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Human Body
The human body is the entire structure of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human body. It comprises a head, neck, trunk (which includes the thorax and abdomen), arms and hands, Human leg">legs and feet. The study of the human body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology. The body varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions
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Latin
Latin (Latin: Latin language text">lingua latīna, IPA:  International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)" class="IPA">[ˈlɪŋɡʷa laˈtiːna]) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet"> Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets, and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet. Latin was originally spoken in Latium, in the Italian Peninsula. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became the dominant language, initially in Italy and subsequently throughout the Roman Empire. Vulgar Latin developed into the Romance languages, such as Italian, Portuguese, Spanish, French, and Romanian. Latin words with English derivatives">Latin, Greek and French have contributed many words to the English language
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Phosphate
A Phosphate is a chemical derivative of phosphoric acid. The phosphate ion (PO
4
)
is an inorganic chemical, the conjugate base that can form many different salts. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Of the various phosphoric acids and phosphates, organic phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry (and, consequently, in ecology), and inorganic phosphates are mined to obtain phosphorus for use in agriculture and industry. At elevated temperatures in the solid state, phosphates can condense to form pyrophosphates. In biology, adding phosphates to—and removing them from—proteins in cells are both pivotal in the regulation of metabolic processes
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Medical Subject Headings
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a comprehensive controlled vocabulary for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences; it serves as a thesaurus that facilitates searching. Created and updated by the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), it is used by the MEDLINE/PubMed article database and by NLM's catalog of book holdings. MeSH is also used by ClinicalTrials.gov registry to classify which diseases are studied by trials registered in ClinicalTrials.gov. MeSH was introduced in 1960, with the NLM's own index catalogue and the subject headings of the Quarterly Cumulative Index Medicus (1940 edition) as precursors. The yearly printed version of MeSH was discontinued in 2007 and MeSH is now available online only. It can be browsed and downloaded free of charge through PubMed
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Oxygen
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8. It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula O
2
. Diatomic oxygen gas constitutes 20.8% of the Earth's atmosphere. As compounds including oxides, the element makes up almost half of the Earth's crust. Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone
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Calcium
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20. An alkaline earth metal, calcium is a reactive pale yellow metal that forms a dark oxide-nitride layer when exposed to air. Its physical and chemical properties are most similar to its heavier homologues strontium and barium. It is the fifth most abundant element in Earth's crust and the third most abundant metal, after iron and aluminium. The most common calcium compound on Earth is Calcium carbonate">calcium carbonate, found in limestone and the fossilised remnants of early sea life; gypsum, anhydrite, fluorite, and apatite are also sources of calcium. The name derives from Latin calx "lime", which was obtained from heating limestone. Its compounds were known to the ancients, though their chemistry was unknown until the seventeenth century. It was isolated by Humphry Davy in 1808 via electrolysis of its oxide, who named the element
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Phosphorus
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15. As an element, phosphorus exists in two major forms, white phosphorus and red phosphorus, but because it is highly reactive, phosphorus is never found as a free element on Earth. With a concentration of 0.099%, phosphorus is the most abundant pnictogen in the Earth's crust. Other than a few exceptions, minerals containing phosphorus are in the maximally oxidized state as inorganic Phosphate minerals">phosphate rocks. The first form of elemental phosphorus that was produced (white phosphorus, in 1669) emits a faint glow when exposed to oxygen – hence the name, taken from Greek mythology, Greek language text">Φωσφόρος meaning "light-bearer" (Latin Lucifer), referring to the " Phosphorus (morning star)">Morning Star", the planet Venus (or Mercury)
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Interstitial Fluid
Extracellular fluid (ECF) denotes all body fluid outside the cells. Total body water in humans makes up between 45 to 75% of total body weight. About two thirds of this is intracellular fluid within cells, and one third is the extracellular fluid. The main component of the extracellular fluid is the interstitial fluid that bathes cells. Extracellular fluid is the internal environment of all multicellular animals, and in those animals with a blood circulatory system a proportion of this fluid is blood plasma. Plasma and interstitial fluid are the two compartments that make up at least 97% of the ECF. Lymph makes up a small percentage of the interstitial fluid. The remaining small portion of the ECF includes the transcellular fluid (about 2.5%)
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Sodium
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Sodium is an alkali metal, being in group 1 of the periodic table, because it has a single electron in its outer shell that it readily donates, creating a positively charged ion—the Na+---> cation. Its only stable isotope is 23--->Na. The free metal does not occur in nature, but must be prepared from compounds. Sodium is the sixth most abundant element in the Earth's crust, and exists in numerous minerals such as feldspars, sodalite, and rock salt (NaCl)
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Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references
The chloride ion /ˈklɔːrd/ is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−--->. It is formed when the element chlorine (a halogen) gains an electron or when a compound such as hydrogen chloride is dissolved in water or other polar solvents. Chloride salts such as sodium chloride are often very soluble in water. It is an essential electrolyte located in all body fluids responsible for maintaining acid/base balance, transmitting nerve impulses and regulating fluid in and out of cells. Less frequently, the word chloride may also form part of the "common" name of chemical compounds in which one or more chlorine atoms are covalently bonded
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Potassium
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. It was first isolated from potash, the ashes of plants, from which its name derives. In the periodic table, potassium is one of the Alkali metal">alkali metals. All of the alkali metals have a single valence electron in the outer electron shell, which is easily removed to create an ion with a positive charge – a cation, which combines with anions to form Salt (chemistry)">salts. Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction and burning with a lilac-colored flame
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Extracellular Matrix
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells. Because multicellularity evolved independently in different multicellular lineages, the composition of ECM varies between multicellular structures; however, cell adhesion, cell-to-cell communication and differentiation are common functions of the ECM. The animal extracellular matrix includes the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane. Interstitial matrix is present between various animal cells (i.e., in the intercellular spaces). Gels of polysaccharides and fibrous proteins fill the interstitial space and act as a compression buffer against the stress placed on the ECM. Basement membranes are sheet-like depositions of ECM on which various epithelial cells rest
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid (/dˈɒksɪˌrbnjˌklɪk, -ˌkl-/ (About this soundlisten); DNA) is a molecule composed of two chains that coil around each other to form a Nucleic acid double helix">double helix carrying genetic instructions for the development, functioning, growth and reproduction of all known organisms and many viruses
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Cell Nucleus
In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin Latin language text" xml:lang="la">nucleus or Latin language text" xml:lang="la">nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotes usually have a single nucleus, but a few cell types, such as mammalian red blood cells, have no nuclei, and a few others have many. Cell nuclei contain most of the cell's genetic material, organized as multiple long linear DNA molecules in complex with a large variety of proteins, such as histones, to form chromosomes. The genes within these chromosomes are the cell's nuclear genome and are Eukaryotic Nuclear Organization">structured in such a way to promote cell function. The nucleus maintains the integrity of genes and controls the activities of the cell by regulating Gene expression">gene expression—the nucleus is, therefore, the control center of the cell
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Transcription (genetics)
Transcription is the first step of Gene expression">gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase"> RNA polymerase. Both DNA and RNA are nucleic acids, which use base pairs of nucleotides as a complementary language. During transcription, a DNA sequence is read by an RNA polymerase, which produces a complementary, antiparallel RNA strand called a primary transcript. Transcription proceeds in the following general steps: