HOME TheInfoList.com
Providing Lists of Related Topics to Help You Find Great Stuff
[::MainTopicLength::#1500] [::ListTopicLength::#1000] [::ListLength::#15] [::ListAdRepeat::#3]

picture info

Humus
In soil science, humus (derived in 1790–1800 from the Latin
Latin
humus for earth, ground[1]) denominates the fraction of soil organic matter that is amorphous and without the "cellular cake structure characteristic of plants, micro-organisms or animals."[2] Humus significantly affects the bulk density of soil and contributes to its retention of moisture and nutrients. In agriculture, "humus" sometimes also is used to describe mature or natural compost extracted from a woodland or other spontaneous source for use as a soil conditioner.[3] It is also used to describe a topsoil horizon that contains organic matter (humus type,[4] humus form,[5] humus profile).[6] Humus
Humus
is the dark organic matter that forms in soil when dead plant and animal matter decays. Humus
Humus
has many nutrients that improve the health of soil, nitrogen being the most important
[...More...]

"Humus" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Amino Sugar
In organic chemistry, an amino sugar (or more technically a 2-amino-2-deoxysugar) is a sugar molecule in which a hydroxyl group has been replaced with an amine group. More than 60 amino sugars are known, with one of the most abundant being N-Acetyl-d-glucosamine, which is the main component of chitin. Derivatives of amine containing sugars, such as N-acetylglucosamine and sialic acid, whose nitrogens are part of more complex functional groups rather than formally being amines, are also considered amino sugars. Aminoglycosides
Aminoglycosides
are a class of antimicrobial compounds that inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. These compounds are conjugates of amino sugars and aminocyclitols.Contents1 Synthesis1.1 From glycals 1.2 Via nucleophilic displacement2 See also 3 References 4 External linksSynthesis[edit] From glycals[edit] Glycals are cyclic enol ether derivatives of monosaccharides, having a double bond between carbon atoms 1 and 2 of the ring
[...More...]

"Amino Sugar" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Fat
Fat
Fat
is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.[1] Fats, also known as triglycerides, are esters of three fatty acid chains and the alcohol glycerol. The terms "lipid", "oil" and "fat" are often confused. "Lipid" is the general term, though a lipid is not necessarily a triglyceride. "Oil" normally refers to a lipid with short or unsaturated fatty acid chains that is liquid at room temperature, while "fat" (in the strict sense) may specifically refer to lipids that are solids at room temperature – however, "fat" (in the broad sense) may be used in food science as a synonym for lipid. Fats, like other lipids, are generally hydrophobic, and are soluble in organic solvents and insoluble in water. Fat
Fat
is an important foodstuff for many forms of life, and fats serve both structural and metabolic functions. They are a necessary part of the diet of most heterotrophs (including humans)
[...More...]

"Fat" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Protein
Proteins (/ˈproʊˌtiːnz/ or /ˈproʊti.ɪnz/) are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Proteins perform a vast array of functions within organisms, including catalysing metabolic reactions, DNA replication, responding to stimuli, and transporting molecules from one location to another. Proteins differ from one another primarily in their sequence of amino acids, which is dictated by the nucleotide sequence of their genes, and which usually results in protein folding into a specific three-dimensional structure that determines its activity. A linear chain of amino acid residues is called a polypeptide. A protein contains at least one long polypeptide. Short polypeptides, containing less than 20–30 residues, are rarely considered to be proteins and are commonly called peptides, or sometimes oligopeptides. The individual amino acid residues are bonded together by peptide bonds and adjacent amino acid residues
[...More...]

"Protein" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Carbohydrate
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).[1] This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3] The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses .[5] The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
[...More...]

"Carbohydrate" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Lignin
Lignin
Lignin
is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae.[1] Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.[2]Contents1 History 2 Composition and structure 3 Biological function 4 Economic significance 5 Biosynthesis 6 Biodegradation6.1 Lignin
Lignin
degradation by fungi 6.2 Lignin
Lignin
degradation by bacteria7 Pyrolysis 8 Chemical analysis 9 References 10 External linksHistory[edit] Lignin
Lignin
was first mentioned in 1813 by the Swiss botanist A. P
[...More...]

"Lignin" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Wax
Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures. They include higher alkanes and lipids, typically with melting points above about 40 °C (104 °F), melting to give low viscosity liquids. Waxes are insoluble in water but soluble in organic, nonpolar solvents
[...More...]

"Wax" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Resin
In polymer chemistry and materials science, resin is a "solid or highly viscous substance" of plant or synthetic origin that is typically convertible into polymers.[1] They are often mixtures of organic compounds, principally terpenes. Many plants, particularly woody plants, produce resin in response to injury. The resin acts as a bandage protecting the plant from invading insects and pathogens.[2]Contents1 Examples of natural resins and related materials1.1 Resins1.1.1 Fossil
Fossil
resins1.2 Rosin 1.3 Petroleum- and insect-derived resins2 History and etymology2.1 Non-resinous exudates3 Uses3.1 Plant
Plant
resins 3.2 Synthetic resins4 See also 5 References 6 External linksExamples of natural resins and related materials[edit] Plants secrete resins and rosins for their protective benefits
[...More...]

"Resin" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Organic Acid
An organic acid is an organic compound with acidic properties. The most common organic acids are the carboxylic acids, whose acidity is associated with their carboxyl group –COOH. Sulfonic acids, containing the group –SO2OH, are relatively stronger acids. Alcohols, with –OH, can act as acids but they are usually very weak. The relative stability of the conjugate base of the acid determines its acidity. Other groups can also confer acidity, usually weakly: the thiol group –SH, the enol group, and the phenol group. In biological systems, organic compounds containing these groups are generally referred to as organic acids.Contents1 Characteristics 2 Examples 3 Applications 4 Application in food 5 Application in nutrition and animal feeds 6 See also 7 References 8 Further readingCharacteristics[edit] In general, organic acids are weak acids and do not dissociate completely in water, whereas the strong mineral acids do
[...More...]

"Organic Acid" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Carbohydrates
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may be different from n).[1] This formula holds true for monosaccharides. Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA,[2] has the empirical formula C5H10O4.[3] The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon;[4] structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses .[5] The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides
[...More...]

"Carbohydrates" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Detritivore
Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).[1] There are many kinds of invertebrates, vertebrates and plants that carry out coprophagy. By doing so, all these detritivores contribute to decomposition and the nutrient cycles. They should be distinguished from other decomposers, such as many species of bacteria, fungi and protists, which are unable to ingest discrete lumps of matter, but instead live by absorbing and metabolizing on a molecular scale (saprotrophic nutrition). However, the terms detritivore and decomposer are often used interchangeably.Two Adonis blue
Adonis blue
butterflies lap at a small lump of feces lying on a rock.Detritivores are an important aspect of many ecosystems
[...More...]

"Detritivore" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Cellulose
Cellulose
Cellulose
is an organic compound with the formula (C 6H 10O 5) n, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.[3][4] Cellulose
Cellulose
is an important structural component of the primary cell wall of green plants, many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some species of bacteria secrete it to form biofilms.[5] Cellulose
Cellulose
is the most abundant organic polymer on Earth.[6] The cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50%, and that of dried hemp is approximately 57%.[7][8][9] Cellulose
Cellulose
is mainly used to produce paperboard and paper. Smaller quantities are converted into a wide variety of derivative products such as cellophane and rayon. Conversion of cellulose from energy crops into biofuels such as cellulosic ethanol is under investigation as an alternative fuel source
[...More...]

"Cellulose" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Fungus
Dikarya
Dikarya
(inc. Deuteromycota)AscomycotaPezizomycotina Saccharomycotina TaphrinomycotinaBasidiomycotaAgaricomycotina Pucciniomycotina UstilaginomycotinaSubphyla incertae sedisEntomophthoromycotina Kickxellomycotina Mucoromycotina ZoopagomycotinaA fungus (plural: fungi[3] or funguses[4]) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from the other eukaryotic life kingdoms of plants and animals. A characteristic that places fungi in a different kingdom from plants, bacteria, and some protists is chitin in their cell walls. Similar to animals, fungi are heterotrophs; they acquire their food by absorbing dissolved molecules, typically by secreting digestive enzymes into their environment. Fungi do not photosynthesise
[...More...]

"Fungus" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Sugar
Sugar
Sugar
is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharides and include glucose (also known as dextrose), fructose, and galactose. The "table sugar" or "granulated sugar" most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide of glucose and fructose. Sugar
Sugar
is used in prepared foods (e.g., cookies and cakes) and is added to some foods and beverages (e.g., coffee and tea). In the body, sucrose is hydrolysed into the simple sugars fructose and glucose. Other disaccharides include maltose from malted grain, and lactose from milk. Longer chains of sugars are called oligosaccharides or polysaccharides. Some other chemical substances, such as glycerol and sugar alcohols may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugars
[...More...]

"Sugar" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Vermicompost
Vermicompost
Vermicompost
(or vermi-compost, vermiculture) is the product of the composting process using various species of worms, usually red wigglers, white worms, and other earthworms, to create a mixture of decomposing vegetable or food waste, bedding materials, and vermicast. Vermicast (also called worm castings, worm humus, worm manure, or worm feces) is the end-product of the breakdown of organic matter by earthworms.[1] These castings have been shown to contain reduced levels of contaminants and a higher saturation of nutrients than the organic materials before vermicomposting.[2]
[...More...]

"Vermicompost" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo

picture info

Manure
Manure
Manure
is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture. Manures contribute to the fertility of the soil by adding organic matter and nutrients, such as nitrogen, that are utilised by bacteria, fungi and other organisms in the soil. Higher organisms then feed on the fungi and bacteria in a chain of life that comprises the soil food web. In the past, the term "manure" included inorganic fertilizers, but this usage is now very rare.Contents1 Types1.1 Animal manure1.1.1 Human manure1.2 Compost 1.3 Green manure2 Uses of manure2.1 Animal manure3 Issues3.1 Livestock antibiotics4 See also 5 References 6 External linksTypes There are three main classes of manures used in soil management: Animal manureCement reservoirs, one new, and one containing cow manure mixed with water
[...More...]

"Manure" on:
Wikipedia
Google
Yahoo
.