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Housing In Japan
HOUSING IN JAPAN includes modern and traditional styles. Two patterns of residences are predominant in contemporary Japan
Japan
: the single-family detached house and the multiple-unit building, either owned by an individual or corporation and rented as apartments to tenants, or owned by occupants. Additional kinds of housing, especially for unmarried people, include boarding houses (which are popular among college students), dormitories (common in companies), and barracks (for members of the Self-Defense Forces , police and some other public employees). An unusual feature of Japanese housing is that houses are presumed to have a limited lifespan, and are generally torn down and rebuilt after a few decades, generally twenty years for wooden buildings and thirty years for concrete buildings – see regulations for details
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Sukiya-zukuri
_SUKIYA-ZUKURI_ (数寄屋造り) is one type of Japanese residential architectural style. _Suki_ means refined, well cultivated taste and delight in elegant pursuits and refers to enjoyment of the exquisitely performed tea ceremony. The word originally denoted a building in which tea ceremony was done (known as a chashitsu ) and was associated with _ikebana _ flower arranging, and other Japanese traditional arts. It has come to indicate a style of designing public facilities and private homes based on tea house aesthetics. It is characterised by a use of natural materials. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Comparison with similar styles * 3 Development * 4 Influence * 5 Footnotes * 6 References ORIGINSIn 1587 Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536–98) employed the tea master Sen no Rikyū as his advisor on aesthetic matters. In the compound of Hideyoshi's imposing Jurakudai castle in Kyoto
Kyoto
Rikyū designed an eighteen mat building known as the _Coloured Shoin_ which was thought to be the first example of _sukiya-zukuri_ architecture. The style developed during rest of the Azuchi-Momoyama period (1568–1600) and was characterised by small rooms of usually four and a half tatami, or even less, that had a _tokonoma _ and shelves. These buildings were normally entered through a garden often by means of an indirect curved or diagonal path that would not allow an instant view of the teahouse
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Public Housing
PUBLIC HOUSING may be a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. SOCIAL HOUSING is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by non-profit organizations, or by a combination of the two, usually with the aim of providing affordable housing . Social housing can also be seen as a potential remedy to housing inequality . Some social housing organizations construct for purchase, particularly in Spain and to an extent elsewhere. Although the common goal of public housing is to provide affordable housing, the details, terminology, definitions of poverty and other criteria for allocation vary within different contexts
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Tokyo
TOKYO (Japanese: (_ listen ), English: /ˈtoʊki.oʊ/ ), officially TOKYO METROPOLIS, is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures . The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world. It is the seat of the Emperor of Japan and the Japanese government . Tokyo is in the Kantō region on the southeastern side of the main island Honshu and includes the Izu Islands and Ogasawara Islands . Formerly known as Edo , it has been the de facto seat of government since 1603 when Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu made the city his headquarters. It officially became the capital after Emperor Meiji moved his seat to the city from the old capital of Kyoto in 1868; at that time Edo was renamed Tokyo. Tokyo Metropolis was formed in 1943 from the merger of the former Tokyo Prefecture (東京府, Tōkyō-fu_) and the city of Tokyo (東京市, _Tōkyō-shi_). Tokyo is often referred to as a city, but is officially known and governed as a "metropolitan prefecture", which differs from and combines elements of a city and a prefecture, a characteristic unique to Tokyo
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Mount Mitake
MOUNT MITAKE (御岳山, Mitake-san) is a mountain in the Chichibu Tama Kai National Park near Tokyo
Tokyo
, Japan
Japan
. It stands 929 m (3,048 ft) tall. On the mountain is a Shinto shrine
Shinto shrine
where practices such as Futomaki divination take place. It is one of the many highlights of the Chichibu Tama Kai National Park , which covers more than 1,250 km2 (483 sq mi) of forested mountains, hills, gorges and some rural towns in the prefectures of Yamanashi, Saitama, Nagano and Tokyo. The trip from Tokyo's Shinjuku Station to Mitake Station on the Ōme Line takes about 95 minutes. A shuttle bus, located 50 meters to the left of Mitake Station, travels to Takimoto village every half-hour between 07:30 to 18:00. From Takimoto village, the Mitake-Tozan Railway cable car operates every half-hour between 07:30 to 18:30 and leads to Mitakesan village at its top. Mitake summit and the Musashi-Mitake Shrine (武蔵御嶽神社, Musashi Mitake Jinja) can then be reached by trail—approximately 1000 meters. Many hikers access the mountain via Kori Station (two stops past Mitake Station from Ome). There is a hiking trail that takes approximately two and half hours to reach the summit, which passes Otsukayama (920 metres). There is also a festival every year on May 8
