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NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,[1] is the analog television system that is used in North America, and until digital conversion was used in most of the Americas
Americas
(except Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, and French Guiana); Myanmar; South Korea; Taiwan; Philippines, Japan;[2] and some Pacific island nations and territories (see map). The first NTSC
NTSC
standard was developed in 1941 and had no provision for color. In 1953 a second NTSC
NTSC
standard was adopted, which allowed for color television broadcasting which was compatible with the existing stock of black-and-white receivers. NTSC
NTSC
was the first widely adopted broadcast color system and remained dominant until the 2000s, when it started to be replaced with different digital standards such as ATSC and others. Most countries using the NTSC
NTSC
standard, as well as those using other analog television standards, have switched to, or are in process of switching to newer digital television standards, there being at least four different standards in use around the world. North America, parts of Central America, and South Korea
South Korea
are adopting or have adopted the ATSC
ATSC
standards, while other countries (such as Japan) are adopting or have adopted other standards instead of ATSC. After nearly 70 years, the majority of over-the-air NTSC
NTSC
transmissions in the United States
United States
ceased on January 1, 2010,[3] and by August 31, 2011[4] in Canada
Canada
and most other NTSC
NTSC
markets.[5] The majority of NTSC transmissions ended in Japan
Japan
on July 24, 2011, with the Japanese prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima ending the next year.[4] After a pilot program in 2013, most full-power analog stations in Mexico
Mexico
left the air on ten dates in 2015, with some 500 low-power and repeater stations allowed to remain in analog until the end of 2016. Digital broadcasting allows higher-resolution television, but digital standard definition television continues to use the frame rate and number of lines of resolution established by the analog NTSC
NTSC
standard.

Contents

1 History 2 Technical details

2.1 Lines and refresh rate 2.2 Colorimetry

2.2.1 SMPTE C

2.3 Color encoding 2.4 Transmission modulation method 2.5 Frame rate
Frame rate
conversion 2.6 Modulation for analog satellite transmission 2.7 Field order

3 Variants

3.1 NTSC-M 3.2 NTSC-N/NTSC50 3.3 NTSC-J 3.4 PAL-M
PAL-M
(Brazil) 3.5 PAL-N 3.6 NTSC
NTSC
4.43 3.7 OSKM 3.8 NTSC-film 3.9 Canada/US video game region

4 Comparative quality 5 Vertical interval reference 6 Countries and territories that are using or once used NTSC

6.1 Experimented 6.2 Countries and territories that have ceased using NTSC

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links

History[edit] See also: History of television The National Television System Committee was established in 1940 by the United States
United States
Federal Communications Commission
Federal Communications Commission
(FCC) to resolve the conflicts that were made between companies over the introduction of a nationwide analog television system in the United States. In March 1941, the committee issued a technical standard for black-and-white television that built upon a 1936 recommendation made by the Radio Manufacturers Association (RMA). Technical advancements of the vestigial side band technique allowed for the opportunity to increase the image resolution. The NTSC
NTSC
selected 525 scan lines as a compromise between RCA's 441-scan line standard (already being used by RCA's NBC
NBC
TV network) and Philco's and DuMont's desire to increase the number of scan lines to between 605 and 800.[6] The standard recommended a frame rate of 30 frames (images) per second, consisting of two interlaced fields per frame at 262.5 lines per field and 60 fields per second. Other standards in the final recommendation were an aspect ratio of 4:3, and frequency modulation (FM) for the sound signal (which was quite new at the time). In January 1950, the committee was reconstituted to standardize color television. The FCC had briefly approved a color television standard in October 1950 which was developed by CBS.[7] The CBS
CBS
system is incompatible with existing black-and-white receivers. It uses a rotating color wheel, reduced the number of scan lines from 525 to 405, and increases the field rate from 60 to 144, but has an effective frame rate of only 24 frames per second. Legal action by rival RCA
RCA
kept commercial use of the system off the air until June 1951, and regular broadcasts only lasted a few months before manufacture of all color television sets was banned by the Office of Defense Mobilization in October, ostensibly due to the Korean War.[8] CBS
CBS
rescinded its system in March 1953,[9] and the FCC replaced it on December 17, 1953, with the NTSC
NTSC
color standard, which was cooperatively developed by several companies, including RCA
RCA
and Philco.[10] In December 1953 the FCC unanimously approved what is now called the NTSC
NTSC
color television standard (later defined as RS-170a). The compatible color standard retains full backward compatibility with existing black-and-white television sets. Color information was added to the black-and-white image by introducing a color subcarrier of precisely 315/88 MHz (usually described as 3.579545 MHz or 3.58 MHz). The precise frequency was chosen so that horizontal line-rate modulation components of the chrominance signal fall exactly in between the horizontal line-rate modulation components of the luminance signal, thereby enabling the chrominance signal to be filtered out of the luminance signal with minor degradation of the luminance signal. Due to limitations of frequency divider circuits at the time the color standard was promulgated, the color subcarrier frequency was constructed as composite frequency assembled from small integers, in this case 5×7×9/(8×11) MHz.[11] The horizontal line rate was reduced to approximately 15,734 lines per second (3.579545×2/455 MHz = 9/572 MHz) from 15,750 lines per second, and the frame rate was reduced to 30/1.001 ≈ 29.970 frames per second (the horizontal line rate divided by 525 lines/frame) from 30 frames per second. These changes amount to 0.1 percent and were readily tolerated by existing television receivers.[12][13] The first publicly announced network television broadcast of a program using the NTSC
NTSC
"compatible color" system was an episode of NBC's Kukla, Fran and Ollie
Kukla, Fran and Ollie
on August 30, 1953, although it was viewable in color only at the network's headquarters.[14] The first nationwide viewing of NTSC
NTSC
color came on the following January 1 with the coast-to-coast broadcast of the Tournament of Roses Parade, viewable on prototype color receivers at special presentations across the country. The first color NTSC
NTSC
television camera was the RCA
RCA
TK-40, used for experimental broadcasts in 1953; an improved version, the TK-40A, introduced in March 1954, was the first commercially available color television camera. Later that year, the improved TK-41 became the standard camera used throughout much of the 1960s. The NTSC
NTSC
standard has been adopted by other countries, including most of the Americas
Americas
and Japan. With the advent of digital television, analog broadcasts are being phased out. Most US NTSC
NTSC
broadcasters were required by the FCC to shut down their analog transmitters in 2009. Low-power stations, Class A stations and translators were required to shut down by 2015. Technical details[edit] Lines and refresh rate[edit] NTSC
NTSC
color encoding is used with the System M television signal, which consists of ​30⁄1.001 (approximately 29.97) interlaced frames of video per second. Each frame is composed of two fields, each consisting of 262.5 scan lines, for a total of 525 scan lines. 483 scan lines make up the visible raster. The remainder (the vertical blanking interval) allow for vertical synchronization and retrace. This blanking interval was originally designed to simply blank the receiver's CRT to allow for the simple analog circuits and slow vertical retrace of early TV receivers. However, some of these lines may now contain other data such as closed captioning and vertical interval timecode (VITC). In the complete raster (disregarding half lines due to interlacing) the even-numbered scan lines (every other line that would be even if counted in the video signal, e.g. 2, 4, 6, ..., 524 ) are drawn in the first field, and the odd-numbered (every other line that would be odd if counted in the video signal, e.g. 1, 3, 5, ..., 525 ) are drawn in the second field, to yield a flicker-free image at the field refresh frequency of ​60⁄1.001 Hz (approximately 59.94 Hz). For comparison, 576i
576i
systems such as PAL-B/G and SECAM
SECAM
use 625 lines (576 visible), and so have a higher vertical resolution, but a lower temporal resolution of 25 frames or 50 fields per second. The NTSC
NTSC
field refresh frequency in the black-and-white system originally exactly matched the nominal 60 Hz frequency of alternating current power used in the United States. Matching the field refresh rate to the power source avoided intermodulation (also called beating), which produces rolling bars on the screen. Synchronization
Synchronization
of the refresh rate to the power incidentally helped kinescope cameras record early live television broadcasts, as it was very simple to synchronize a film camera to capture one frame of video on each film frame by using the alternating current frequency to set the speed of the synchronous AC motor-drive camera. When color was added to the system, the refresh frequency was shifted slightly downward by 0.1% to approximately 59.94 Hz to eliminate stationary dot patterns in the difference frequency between the sound and color carriers, as explained below in "Color encoding". By the time the frame rate changed to accommodate color, it was nearly as easy to trigger the camera shutter from the video signal itself. The actual figure of 525 lines was chosen as a consequence of the limitations of the vacuum-tube-based technologies of the day. In early TV systems, a master voltage-controlled oscillator was run at twice the horizontal line frequency, and this frequency was divided down by the number of lines used (in this case 525) to give the field frequency (60 Hz in this case). This frequency was then compared with the 60 Hz power-line frequency and any discrepancy corrected by adjusting the frequency of the master oscillator. For interlaced scanning, an odd number of lines per frame was required in order to make the vertical retrace distance identical for the odd and even fields, which meant the master oscillator frequency had to be divided down by an odd number. At the time, the only practical method of frequency division was the use of a chain of vacuum tube multivibrators, the overall division ratio being the mathematical product of the division ratios of the chain. Since all the factors of an odd number also have to be odd numbers, it follows that all the dividers in the chain also had to divide by odd numbers, and these had to be relatively small due to the problems of thermal drift with vacuum tube devices. The closest practical sequence to 500 that meets these criteria was 3×5×5×7=525. (For the same reason, 625-line PAL-B/G and SECAM
SECAM
uses 5×5×5×5, the old British 405-line system used 3×3×3×3×5, the French 819-line system used 3×3×7×13 etc.) Colorimetry[edit] The original 1953 color NTSC
NTSC
specification, still part of the United States Code of Federal Regulations, defined the colorimetric values of the system as follows:[15]

Original NTSC
NTSC
colorimetry (1953) CIE 1931 x CIE 1931 y

primary red 0.67 0.33

primary green 0.21 0.71

primary blue 0.14 0.08

white point (CIE Standard illuminant
Standard illuminant
C) 6774 K 0.310 0.316

Early color television receivers, such as the RCA
RCA
CT-100, were faithful to this specification (which was based on prevailing motion picture standards), having a larger gamut than most of today's monitors. Their low-efficiency phosphors (notably in the Red) were weak and long-persistent, leaving trails after moving objects. Starting in the late 1950s, picture tube phosphors would sacrifice saturation for increased brightness; this deviation from the standard at both the receiver and broadcaster was the source of considerable color variation. SMPTE C[edit] To ensure more uniform color reproduction, receivers started to incorporate color correction circuits that converted the received signal — encoded for the colorimetric values listed above — into signals encoded for the phosphors actually used within the monitor. Since such color correction can not be performed accurately on the nonlinear gamma corrected signals transmitted, the adjustment can only be approximated, introducing both hue and luminance errors for highly saturated colors. Similarly at the broadcaster stage, in 1968-69 the Conrac Corp., working with RCA, defined a set of controlled phosphors for use in broadcast color picture video monitors.[16] This specification survives today as the SMPTE "C" phosphor specification:

