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Irgun
The IRGUN (Hebrew : ארגון‎; full title: הארגון הצבאי הלאומי בארץ ישראל‎ _Hā-ʾIrgun Ha-Tzvaʾī Ha-Leūmī b-Ērētz Yiśrāʾel_, lit. "The National Military Organization in the Land of Israel") was a Zionist paramilitary organization that operated in Mandate Palestine between 1931 and 1948. It was an offshoot of the older and larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah (Hebrew: הגנה‎, Defence). When the group broke from the Haganah it became known as the _ Haganah Bet_ (Hebrew: literally "Defense 'B' " or "Second Defense", הגנה ב‎), or alternatively as ha Haganah haLeumit (ההגנה הלאומית) or Hama'amad (המעמד‎). Irgun
Irgun
members were absorbed into the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces at the start of the 1948 Arab–Israeli war . The Irgun
Irgun
is also referred to as ETZEL (אצ"ל‎), an acronym of the Hebrew initials, or by the abbreviation IZL. The Irgun
Irgun
policy was based on what was then called Revisionist Zionism founded by Ze\'ev Jabotinsky
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Talk
TALK may refer to: * Conversation , interactive communication between two or more people * Speech , the production of a spoken language * Interaction , face to face conversations * Compulsive talking , beyond the bounds of what is considered to be a socially acceptable amount of talking * Communication , the encoding and decoding of exchanged messages between peopleCONTENTS * 1 Software * 2 Books * 3 Film and TV * 4 Music * 4.1 Albums * 4.2 Songs SOFTWARE * Google Talk , a Windows- and web-based instant messaging program * talk (software) , a Unix messaging program * AppleTalk , an early networking protocol designed by Apple for their Macintosh computersBOOKS * _Talk_ (play) , a play by Carl Hancock Rux * _Talk_ (magazine) , an American magazineFILM AND TV * _Talk_ (film) , a 1994 Australian film * Talk show , a broadcast program format * Talk radio , a radio formatMUSIC * Talk Talk , a British rock group active from 1981 to 1991ALBUMS * _Talk_ (Yes album) , 1994 * _Talk_ (Paul Kelly album) , 1981SONGS * "Talk" (Coldplay song) * "Talk" (DJ Snake song) * "Talk", by Kreesha Turner on the album _Passion _ * "Talk", by Tracy Bonham on the album _ The Liverpool Sessions _ * "Talk", by M.I.A
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Mandatory Palestine
MANDATORY PALESTINE (Arabic : فلسطين‎‎ _Filasṭīn_; Hebrew : פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י)‎ _Pālēśtīnā (EY)_, where "EY" indicates " Eretz Yisrael ", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I . British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948. During its existence the territory was known simply as _Palestine_, but, in later years, a variety of other names and descriptors have been used, including _Mandatory_ or MANDATE PALESTINE, the BRITISH MANDATE OF PALESTINE and BRITISH PALESTINE. During the First World War (1914–18), an Arab uprising and the British Empire 's Egyptian Expeditionary Force under General Edmund Allenby drove the Turks out of the Levant during the Sinai and Palestine Campaign . The United Kingdom had agreed in the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence that it would honour Arab independence if they revolted against the Ottomans, but the two sides had different interpretations of this agreement, and in the end the UK and France divided up the area under the Sykes–Picot Agreement —an act of betrayal in the eyes of the Arabs. Further confusing the issue was the Balfour Declaration of 1917, promising British support for a Jewish "national home" in Palestine
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Emirate Of Transjordan
Coordinates : 31°57′N 35°56′E / 31.950°N 35.933°E / 31.950; 35.933 Emirate of Transjordan إمارة شرق الأردن _Imārat Sharq al-Urdun_ Mandate for Palestine and Transjordan memorandum 1921–1946 Flag The regions administered by the Emirate ("Transjordan", in light pink) CAPITAL Amman LANGUAGES Arabic GOVERNMENT Monarchy EMIR • 1921–1946 Abdullah I BRITISH REPRESENTATIVE • 1921 Albert Abramson • 1921 T. E
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Yishuv
The YISHUV (Hebrew : ישוב‎‎, literally "settlement") or HA-YISHUV (_the Yishuv_, Hebrew : הישוב‎‎) or HA-YISHUV HA-IVRI (_the Hebrew Yishuv_, Hebrew : הישוב העברי‎‎) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel
Israel
(corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel
Israel
. The term came into use in the 1880s, when there were about 25,000 Jews
Jews
living across Land of Israel , then comprising the southern part of Ottoman Syria , and continued to be used until 1948, by which time there were about 700,000 Jews there. The term is used in Hebrew even nowadays to denote the Pre-State Jewish residents in the Land of Israel. A distinction is sometimes drawn between the OLD YISHUV and the NEW YISHUV: The Old Yishuv refers to all the Jews
Jews
living there before the aliyah (immigration wave) of 1882 by the Zionist movement . The Old Yishuv
Yishuv
residents were religious Jews, living mainly in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
, Safed , Tiberias
Tiberias
and Hebron
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Israel
Coordinates : 31°N 35°E / 31°N 35°E / 31; 35 State of Israel * מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל (Hebrew ) * دَوْلَة إِسْرَائِيل (Arabic ) Flag Emblem ANTHEM: " Hatikvah " (Hebrew for "The Hope") Capital and largest city Jerusalem _(internationally unrecognized )_ 31°47′N 35°13′E / 31.783°N 35.217°E / 31.783; 35.217 OFFICIAL LANGUAGES * Hebrew * Arabic ETHNIC GROUPS (2016) * 74.8% Jewish * 20.8% Arab * 4.4% other RELIGION * 74.8% Jewish * 17.6% Muslim * 2% Christian * 1.6% Druze * 4% other DEMONYM Israeli GOVERNMENT Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic • PRESIDENT Reuven Rivlin • PRIME MINISTER
