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Active radar homing
Active radar homing
(ARH) is a missile guidance method in which a missile contains a radar transceiver (in contrast to semi-active radar homing, which uses only a receiver) and the electronics necessary for it to find and track its target autonomously. NATO brevity code for an air-to-air active radar homing missile launch is Fox Three.[1]Contents1 Advantages 2 Passive radiation homing 3 Operation 4 List of missiles4.1 China 4.2 European 4.3 France 4.4 Germany 4.5 India 4.6 Israel 4.7 Japan 4.8 Russia 4.9 South Africa 4.10 Sweden 4.11 Taiwan 4.12 United States5 ReferencesAdvantages[edit] There are two major advantages to active radar homing:Because the missile is tracking the target, and the missile is typically going to be much closer to the target than the launching platform during the terminal phase, the tracking can be much more accurate and also have better resistance to electronic countermeasures
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Missile Guidance
Missile
Missile
guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target. The missile's target accuracy is a critical factor for its effectiveness. Guidance systems improve missile accuracy by improving its "Single Shot Kill Probability" (SSKP), which is part of combat survivability calculations associated with the salvo combat model.[1][2] These guidance technologies can generally be divided up into a number of categories, with the broadest categories being "active," "passive" and "preset" guidance
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Brahmos
Surface/Sea Platform - 450 km (280 mi; 240 nmi) (original/export)[4][5] To be upgraded to 600 km (370 mi; 320 nmi) Air Platform - 400 km (250 mi; 220 nmi)[6]Flight ceiling 14 km (46,000 ft)[3]Flight altitude Sea skimming, as low as 3–4 meters[3][7]Speed Mach 2.8–Mach 3 (3,400–3,700 km/h; 2,100–2,300 mph; 0.95–1.0 km/s)[1][8]Guidance systemMid-course guidance by INS Terminal guidance by active radar homing GPS/GLONASS/ GAGAN
GAGAN
satellite guidance[9][10]Accuracy 1 m circular error probable [11]Launch platformShip, submarine, aircraft (under testing), and land-based mobile launchers.The BrahMos
BrahMos
is a medium-range ramjet supersonic cruise missile that can be launched from submarine, ships, aircraft, or land
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HQ-9
The HQ-9
HQ-9
(simplified Chinese: 红旗-9; traditional Chinese: 紅旗-9; pinyin: Hóng Qí-9; literally: "Red Banner-9") is China’s new generation medium- to long-range, active radar homing surface-to-air missile.[5][6] Similar to the Russian S-300 and American Patriot systems, the HQ-9 uses a HT-233 PESA radar system.[7] The naval variant, HHQ-9 (simplified Chinese: 海红旗-9; traditional Chinese: 海紅旗-9; pinyin: Hǎi Hóng Qí-9; literally: "Sea Red Banner-9"), appears to be identical to the land-based variant. H HQ-9
HQ-9
is equipped in the PLAN Type 052C
Type 052C
Lanzhou class destroyer
Lanzhou class destroyer
in VLS launch tubes.[8] The HQ-9
HQ-9
system has an anti-radiation variant, known as the FT-2000 for export
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Meteor (missile)
Meteor is an active radar guided beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) being developed by MBDA
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MBDA
MBDA
MBDA
is a European developer and manufacturer of missiles.[3][4] It was formed by a merger of French Aérospatiale-Matra Missiles (of EADS, now Airbus), Italian Alenia Marconi Systems (now Leonardo) and British Matra BAe Dynamics (of BAE Systems) in December 2001.[5] In 2016 the company had more than 10,000 employees. In 2016, MBDA recorded orders for €4.7 bn and an order book of €15.9 bn
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Perseus (missile)
Perseus
Perseus
or CVS401 Perseus
Perseus
(named after the Greek hero Perseus) is a stealth supersonic cruise missile[1] currently under development by
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Exocet
solid propellant engine turbojet (MM40 Block 3 version)Wingspan 1.1 metres (3 ft 7 in)Operational range70–180 kilometres (43–112 mi; 38–97 nmi)Flight altitude Sea-skimmingSpeed Mach 0.92 1,134 kilometres per hour (705 mph; 315 m/s)Guidance system Inertial guidance
Inertial guidance
and terminal active radar homingLaunch platformmulti-platform:MM38 surface-launched AM39 air-launched SM39 submarine-launched MM40 surface-launchedThe
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MICA (missile)
The MBDA
MBDA
MICA (Missile d’interception, de combat et d’autodéfense, “interception, combat and self-defence missile”) is an anti-air multi-target, all weather, fire-and-forget short and medium-range missile system. It is intended for use both by air platforms as individual missiles as well as ground units and ships, which can be equipped with the rapid fire MICA Vertical Launch System. It is fitted with a thrust vector control (TVC) system. It was developed from 1982 onward by Matra. The first trials occurred in 1991, and the missile was commissioned in 1996 to equip the Rafale
Rafale
and Mirage 2000. It is a replacement for both the Super 530, in the interception role, and the Magic II, in the dogfighting role. On 11 June 2007, a MICA launched from a Rafale
Rafale
successfully demonstrated its over-the-shoulder capability by destroying a target behind the launch aircraft
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Surface-to-air Missile
