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Housing In Japan
Housing in Japan
Japan
includes modern and traditional styles. Two patterns of residences are predominant in contemporary Japan: the single-family detached house and the multiple-unit building, either owned by an individual or corporation and rented as apartments to tenants, or owned by occupants
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Sukiya-zukuri
Sukiya-zukuri
Sukiya-zukuri
(数寄屋造り) is one type of Japanese residential architectural style. Suki means refined, well cultivated taste and delight in elegant pursuits [1] and refers to enjoyment of the exquisitely performed tea ceremony. The word originally denoted a building in which tea ceremony was done (known as a chashitsu) and was associated with ikebana flower arranging, and other Japanese traditional arts. It has come to indicate a style of designing public facilities and private homes based on tea house aesthetics.[2] It is characterised by a use of natural materials.Contents1 Origins 2 Comparison with similar styles 3 Development 4 Influence 5 Footnotes 6 ReferencesOrigins[edit] In 1587 Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
(1536–98) employed the tea master Sen no Rikyū as his advisor on aesthetic matters
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Kerosene Heater
A kerosene heater, also known as a paraffin heater, is typically a portable, unvented, kerosene-fueled, space (i.e., convectional) heating device. In Japan and other countries, they are a primary source of home heat. In the United States and Australia, they are a supplemental heat or a source of emergency heat during a power outage. Most kerosene heaters produce between 3.3 and 6.8 kW (11000 to 23000 BTU per hour).Contents1 Operation1.1 Details of operation 1.2 Odours during operation 1.3 Maintenance2 Safety hazards2.1 Combustion gases 2.2 Fire hazard 2.3 Incorrect fuel 2.4 Moisture problems3 See also 4 ReferencesOperation[edit] A kerosene heater operates much like a large kerosene lamp. A circular wick made from fiberglass and/or cotton is integrated into a burner unit mounted above a font (tank) filled with 1-K kerosene. The wick draws kerosene from the tank via capillary action
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Refrigerator
A refrigerator (colloquially fridge, or fridgefreezer in the UK) is a popular household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room. Refrigeration is an essential food storage technique in developed countries. The lower temperature lowers the reproduction rate of bacteria, so the refrigerator reduces the rate of spoilage. A refrigerator maintains a temperature a few degrees above the freezing point of water. Optimum temperature range for perishable food storage is 3 to 5 °C (37 to 41 °F).[1] A similar device that maintains a temperature below the freezing point of water is called a freezer. The refrigerator replaced the icebox, which had been a common household appliance for almost a century and a half
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Induction Cooker
Induction cooking heats a cooking vessel by magnetic induction, instead of by thermal conduction from a flame, or an electrical heating element. Because inductive heating directly heats the vessel, very rapid increases in temperature can be achieved. In an induction cooktop ("induction hob" or "induction stove"), a coil of copper wire is placed under the cooking pot and an alternating electric current is passed through it. The resulting oscillating magnetic field induces a magnetic flux which repeatedly magnetises the pot, treating it like the lossy magnetic core of a transformer. This produces large eddy currents in the pot, which because of the resistance of the pot, heats it. For nearly all models of induction cooktops, a cooking vessel must be made of, or contain, a ferromagnetic metal such as cast iron or some stainless steels
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Convection Microwave
A convection microwave is a combination of a standard microwave oven and a convection oven which can heat the outside of food to higher temperatures than a conventional microwave. Manufacturers[edit] Companies such as Wolf, GE, Sharp, Samsung, Panasonic, LG, Galanz, Bellini, and Daewoo are currently producing convection microwaves. See also[edit]Convection Microwave Trivection oven Electromagnetic spectrumThis electronics-related article is a stub. You can help by expanding it.v t eThis article about kitchenware or a tool used in preparation or serving of food is a stub
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Toaster Oven
A toaster, or a toast maker, is an electric small appliance designed to toast sliced bread by exposing it to radiant heat, thus converting it into toast. Toasters can toast multiple types of sliced bread products. Invented in Scotland in 1893, it was developed over the years, with the introduction of an automatic mechanism to stop the toasting and pop the slices up. The most common household toasting appliances are the pop-up toaster and the toaster oven. Bread
Bread
slices are inserted into slots in the top of a pop-up toaster, which make toast from bread in one to three minutes by using electric heating elements. Toasters have a control to adjust how much the appliance toasts the bread
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Dishwasher
A dishwasher is a mechanical device for cleaning dishware and cutlery. Unlike manual dishwashing, which relies largely on physical scrubbing to remove soiling, the mechanical dishwasher cleans by spraying hot water, typically between 45 and 75 °C (110 and 170 °F), at the dishes, with lower temperatures used for delicate items.[1] A mix of water and dishwasher detergent is pumped to one or more rotating spray arms, which blast the dishes with the cleaning mixture. Once the wash is finished, the water is drained, more hot water enters the tub by means of an electro-mechanical solenoid, and the rinse cycle begins