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Paramilitary
A PARAMILITARY is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military , but which is not included as part of a state\'s formal armed forces . Under the law of war , a state may incorporate a paramilitary organization or armed agency (such as a national police , a private volunteer militia ) into its combatant armed forces . The other parties to a conflict have to be notified thereof. The use of the term _paramilitary_ can be debated, but the general consensus being of a combatant force or organization, more military-like than civilian . Organizations that have been described as paramilitary are as diverse as the Minutemen
Minutemen
, Black Panthers , SS , youth groups (from scouting to the Pioneer movement
Pioneer movement
), and even military-themed boarding schools . Though a paramilitary is not a military force, it is usually equivalent to a military's light infantry force in terms of intensity, firepower, and organizational structure. A paramilitary may also commonly fall under the command of a military, even despite not being part of the military or play an assisting role for the military in times of war
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Armed Forces
A MILITARY, is a force authorized to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state and some or all of its citizens. It typically consists of an Army
Army
, Navy
Navy
, Air Force
Air Force
, and in certain countries the Marines
Marines
and Coast Guard . The task of the military is usually defined as defense of the state, and its citizens, and the prosecution of war against another state. The military may also have additional sanctioned and non-sanctioned functions within a society, including, the promotion of a political agenda , protecting corporate economic interests, internal population control , construction, emergency services, social ceremonies, and guarding important areas. The military may also function as a discrete subculture within a larger civil society, through the development of separate infrastructures, which may include housing, schools, utilities, logistics, health and medical, law, food production, finance and banking. In broad usage, the terms "ARMED FORCES" and "military" are often treated synonymously, although in technical usage a distinction is sometimes made in which a country's armed forces may include both its military and other paramilitary forces. _Armed force_ is the use of armed forces to achieve political objectives. The profession of soldiering as part of a military is older than recorded history itself
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Ze'ev Jabotinsky
ZE\'EV JABOTINSKY, MBE ( Hebrew : זאב ז'בוטינסקי‎ Ze'ev Zhabotinski; born VLADIMIR YEVGENYEVICH ZHABOTINSKY, Russian : Влади́мир Евге́ньевич Жаботи́нский; 18 October 1880, Odessa
Odessa
– 4 August 1940, Hunter, New York ), was a Russian Jewish
Jewish
Revisionist Zionist leader, author, poet, orator, soldier and founder of the Jewish
Jewish
Self-Defense Organization in Odessa . With Joseph Trumpeldor
Joseph Trumpeldor
, he co-founded the Jewish Legion of the British army in World War I
World War I
. Later he established several Jewish organizations in what was then called Palestine, including Beitar , HaTzohar and the Irgun
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Avraham Tehomi
AVRAHAM TEHOMI (born as ZILBERG, 1903–1990), also spelled AVRAHAM T\'HOMI, was a noted Jewish militant who served as a Haganah commander, and was one of the founders and first commander of the Irgun . He is best known for being the assassin of Jacob Israël de Haan . CONTENTS * 1 Migration to Palestine * 2 Murder of Jacob Israël de Haan * 3 Haganah and Irgun commander * 4 Later years * 5 Notes * 6 External links MIGRATION TO PALESTINEZilberg was born in 1903 in Odessa
Odessa
in the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
. He emigrated to Palestine as a pioneer, adopting the name Avraham T'homi (though often spelled as "Tehomi") and started working in road construction. He became a member of the Haganah , completed his Haganah courses with honors, and served as a commander in Jerusalem. As a Haganah officer, he served under the leadership of Yitzhak Ben-Zvi , who would in 1952 become the second President of Israel . MURDER OF JACOB ISRAëL DE HAANOn June 30, 1924, the Dutch Jewish poet, novelist and diplomat Jacob Israel
Israel
de Haan , who was living in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
as a journalist, was shot and killed. Tehomi was allegedly responsible for the assassination
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Menachem Begin
MENACHEM BEGIN (_ listen (help ·info ); Hebrew
Hebrew
: מְנַחֵם בֵּגִין‎ Menaḥem Begin_, Polish : _Mieczysław Biegun_; Russian : Менахем Вольфович Бегин _Menakhem Volfovich Begin_; 16 August 1913 – 9 March 1992) was an Israeli politician, founder of Likud and the sixth Prime Minister of Israel
Prime Minister of Israel
. Before the creation of the state of Israel, he was the leader of the Zionist militant group Irgun
Irgun
, the Revisionist breakaway from the larger Jewish paramilitary organization Haganah
Haganah
. He proclaimed a revolt , on 1 February 1944, against the British mandatory government , which was opposed by the Jewish Agency . As head of the Irgun, he targeted the British in Palestine. Later, the Irgun
Irgun