A surface-to-air missile (SAM), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles. It is one type of antiaircraft system; in modern armed forces, missiles have replaced most other forms of dedicated antiaircraft weapons, with anti-aircraft guns pushed into specialized roles. The first serious attempts at SAM development took place during World War II, although no operational systems were introduced. Further development in the 1940s and 1950s led to the first operational systems being introduced by most major forces during the second half of the 1950s
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EADS
Airbus
Airbus
SE (/ˈɛərbʌs/; French: [ɛʁbys] (listen); German: [ˈɛːɐ̯bʊs] (listen); Spanish: [ˈeiɾbus]) is a European multinational aerospace corporation that stood as the world's second biggest aerospace and defence company in 2018, behind only their primary competitor, Boeing.[7] Airbus
Airbus
is registered in the Netherlands; its shares are traded in Germany, France
France
and Spain. It designs, manufactures and sells civil and military aerospace products worldwide and manufactures aircraft in the European Union
European Union
and various other countries
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AS.34 Kormoran
Aircraft:F-104G Starfighter Tornado IDSKormoran 1 on a German Navy
German Navy
F-104G in 1984A German Tornado IDS launching a KormoranThe AS.34 Kormoran
AS.34 Kormoran
(cormorant) is a German-produced anti-ship missile. The Kormoran uses an inertial guidance system for the midcourse phase, switching to active radar homing during the terminal attack phase. It carries a 165 kg (363 lb) delay-fused warhead, designed for 90mm of penetration prior to detonation. The maximum range is 23 km (~14 miles).Contents1 Design and development 2 Operators 3 Specifications 4 External linksDesign and development[edit] Development of the Kormoran started in 1962, being taken over by Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm
Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm
(now a part of EADS) in 1967. The missile was originally designed for anti-shipping roles in coastal waters, although it retains a secondary land-attack capability as well
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Astra (missile)
The Astra (Astra: weapon[8]) is an all weather beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation, India. It is the first air-to-air missile developed by India. It features mid-course inertial guidance with terminal active radar homing.[9] Astra is designed to be capable of engaging targets at varying range and altitudes allowing for engagement of both short-range targets at a distance of 20 km and long-range targets up to a distance of 80 km.[6] Astra has been integrated with Indian Air Force's Sukhoi Su-30MKI
Su-30MKI
and will be integrated with Dassault Mirage 2000
Dassault Mirage 2000
and Mikoyan MiG-29
Mikoyan MiG-29
in the future
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Prahaar (missile)
Prahaar (Strike) is a solid-fuel rocket surface-to-surface guided short-range tactical ballistic missile for battlefield use developed by DRDO
DRDO
of India. It will be equipped with omnidirectional warheads[clarification needed] and could be used for striking both tactical and strategic targets.[6] Prahaar is expected to replace Prithvi-I.[7]Contents1 Development and history 2 Pragati 3 See also3.1 Comparable missile4 References 5 External linksDevelopment and history[edit] Prahaar is developed to provide a cost effective, quick reaction, all-weather, all-terrain, highly accurate battlefield support tactical weapon system. The development of the missile was carried out by the DRDO
DRDO
scientists in a span of less than two years.[8] The missile fills the short-range tactical battlefield missile role as required by the Indian Army
Indian Army
to take out strategic and tactical targets
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HN-2000
HN (reported short for Hong Niao, or Hongniao, 红鸟 meaning Red Bird) missiles are a series of turbofan powered Chinese land attack cruise missiles, based on the X-600.Contents1 Development 2 HN-1 3 HN-2 4 HN-3 5 HN-2000 6 User 7 Gallery 8 See also 9 References 10 BibliographyDevelopment[edit] Although China
China
was satisfied with the performance of its own Changfeng series land attack cruise missile, an inherent problem with this turbojet powered Changfeng (missile) meant that the size and weight of the missile were too large to be carried by aerial platforms in Chinese inventory and the range of the missile was inadequate. A turbofan powered version was needed, but due to the limitation of Chinese R&D and industrial capability of the time, this could not be achieved immediately
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Arrow (Israeli Missile)
6.8 m (22 ft)[6] – 7 m (23 ft)[7][4]3.45 m (11.3 ft)[8] – booster section 0.75 m (2.5 ft)[8] – sustainer section 2.75 m (9.0 ft)[8] – kill vehicle sectionDiameterBy stage:800 mm (31 in)[7][8] – 1st stage 500 mm (20 in)[6] – 2nd stageWarhead Directed high explosive fragmentation[8]Warhead weight 150 kg (330 lb)[9]Detonation mechanismProximity fuze[7][8]Engine Two-stage[7][8]Wingspan 820 mm (32 in)[6]Propellant Solid propellant[7][8]Operational range90 km (56 mi)[7][8] – 150 km (93 mi)[6]Flight ceiling Exo-atmospheric.[10][11]Speed Arrow 2: Mach 9, means 2.5 km/s (1.6 mi/s)[7][8]Guidance systemDual mode: passive infrared seeker and active radar seeker[7][8]Steering system
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