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Shoji
In traditional Japanese architecture, a shōji is a door, window or room divider consisting of translucent paper over a frame of wood which holds together a lattice of wood or bamboo. While washi is the traditional paper, shōji may be made of paper made by modern manufacturing processes; plastic is also in use.[citation needed]Contents1 Function 2 Terminology 3 See also 4 External linksFunction[edit] Shōji
Shōji
doors are often designed to slide open, and thus conserve space that would be required by a swinging door.[citation needed] They are used in traditional houses as well as Western-style housing, especially in the washitsu (Japanese-style room)
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Washitsu
Washitsu
Washitsu
(和室), meaning "Japanese-style room(s)", and frequently called in English a "tatami room", is a Japanese term for a room in a house or apartment that has traditional tatami flooring.[1] Washitsu also usually have sliding doors (fusuma), rather than hinged doors between rooms. They may have shōji and, if the particular room is meant to serve as a reception room for guests, it may have a tokonoma (alcove for decorative items). In the past, almost all Japanese rooms were washitsu, and Japanese people slept on futons laid on the tatami and sat directly on the tatami or on zabutons set on the tatami. Nowadays, many Japanese houses have only one washitsu, which is sometimes used for entertaining guests, and most rooms are Western-style. Many new construction Japanese apartments do not have washitsu at all, instead using linoleum or hardwood floors. The size of a washitsu is measured by the number of tatami mats, using the counter word jō (畳)
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Honshū
Honshu
Honshu
(Japanese: 本州, translit. Honshū, lit. '"Main island/Main province', pronounced [hoꜜɴɕɯː] ( listen)) is the largest and most populous island of Japan,[1] located south of Hokkaido
Hokkaido
across the Tsugaru Strait, north of Shikoku
Shikoku
across the Inland Sea, and northeast of Kyushu
Kyushu
across the Kanmon Straits. The island separates the Sea of Japan, which lies to its north and west, from the North Pacific Ocean to its south and east
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Central Heating
A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms. When combined with other systems in order to control the building climate, the whole system may be an HVAC
HVAC
(heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system.Contents1 Overview 2 History2.1 Ancient Rome and Greece 2.2 Modern central heating systems2.2.1 Hot air 2.2.2 Steam 2.2.3 Hot water3 Energy sources 4 Calculating output of heater required 5 Water heating 6 Steam heating 7 Electric heaters 8 Heat pumps 9 Environmental aspects 10 See also 11 References 12 Sources 13 Further reading 14 External linksOverview[edit] Central heating
Central heating
differs from space heating in that the heat generation occurs in one place, such as a furnace room or basement in a house or a mechanical room in a large building (though not necessarily at the geometrically "central" point)
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Gas Heater
A gas heater is a space heater used to heat a room or outdoor area by burning natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, propane or butane. Indoor household gas heaters can be broadly categorized in one of two ways: flued or non-flued, or vented and unvented.Contents1 History 2 Flued heaters 3 Non-flued heaters3.1 Operation4 See also 5 ReferencesHistory[edit] The first gas heater made use of the same principles of the Bunsen burner invented in the previous year. It was first commercialized by the English company Pettit and Smith in 1856. The flame heats the air locally. This heated air then spreads by convection, thus heating the whole room
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Public Housing
Public housing
Public housing
is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by non-profit organizations, or by a combination of the two, usually with the aim of providing affordable housing
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Electric Heater
Electric heating
Electric heating
is a process in which electrical energy is converted to heat. Common applications include space heating, cooking, water heating and industrial processes. An electric heater is an electrical device that converts electric current to heat.[1] The heating element inside every electric heater is an electrical resistor, and works on the principle of Joule heating: an electric current passing through a resistor will convert that electrical energy into heat energy. Most modern electric heating devices use nichrome wire as the active element; the heating element, depicted on the right, uses nichrome wire supported by ceramic insulators. Alternatively, a heat pump uses an electric motor to drive a refrigeration cycle, that draws heat energy from a source such as the ground or outside air and directs that heat into the space to be warmed
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Insulated Glazing
Insulating glass (IG), more commonly known as double glazing (or double-pane, and increasingly triple glazing[1]/pane), consists of two or three glass window panes separated by a vacuum or gas filled space to reduce heat transfer across a part of the building envelope. Insulating glass units (IGUs) are manufactured with glass in range of thickness from 3 to 10 mm (1/8" to 3/8") or more in special applications. Laminated or tempered glass may also be used as part of the construction. Most units are produced with the same thickness of glass used on both panes[citation needed] but special applications such as acoustic attenuation or security may require wide ranges of thicknesses to be incorporated in the same unit.A sectioned diagram of a fixed insulating glass unit (IGU), indicating the numbering convention used in this article
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