fought the Arabs during the 1947–48 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine . Begin was elected to the first Knesset, as head of Herut , the party he founded, and was at first on the political fringe, embodying the opposition to the Mapai -led government and Israeli establishment. He remained in opposition in the eight consecutive elections (except for a national unity government around the Six-Day War ), but became more acceptable to the political center. His 1977 electoral victory and premiership ended three decades of Labor Party political dominance
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Hebrew Language
HEBREW (/ˈhiːbruː/ ; עִבְרִית‎, _Ivrit_ ( listen ) or ( listen )) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel , spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh . The earliest examples of written Paleo- Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language . Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt . Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. It survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy , rabbinic literature , intra- Jewish commerce, and poetry . Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the _lingua franca _ of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel . According to Ethnologue , in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide
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Zionism
ZIONISM (Hebrew : צִיּוֹנוּת‎ _Tsiyyonut_ IPA: after _ Zion _) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan , the Holy Land , or the Roman-named region Palestine ). Modern Zionism emerged in the late 19th century in Central and Eastern Europe as a national revival movement, in reaction to anti-Semitic and exclusionary nationalist movements in Europe. Soon after this, most leaders of the movement associated the main goal with creating the desired state in Palestine, then an area controlled by the Ottoman Empire . Until 1948, the primary goals of Zionism were the re-establishment of Jewish sovereignty in the Land of Israel, ingathering of the exiles , and liberation of Jews from the antisemitic discrimination and persecution that they experienced during their diaspora . Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, Zionism continues primarily to advocate on behalf of Israel and to address threats to its continued existence and security
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Jewish
The JEWS (/dʒuːz/ ; Hebrew : יְהוּדִים‎ ISO 259-3 _Yhudim_, Israeli pronunciation ), also known as the JEWISH PEOPLE, are an ethnoreligious group and nation originating from the Israelites , or Hebrews , of the Ancient Near East . Jewish ethnicity , nationhood and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation, while its observance varies from strict observance to complete nonobservance. Jews originated as a national and religious group in the Middle East during the second millennium BCE, in the part of the Levant known as the Land of Israel . The Merneptah Stele appears to confirm the existence of a people of Israel somewhere in Canaan as far back as the 13th century BCE (Late Bronze Age). The Israelites, as an outgrowth of the Canaanite population, consolidated their hold with the emergence of the Kingdom of Israel , and the Kingdom of Judah . Some consider that these Canaanite sedentary Israelites melded with incoming nomadic groups known as 'Hebrews'
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Haganah
HAGANAH (Hebrew : הַהֲגָנָה‎, lit. _The Defence_) was a Jewish paramilitary organization in the British Mandate of Palestine (1921–48), which became the core of the Israel
Israel
Defense Forces (IDF). CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 Overview * 1.2 1920 and 1921 Arab riots * 1.3 1931 Irgun
Irgun
split * 1.4 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine
1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine
* 1.5 1939 White Paper * 1.6 World War II
World War II
participation * 1.7 1944 Lord Moyne assassination and the Season * 1.8 Post World War II
World War II
* 1.9 Reorganisation * 1.10 War of Independence * 1.11 Pal-Heib Unit * 2 See also * 3 Notes * 4 References * 5 Further reading * 6 External links HISTORYOVERVIEWThe evolution of Jewish defense organisations in Palestine and later Israel
Israel
went from small self-defense groups active during Ottoman rule, to ever larger and more sophisticated ones during the British Mandate, leading through the Haganah
Haganah
to the national army of Israel, the IDF. The evolution went step by step from Bar-Giora , to Hashomer
Hashomer
, to Haganah, to IDF
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Israel Defense Forces
The ISRAEL DEFENSE FORCES (IDF; Hebrew : צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל‎ _ Tsva ha-Hagana le-Yisra\'el_ , _lit._ "The Army of Defense for Israel"; Arabic : جيش الدفاع الإسرائيلي‎‎), commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym _Tzahal_ (צה״ל‎), are the military forces of the State of Israel . They consist of the ground forces , air force , and navy . It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces , and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel. The IDF is headed by its Chief of General Staff , the _Ramatkal_, subordinate to the Defense Minister of Israel ; Lieutenant general (_ Rav Aluf _) Gadi Eizenkot has served as Chief of Staff since 2015. An order from Defense Minister David Ben-Gurion on 26 May 1948 officially set up the Israel Defense Forces as a conscript army formed out of the paramilitary group Haganah , incorporating the militant groups Irgun and Lehi
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