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Japan
Coordinates : 35°N 136°E / 35°N 136°E / 35; 136 Japan 日本国 _Nippon-koku_ _Nihon-koku_ _ Flag Imperial Seal ANTHEM: * " Kimigayo _" * 君が代 "His Imperial Majesty's Reign" GOVERNMENT SEAL OF JAPAN * _ * Go-Shichi no Kiri_ (五七桐) Area controlled by Japan shown in green; claimed but uncontrolled shown in light green
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Single-family Detached Home
A STAND ALONE HOUSE also called a SINGLE-DETACHED DWELLING, DETACHED RESIDENCE or SEPARATE HOUSE is a free-standing residential building. Sometimes referred to as a single family home as opposed to a multi-family residential dwelling . CONTENTS* 1 Definitions * 1.1 Regional terminology * 2 History and distribution * 3 Pros and cons * 4 Separating types of homes * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links DEFINITIONS A single detached dwelling contains only one dwelling unit and is completely separated by open space on all sides from any other structure, except its own garage or shed. — Statistics Canada The definition of this type of house may vary between legal jurisdictions or statistical agencies. The definition, however, generally includes two elements: * a SINGLE-FAMILY (home, house, or dwelling) means that the building is a structure maintained and used as a single dwelling unit. Even though a dwelling unit shares one or more walls with another dwelling unit, it is a single family residence if it has direct access to a street or thoroughfare and does not share heating facilities, hot water equipment, nor any other essential facility or service with any other dwelling unit . REGIONAL TERMINOLOGY Single-family houses in Montreal
Montreal
. Typical single-family home in Northern Germany
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House
A HOUSE is a building that functions as a home , ranging from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, brick, concrete or other materials containing plumbing, ventilation and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms , a kitchen or cooking area, and a living room . A house may have a separate dining room , or the eating area may be integrated into another room. Some large houses in North America have a recreation room . In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock (like cattle) may share part of the house with humans. The social unit that lives in a house is known as a household . Most commonly, a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may also be other social groups , such as roommates or, in a rooming house , unconnected individuals. Some houses only have a dwelling space for one family or similar-sized group; larger houses called townhouses or row houses may contain numerous family dwellings in the same structure
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Japan Self-Defense Forces
Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF) Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) Japan Air Self-Defense Force (JASDF) LEADERSHIP COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF Prime Minister Shinzō Abe MINISTER OF DEFENSE Tomomi Inada CHIEF OF JOINT STAFF Admiral Katsutoshi Kawano MANPOWER MILITARY AGE 18 Available for military service 27,301,443 males, age 16–49, 26,307,003 females, age 16–49 Fit for military service 22,390,431 males, age 16–49, 21,540,322 females, age 16–49 Reaching military age annually 623,365 males, 591,253 femal
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Ministry Of Internal Affairs And Communications (Japan)
The MINISTRY OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS AND COMMUNICATIONS (総務省, SōMU-SHō) is a cabinet -level ministry in the Government of Japan
Japan
. Its English name was Ministry of Public Management, Home Affairs, Posts and Telecommunications (MPHPT) prior to 2004. It is housed in the 2nd Building of the Central Common Government Office at 2-1-2 Kasumigaseki
Kasumigaseki
in Chiyoda , Tokyo
Tokyo
, Japan
Japan
. The Ministry oversees the Japanese administrative system, manages local governments, elections, telecommunication, post, and governmental statistics. The MINISTER FOR INTERNAL AFFAIRS AND COMMUNICATIONS (総務大臣, Sōmu Daijin) is appointed from among the members of the cabinet. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Subdivisions * 2.1 Bureaus * 2.2 Institutes and colleges * 2.3 Special
Special
organizations * 2.4 External agencies * 3 See also * 4 References * 5 External links HISTORYThe Ministry was created on January 6, 2001 by the merger of the Ministry of Home Affairs (自治省), the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (MPT, 郵政省) and the Management and Coordination Agency (総務庁). Certain functions of the Management and Coordination Agency were transferred to the Cabinet Office in this process, while many functions of the MPT were transferred to an independent Postal Services Agency which later became Japan
Japan
Post
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United States
Coordinates : 40°N 100°W / 40°N 100°W / 40; -100 United States
United States
of America _ Flag Great Seal MOTTO: " In God We Trust " Other traditional mottos _ * " E pluribus unum " ( Latin
Latin
) (de facto) "Out of many, one" * " Annuit c