SMPTE "C" colorimetry CIE 1931 x CIE 1931 y

primary red 0.630 0.340

primary green 0.310 0.595

primary blue 0.155 0.070

white point (CIE illuminant D65) 0.3127 0.3290

As with home receivers, it was further recommended[17] that studio monitors incorporate similar color correction circuits so that broadcasters would transmit pictures encoded for the original 1953 colorimetric values, in accordance with FCC standards. In 1987, the Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) Committee on Television Technology, Working Group on Studio Monitor Colorimetry, adopted the SMPTE C (Conrac) phosphors for general use in Recommended Practice 145,[18] prompting many manufacturers to modify their camera designs to directly encode for SMPTE "C" colorimetry without color correction,[19] as approved in SMPTE standard 170M, "Composite Analog Video
Video
Signal — NTSC
NTSC
for Studio Applications" (1994). As a consequence, the ATSC
ATSC
digital television standard states that for 480i
480i
signals, SMPTE "C" colorimetry should be assumed unless colorimetric data is included in the transport stream.[20] Japanese NTSC
NTSC
never changed primaries and whitepoint to SMPTE "C", continuing to use the 1953 NTSC
NTSC
primaries and whitepoint.[17] Both the PAL
PAL
and SECAM
SECAM
systems used the original 1953 NTSC
NTSC
colorimetry as well until 1970;[17] unlike NTSC, however, the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) rejected color correction in receivers and studio monitors that year and instead explicitly called for all equipment to directly encode signals for the "EBU" colorimetric values,[21] further improving the color fidelity of those systems. Color encoding[edit] For backward compatibility with black-and-white television, NTSC
NTSC
uses a luminance-chrominance encoding system invented in 1938 by Georges Valensi. The three color picture signals are divided into Luminance (derived mathematically from the three separate color signals (Red, Green and Blue)) which takes the place of the original monochrome signal and Chrominance
Chrominance
which carries only the color information. This process is applied to each color source by its own Colorplexer, thereby allowing a compatible color source to be managed as if it was an ordinary monochrome source. This allows black-and-white receivers to display NTSC
NTSC
color signals by simply ignoring the chrominance signal. Some black-and-white TVs sold in the US after the introduction of color broadcasting in 1953 were designed to filter chroma out, but the early B&W sets did not do this and chrominance could be seen as a 'dot pattern' in highly colored areas of the picture. In NTSC, chrominance is encoded using two color signals known as I (in-phase) and Q (in quadrature) in a process called QAM. The two signals each amplitude modulate 3.58 MHz carriers which are 90 degrees out of phase with each other and the result added together but with the carriers themselves being suppressed. The result can be viewed as a single sine wave with varying phase relative to a reference carrier and with varying amplitude. The varying phase represents the instantaneous color hue captured by a TV camera, and the amplitude represents the instantaneous color saturation. This 3.58 MHz subcarrier is then added to the Luminance to form the 'composite color signal' which modulates the video signal carrier just as in monochrome transmission. For a color TV to recover hue information from the color subcarrier, it must have a zero phase reference to replace the previously suppressed carrier. The NTSC
NTSC
signal includes a short sample of this reference signal, known as the colorburst, located on the 'back porch' of each horizontal synchronization pulse. The color burst consists of a minimum of eight cycles of the unmodulated (fixed phase and amplitude) color subcarrier. The TV receiver has a "local oscillator", which is synchronized with these color bursts. Combining this reference phase signal derived from the color burst with the chrominance signal's amplitude and phase allows the recovery of the 'I' and 'Q' signals which when combined with the Luminance information allows the reconstruction of a color image on the screen. Color TV has been said to really be colored TV because of the total separation of the brightness part of the picture from the color portion. In CRT televisions, the NTSC
NTSC
signal is turned into three color signals called Red, Green and Blue, each controlling that color electron gun. TV sets with digital circuitry use sampling techniques to process the signals but the end result is the same. For both analog and digital sets processing an analog NTSC
NTSC
signal, the original three color signals (Red, Green and Blue) are transmitted using three discrete signals (Luminance, I and Q) and then recovered as three separate colors and combined as a color image. When a transmitter broadcasts an NTSC
NTSC
signal, it amplitude-modulates a radio-frequency carrier with the NTSC
NTSC
signal just described, while it frequency-modulates a carrier 4.5 MHz higher with the audio signal. If non-linear distortion happens to the broadcast signal, the 3.579545 MHz color carrier may beat with the sound carrier to produce a dot pattern on the screen. To make the resulting pattern less noticeable, designers adjusted the original 15,750 Hz scanline rate down by a factor of 1.001 (0.1%) to match the audio carrier frequency divided by the factor 286, resulting in a field rate of approximately 59.94 Hz. This adjustment ensures that the sums and differences of the sound carrier and the color subcarrier and their multiples (i.e., the intermodulation products of the two carriers) are not exact multiples of the frame rate, which is the necessary condition for the dots to remain stationary on the screen, making them most noticeable. The 59.94 rate is derived from the following calculations. Designers chose to make the chrominance subcarrier frequency an n + 0.5 multiple of the line frequency to minimize interference between the luminance signal and the chrominance signal. (Another way this is often stated is that the color subcarrier frequency is an odd multiple of half the line frequency.) They then chose to make the audio subcarrier frequency an integer multiple of the line frequency to minimize visible (intermodulation) interference between the audio signal and the chrominance signal. The original black-and-white standard, with its 15,750 Hz line frequency and 4.5 MHz audio subcarrier, does not meet these requirements, so designers had either to raise the audio subcarrier frequency or lower the line frequency. Raising the audio subcarrier frequency would prevent existing (black and white) receivers from properly tuning in the audio signal. Lowering the line frequency is comparatively innocuous, because the horizontal and vertical synchronization information in the NTSC
NTSC
signal allows a receiver to tolerate a substantial amount of variation in the line frequency. So the engineers chose the line frequency to be changed for the color standard. In the black-and-white standard, the ratio of audio subcarrier frequency to line frequency is ​4.5 MHz⁄15,750 Hz = 285.71. In the color standard, this becomes rounded to the integer 286, which means the color standard's line rate is ​4.5 MHz⁄286 ≈ 15,734 Hz. Maintaining the same number of scan lines per field (and frame), the lower line rate must yield a lower field rate. Dividing ​4500000⁄286 lines per second by 262.5 lines per field gives approximately 59.94 fields per second. Transmission modulation method[edit]

