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High-definition Television
High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television
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Image Resolution
Image
Image
resolution is the detail an image holds. The term applies to raster digital images, film images, and other types of images. Higher resolution means more image detail. Image
Image
resolution can be measured in various ways. Resolution quantifies how close lines can be to each other and still be visibly resolved. Resolution units can be tied to physical sizes (e.g. lines per mm, lines per inch), to the overall size of a picture (lines per picture height, also known simply as lines, TV lines, or TVL), or to angular subtense. Line pairs are often used instead of lines; a line pair comprises a dark line and an adjacent light line. A line is either a dark line or a light line. A resolution of 10 lines per millimeter means 5 dark lines alternating with 5 light lines, or 5 line pairs per millimeter (5 LP/mm)
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Analog Television
Analog television
Analog television
or analogue television is the original television technology that uses analog signals to transmit video and audio.[1] In an analog television broadcast, the brightness, colors and sound are represented by rapid variations of either the amplitude, frequency or phase of the signal. Analog signals vary over a continuous range of possible values which means that electronic noise and interference becomes reproduced by the receiver. So with analog, a moderately weak signal becomes snowy and subject to interference. In contrast, a moderately weak digital signal and a very strong digital signal transmit equal picture quality. Analog television
Analog television
may be wireless or can be distributed over a cable network using cable converters. All broadcast television systems used analog signals before the arrival of digital television (DTV)
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Soviet Union
The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
(Russian: Сове́тский Сою́з, tr. Sovétsky Soyúz, IPA: [sɐˈvʲɛt͡skʲɪj sɐˈjus] ( listen)), officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyúz Sovétskikh Sotsialistícheskikh Respúblik, IPA: [sɐˈjus sɐˈvʲɛtskʲɪx sətsɨəlʲɪsˈtʲitɕɪskʲɪx rʲɪˈspublʲɪk] ( listen)), abbreviated as the USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR), was a socialist state in Eurasia
Eurasia
that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics,[a] its government and economy were highly centralized. The country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow
Moscow
as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
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Russian Language
Russian (русский язык, tr. rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely used throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus
Caucasus
and Central Asia.[30][31] It was the de facto language of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
until its dissolution on 25 December 1991.[32] Although nearly three decades have passed since the breakup of the Soviet Union, Russian is used in official capacity or in public life in all the post-Soviet nation-states, as well as in Israel
Israel
and Mongolia. Russian belongs to the family of Indo-European languages, one of the four living members of the East Slavic languages, and part of the larger Balto-Slavic branch
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Multiple Sub-nyquist Sampling Encoding
MUSE (Multiple sub-Nyquist sampling encoding), was a dot-interlaced digital video compression system that used analog modulation for transmission to deliver 1125-line high definition video signals to the home. Japan had the earliest working HDTV system, which was named Hi-Vision (a contraction of HIgh-definition teleVISION) with design efforts going back to 1979
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Broadcasting Satellite (Japanese)
Yuri, also known as Broadcasting Satellite
Satellite
or BS, was a series of Japanese direct broadcast satellites. The first satellite of this series, called BSE or Yuri 1, was launched in 1978. The last BS series satellite, BS-3b (Yuri 3b), was launched in 1991.Contents1 Early models 2 BS satellites 3 Satellites 4 References 5 External linksEarly models[edit] The 350 kg BSE was followed in 1984 and 1986 by the operational and essentially identical BS-2a and BS-2b satellites, respectively. Each spacecraft carried two active and one spare 100 W. 14/12 GHz transponder. Built by EURO
EURO
with assistance from ASR, the BS-2 series satellites were designed for five years of operation. BS-2a was moved to a graveyard orbit in 1989, as was BS-2b in 1992. BS satellites[edit] BS satellites were used for Direct-To-Home
Direct-To-Home
television services in Japan
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Ronald Reagan
Governor of CaliforniaGovernorship 1976 General electionPrimaries Convention40th President of the United StatesPresidencyTimelinePoliciesDomesticReaganomicsForeignReagan DoctrineInternational tripsAppointmentsCabinet Judicial appointmentsFirst TermCampaign for the Presidency 1980 general electionPrimaries Convention1st inauguration Assassination attemptInvasion of Grenada Cold WarSecond TermRe-election campaign1984 general election Primaries Convention2nd inaugurationCold War Libya bombing Challenger disaster Iran–Contra affair "Tear down this wall!" INF TreatyPost-PresidencyPresidential Library Medal of Freedom BibliographyAn American Life The Reagan DiariesAlzheimer's diagnosis State funeralLegacySpeeches and debates"A Time for Choosing"Reagan Era Reagan Awardv
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International Telecommunication Union
The International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU; French: Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (French: Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
(UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.[1] It is the oldest among all the 15 specialised agencies of UN. The ITU coordinates the shared global use of the radio spectrum, promotes international cooperation in assigning satellite orbits, works to improve telecommunication infrastructure in the developing world, and assists in the development and coordination of worldwide technical standards
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Megapixel
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel,[1] dots, or picture element[2] is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen. Each pixel is a sample of an original image; more samples typically provide more accurate representations of the original. The intensity of each pixel is variable
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ITU-R
The ITU
ITU
Radiocommunication
Radiocommunication
Sector (ITU-R) is one of the three sectors (divisions or units) of the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union (ITU) and is responsible for radio communication. Its role is to manage the international radio-frequency spectrum and satellite orbit resources and to develop standards for radiocommunication systems with the objective of ensuring the effective use of the spectrum.[1] ITU
ITU
is required, according to its Constitution, to allocate spectrum and register frequency allocation, orbital positions and other parameters of satellites, “in order to avoid harmful interference between radio stations of different countries”
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Field (video)
In video, a field is one of the many still images which are displayed sequentially to create the impression of motion on the screen. Two fields comprise one video frame. When the fields are displayed on a video monitor they are "interlaced" so that the content of one field will be used on all of the odd-numbered lines on the screen and the other field will be displayed on the even lines. Converting fields to a still frame image requires a process called deinterlacing, in which the missing lines are duplicated or interpolated to recreate the information that would have been contained in the discarded field. Since each field contains only half of the information of a full frame, however, deinterlaced images do not have the resolution of a full frame. In order to increase the resolution of video images, therefore, new schemes have been created that capture full-frame images for each frame
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MPEG-1
MPEG-1
MPEG-1
is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio. It is designed to compress VHS-quality raw digital video and CD audio down to 1.5 Mbit/s (26:1 and 6:1 compression ratios respectively)[1] without excessive quality loss, making video CDs, digital cable/satellite TV and digital audio broadcasting (DAB) possible.[2][3] Today, MPEG-1
MPEG-1
has become the most widely compatible lossy audio/video format in the world, and is used in a large number of products and technologies
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DVB-S
Digital Video Broadcasting
Digital Video Broadcasting
— Satellite (DVB-S) is the original DVB standard for Satellite Television
Satellite Television
and dates from 1995, in its first release, while development lasted from 1993 to 1997. The first commercial application was by Galaxy in Australia, enabling digitally broadcast, satellite-delivered Television
Television
to the public. It is used via satellites serving every continent of the world. DVB-S is used in both Multiple Channel Per Carrier (MCPC) and Single channel per carrier modes for Broadcast Network
Broadcast Network
feeds as well as for direct-broadcast satellite services like Sky (UK & Ireland) via Astra in Europe, Dish Network
Dish Network
and Globecast
Globecast
in the U.S
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Streaming Video
Streaming media
Streaming media
is multimedia that is constantly received by and presented to an end-user while being delivered by a provider. The verb "to stream" refers to the process of delivering or obtaining media in this manner; the term refers to the delivery method of the medium, rather than the medium itself, and is an alternative to file downloading, a process in which the end-user obtains the entire file for the content before watching or listening to it. A client end-user can use their media player to start playing the data file (such as a digital file of a movie or song) before the entire file has been transmitted. Distinguishing delivery method from the media distributed applies specifically to telecommunications networks, as most of the delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio, television, streaming apps) or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books, video cassettes, audio CDs)
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Mains Electricity
Mains electricity
Mains electricity
is the general-purpose alternating-current (AC) electric power supply. It is the form of electrical power that is delivered to homes and businesses, and it is the form of electrical power that consumers use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions and electric lamps into wall sockets. The two principal properties of the electric power supply, voltage and frequency, differ between regions. A voltage of (nominally) 230 V and a frequency of 50 Hz is used in Europe, most of Africa, most of Asia, much of South America
South America
and Australia. In North America, the most common combination is 120 V and a frequency of 60 Hz. Other voltages exist, and some countries may have, for example, 230 V but 60 Hz. This is a concern to travellers, since portable appliances designed for one voltage and frequency combination may not operate with, or may even be destroyed by another
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