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Danchi
DANCHI (団地, lit. "group land") is the Japanese word for a large cluster of apartment buildings of a particular style and design, typically built as public housing by government authorities. The Japan Housing Corporation (JHC), now known as the Urban Renaissance Agency (UR), was founded in 1955. During the 1950s, 60s, and 70s, the JHC built many danchi in suburban areas to offset the housing demand of the then-increasing Japanese population. Today, fewer and fewer Japanese live in the gradually aging danchi, generally preferring individual housing or condominiums, known as mansion (マンション, manshon). Many danchi are owned by large corporations, who charge low or no rent to employees to encourage them to live alongside their colleagues to foster a corporate "family" atmosphere. The rent payment for a danchi is much cheaper than that of a mansion or a mortgage, but for public danchi the prospective tenant must usually participate in a lottery to be assigned an open apartment. Some danchi built in recent years are quite modern and spacious, but since there is a lottery for assignment the waiting list can often run years. On the other hand, there continue to be many open slots in older, distant danchi. Residents in UR danchi do not have to pay key money or contract renewal fees, making the residences cheaper than comparable housing even if the monthly rents are equivalent
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Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima
AIZUWAKAMATSU (会津若松市, Aizuwakamatsu-shi) is a city in Fukushima Prefecture , in northern Honshu
Honshu
, Japan. As of September 2014 , the city had an estimated population of 122,715 and a population density of 321 persons per km². The total area was 383.03 km². CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Geography * 2.1 Mountains * 2.2 Rivers * 2.3 Lakes * 2.4 Hot springs * 2.5 Administrative divisions * 2.6 Neighboring municipalities * 2.7 Climate * 3 Mergers * 4 Transportation * 4.1 Railway * 4.2 Highway * 5 Media * 5.1 Television * 5.2 Newspapers * 5.3 Radio * 6 Education * 6.1 Universities and colleges * 6.2 Senior high schools * 6.2.1 Public (prefectural) * 6.2.2 Private * 6.3 Junior high schools * 6.3.1 Public (municipal) * 6.3.2 Private * 7 Twinning * 7.1 Japanese sister cities * 7.2 International sister cities * 8 Local attractions * 9 Culture * 9.1 Festivals * 9.2 Foods * 9.3 Others * 10 Notable people from Aizuwakamatsu * 11 References * 12 External links HISTORYThe area of present-day Aizuwakamatsu was part of ancient Mutsu Province , and was settled from prehistoric times. The Aizu-Otsuka Kofun within the city borders dates from the 4th century AD, and is an Important Cultural Property of Japan
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Fukushima Prefecture
FUKUSHIMA PREFECTURE (福島県, _Fukushima-ken_) is a prefecture of Japan located in the Tōhoku region on the island of Honshu . The capital is the city of Fukushima . CONTENTS* 1 History * 1.1 2011 earthquake and subsequent disasters * 1.1.1 Earthquake and tsunami * 1.1.2 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster * 2 Geography * 2.1 Cities * 2.2 Towns and villages * 2.3 Mergers * 3 Economy * 4 Culture * 5 Notable festivals and events * 6 Education * 6.1 Universities * 7 Tourism * 8 Food * 9 Transportation * 9.1 Rail * 9.2 Road * 9.2.1 Expressways * 9.2.2 National highways * 9.3 Ports * 9.4 Airports * 10 Notable people * 11 See also * 12 Notes * 13 References * 14 External links HISTORY See also: Historic Sites of Fukushima Prefecture Until the Meiji Restoration , the area of Fukushima prefecture was part of what was known as Mutsu Province . The Shirakawa Barrier and the Nakoso Barrier were built around the 5th century to protect 'civilized Japan' from the 'barbarians' to the north. Fukushima became a Province of Mutsu after the Taika Reforms were established in 646. In 718, the provinces of Iwase and Iwaki were created, but these areas reverted to Mutsu some time between 722 and 724
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Shōwa Period
The SHōWA PERIOD (昭和時代, Shōwa jidai, potentially "period of enlightened peace/harmony" or "period of radiant Japan"), or SHōWA ERA, refers to the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Shōwa Emperor, Hirohito , from December 25, 1926 until his death on January 7, 1989. The Shōwa period
Shōwa period
was longer than the reign of any previous Japanese emperor . During the pre-1945 period, Japan
Japan
moved into political totalitarianism , ultranationalism and fascism culminating in Japan's invasion of China
China
in 1937. This was part of an overall global period of social upheavals and conflicts such as the Great Depression
Great Depression
and the Second World War . Defeat in the Second World War brought about radical change to Japan. For the first and only time in its history, Japan
Japan
was occupied by foreign powers ; this occupation lasted seven years. Allied occupation brought forth sweeping democratic reforms. It led to the end of the emperor\'s status as a living god and the transformation of Japan
Japan
into a democracy with a constitutional monarch. In 1952, with the Treaty of San Francisco , Japan
Japan
became a sovereign nation once more. The post-war Shōwa period
Shōwa period
also led to the Japanese economic miracle
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