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ISO 25964
Part 1: Thesauri for information retrieval
ISO 25964 is the international standard for thesauri, published in two parts as follows:
    ISO 25964  Information and documentation - Thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies
         Part 1: Thesauri for information retrieval     [published August 2011]
         Part 2: Interoperability with other vocabularies     [published March 2013]
It was issued by ISO, the International Organization for Standardization, and its official website [1] is maintained by its secretariat in NISO, the USA National Information Standards Organization. Each part of the standard can be purchased separately from ISO or from any of its national member bodies (such as ANSI, BSI, AFNOR, DIN, etc.)
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Terminology
Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use.[1] This is also known as terminology science. Terms are words and compound words or multi-word expressions that in specific contexts are given specific meanings—these may deviate from the meanings the same words have in other contexts and in everyday language.[2] Terminology is a discipline that studies, among other things, the development of such terms and their interrelationships within a specialized domain. Terminology differs from lexicography, as it involves the study of concepts, conceptual systems and their labels (terms), whereas lexicography studies words and their meanings. Terminology is a discipline that systematically studies the "labelling or designating of concepts" particular to one or more subject fields or domains of human activity
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Subject Heading
An index term, subject term, subject heading, or descriptor, in information retrieval, is a term that captures the essence of the topic of a document. Index terms make up a controlled vocabulary for use in bibliographic records. They are an integral part of bibliographic control, which is the function by which libraries collect, organize and disseminate documents. They are used as keywords to retrieve documents in an information system, for instance, a catalog or a search engine. A popular form of keywords on the web are tags which are directly visible and can be assigned by non-experts. Index terms can consist of a word, phrase, or alphanumerical term. They are created by analyzing the document either manually with subject indexing or automatically with automatic indexing or more sophisticated methods of keyword extraction. Index terms can either come from a controlled vocabulary or be freely assigned. Keywords are stored in a search index
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Taxonomy (general)
Taxonomy is the practice and science of categorization or classification based on discrete sets. The word is also used as a count noun: a taxonomy, or taxonomic scheme, is a particular categorisation. The word finds its roots in the Greek language τάξις, taxis (meaning 'order', 'arrangement') and νόμος, nomos ('law' or 'science'). Originally, taxonomy referred only to the categorisation of organisms or a particular categorisation of organisms. In a wider, more general sense, it may refer to a categorisation of things or concepts, as well as to the principles underlying such a categorisation. Taxonomy is different from meronomy, which is dealing with the categorisation of parts of a whole. Many taxonomies have a hierarchical structure, but this is not a requirement
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Knowledge Organization System
Knowledge Organization Systems (KOS), concept system or concept scheme is a generic term used in knowledge organization about authority files, classification schemes, thesauri, topic maps, ontologies etc. Hodge, G. (2000). Systems of Knowledge Organization for Digital libraries. Beyond traditional authority files. Washington, DC: the Council on Library and Information Resources. http://www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub91/contents.html Garshol, L M (2004) Metadata? Thesauri? Taxonomies? Topic maps! Making sense of it all. Journal of Information Science, 30 (4). 378-391. Online tilgængelig: https://web.archive.org/web/20081017174807/http://www.ontopia.net/topicmaps/materials/tm-vs-thesauri.html Tudhope, D. & Lykke Nielsen, M. (2006). Introduction to special issue: Knowledge Organization Systems and Services. New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 12(1), 3-9
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Semantic Web
The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards set by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).[1] The goal of the Semantic Web is to make Internet data machine-readable. To enable the encoding of semantics with the data, technologies such as Resource Description Framework (RDF)[2] and Web Ontology Language (OWL)[3] are used. These technologies are used to formally represent metadata. For example, ontology can describe concepts, relationships between entities, and categories of things. These embedded semantics offer significant advantages such as reasoning over data and operating with heterogeneous data sources.[4] These standards promote common data formats and exchange protocols on the Web, fundamentally the RDF
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