• Senate PresidentCarlos Montes Cisternas• President of the Chamber of DeputiesMaya FernándezLegislature National Congress• Upper houseSenate
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Argentina
Coordinates: 34°S 64°W / 34°S 64°W / -34; -64Argentine Republic[A] República Argentina  (Spanish)FlagCoat of armsMotto: "En unión y libertad" ("In Unity and Freedom")Anthem: Himno Nacional Argentino ("Argentine National Anthem")Sol de Mayo[2] (Sun of May)Location of  Argentina  (dark green) in South America  (grey)Capital and largest city Buenos Aires 34°36′S 58°23′W / 34.600°S 58.383°W / -34.600; -58.383Official languages NoneNational language Spanish[a]Regional languagesGuarani in Corrientes;[3] Qom, Mocoví and Wichí in Chaco[4]Religion77.1% Roman Catholicism 10.8% Protestant 10.1% Non-religious 2.6% Other[5]DemonymArgentine Argentinian Argentinean (uncommon)Government Federal presidential constitutional republic• PresidentMauricio Macri•
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Quechuan And Aymaran Spelling Shift
In recent years, Peru
Peru
and Bolivia
Bolivia
have revised the official spelling for place-names originating from Aymara and the Quechuan languages. A standardized alphabet for Quechua was adopted by the Peruvian government in 1975; a revision in 1985 moved to a three-vowel orthography.[1] The major changes are to replace the digraph hu with the single letter w, and to replace the consonants c/q[u] with either k or q, as appropriate in the word in question. K and q represent different sounds in most Andean languages: k is a velar stop, as in Spanish and English; q is a uvular stop [q]
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Special
Special
Special
or the specials or variation, may refer to:.mw-parser-output .tocright float:right;clear:right;width:auto;background:none;padding:.5em 0 .8em 1.4em;margin-bottom:.5em .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-left clear:left .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-both clear:both .mw-parser-output .tocright-clear-none clear:none Contents1 Policing 2 Literature 3 Film and television 4 Music4.1 Albums 4.2 Songs5 Computing 6 Other uses 7 See alsoPolicing[edit] Specials, Ulster
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Languages Of Chile
The Republic of Chile
Chile
is an overwhelmingly Spanish-speaking country, with the exceptions of isolated native and immigrant communities. According to Ethnologue, Chile
Chile
has nine living languages and seven extinct.[1]Contents1 Spanish 2 Native languages2.1 Mapudungun 2.2 Quechua 2.3 Rapa Nui 2.4 Other 2.5 Extinct languages3 German 4 English 5 Chilean Sign Language 6 Notes 7 External linksSpanish[edit] Of the 18 million Chileans, some 14 million speak Chilean Spanish as their first language.[1] It is a Spanish dialect which is sometimes difficult for speakers of the Castilian variant of Spanish to understand
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Ayacucho Quechua
Ayacucho
Ayacucho
(Spanish pronunciation: [aʝaˈkutʃo], Quechua: Ayacuchu), is the capital city of Huamanga Province, Ayacucho
Ayacucho
Region, Peru. Ayacucho
Ayacucho
is famous for its 33 churches, which represent one for each year of Jesus' life. Ayacucho
Ayacucho
has large religious celebrations, especially during the Holy Week
Holy Week
of Easter. These celebrations include horse races featuring Peruvian Caballos de Paso and the traditional running of the bulls, known locally as the jalatoro or pascuatoro. The jalatoro is similar to the Spanish encierro, except that the bulls are led by horses of the Morochucos. The name is derived from the Quechua words aya (death) and kuchu ("corner"), referring to a major battle for independence
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Central Approximant
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough[1] nor with enough articulatory precision[2] to create turbulent airflow
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Chilean Quechua
1,616,120 (2004-20 4)[1]Language familyQuechuanQuechua IISouthern QuechuaSouth Bolivian QuechuaLanguage codesISO 639-3 quhGlottolog sout2991[2]The four branches of Quechua. South Bolivian Quechua
South Bolivian Quechua
is a dialect of Southern Quechua
Southern Quechua
(II-C).South Bolivian Quechua, also known as Central Bolivian Quechua, is a dialect of Southern Quechua
Southern Quechua
spoken in Bolivia
Bolivia
and adjacent areas of Argentina, where it is also known as Colla. It is not to be confused with North Bolivian Quechua, which is spoken on the northern Andean slopes of Bolivia
Bolivia
and is phonologically distinct from the South Bolivian variety
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Chilean Sign Language
Chilean Sign Language, or Lengua de Señas Chilena (LSCh), is the sign language of Chile's seven deaf institutions. It is used by people all over Chile
Chile
and is the primary language used by the deaf community, being used for television interpritations. There is variation within the language depending on factors such as geographical location, age, and educational background.[3]Contents1 Geographic Distributions1.1 Regions 1.2 Estimated Population Use2 Recognition and Status2.1 Government Services and Laws 2.2 Education 2.3 Dictionaries3 Fingerspelling 4 See also 5 ReferencesGeographic Distributions[edit] Mainly spoken all across Chile Regions[edit]Santiago Iquique Puerto Montt Punta ArenasEstimated Population Use[edit] In 2004, it had been estimated that about 292,700 people (1.8%) of the Chilean population had some type of auditory deficiency. About half of the people with auditory deficiency are over the age of 65
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