Spectrum of a System M television channel with NTSC
NTSC
color

An NTSC
NTSC
television channel as transmitted occupies a total bandwidth of 6 MHz. The actual video signal, which is amplitude-modulated, is transmitted between 500 kHz and 5.45 MHz above the lower bound of the channel. The video carrier is 1.25 MHz above the lower bound of the channel. Like most AM signals, the video carrier generates two sidebands, one above the carrier and one below. The sidebands are each 4.2 MHz wide. The entire upper sideband is transmitted, but only 1.25 MHz of the lower sideband, known as a vestigial sideband, is transmitted. The color subcarrier, as noted above, is 3.579545 MHz above the video carrier, and is quadrature-amplitude-modulated with a suppressed carrier. The audio signal is frequency-modulated, like the audio signals broadcast by FM radio stations in the 88–108 MHz band, but with a 25 kHz maximum frequency deviation, as opposed to 75 kHz as is used on the FM band, making analog television audio signals sound quieter than FM radio signals as received on a wideband receiver. The main audio carrier is 4.5 MHz above the video carrier, making it 250 kHz below the top of the channel. Sometimes a channel may contain an MTS signal, which offers more than one audio signal by adding one or two subcarriers on the audio signal, each synchronized to a multiple of the line frequency. This is normally the case when stereo audio and/or second audio program signals are used. The same extensions are used in ATSC, where the ATSC
ATSC
digital carrier is broadcast at 0.31 MHz above the lower bound of the channel. "Setup" is a 54 mV(7.5 IRE) voltage offset between the "black" and "blanking" levels. It is unique to NTSC. CVBS stands for Color, Video, Blanking, and Sync. Frame rate
Frame rate
conversion[edit] See also: Telecine There is a large difference in frame rate between film, which runs at 24.0 frames per second, and the NTSC
NTSC
standard, which runs at approximately 29.97 (10 MHz×63/88/455/525) frames per second. In regions that use 25-fps television and video standards, this difference can be overcome by speed-up. For 30-fps standards, a process called "3:2 pulldown" is used. One film frame is transmitted for three video fields (lasting 1½ video frames), and the next frame is transmitted for two video fields (lasting 1 video frame). Two film frames are thus transmitted in five video fields, for an average of 2½ video fields per film frame. The average frame rate is thus 60 ÷ 2.5 = 24 frames per second, so the average film speed is nominally exactly what it should be. (In reality, over the course of an hour of real time, 215,827.2 video fields are displayed, representing 86,330.88 frames of film, while in an hour of true 24-fps film projection, exactly 86,400 frames are shown: thus, 29.97-fps NTSC transmission of 24-fps film runs at 99.92% of the film's normal speed.) Still-framing on playback can display a video frame with fields from two different film frames, so any difference between the frames will appear as a rapid back-and-forth flicker. There can also be noticeable jitter/"stutter" during slow camera pans (telecine judder). To avoid 3:2 pulldown, film shot specifically for NTSC
NTSC
television is often taken at 30 frame/s.[citation needed] To show 25-fps material (such as European television series and some European movies) on NTSC
NTSC
equipment, every fifth frame is duplicated and then the resulting stream is interlaced. Film
Film
shot for NTSC
NTSC
television at 24 frames per second has traditionally been accelerated by 1/24 (to about 104.17% of normal speed) for transmission in regions that use 25-fps television standards. This increase in picture speed has traditionally been accompanied by a similar increase in the pitch and tempo of the audio. More recently, frame-blending has been used to convert 24 FPS video to 25 FPS without altering its speed. Film
Film
shot for television in regions that use 25-fps television standards can be handled in either of two ways:

The film can be shot at 24 frames per second. In this case, when transmitted in its native region, the film may be accelerated to 25 fps according to the analog technique described above, or kept at 24 fps by the digital technique described above. When the same film is transmitted in regions that use a nominal 30-fps television standard, there is no noticeable change in speed, tempo, and pitch. The film can be shot at 25 frames per second. In this case, when transmitted in its native region, the film is shown at its normal speed, with no alteration of the accompanying soundtrack. When the same film is shown in regions that use a 30-fps nominal television standard, every fifth frame is duplicated, and there is still no noticeable change in speed, tempo, and pitch.

Because both film speeds have been used in 25-fps regions, viewers can face confusion about the true speed of video and audio, and the pitch of voices, sound effects, and musical performances, in television films from those regions. For example, they may wonder whether the Jeremy Brett
Jeremy Brett
series of Sherlock Holmes
Sherlock Holmes
television films, made in the 1980s and early 1990s, was shot at 24 fps and then transmitted at an artificially fast speed in 25-fps regions, or whether it was shot at 25 fps natively and then slowed to 24 fps for NTSC
NTSC
exhibition. These discrepancies exist not only in television broadcasts over the air and through cable, but also in the home-video market, on both tape and disc, including laser disc and DVD. In digital television and video, which are replacing their analog predecessors, single standards that can accommodate a wider range of frame rates still show the limits of analog regional standards. The ATSC
ATSC
standard, for example, allows frame rates of 23.976, 24, 29.97, 30, 59.94, and 60 frames per second, but not 25 and 50. Modulation for analog satellite transmission[edit] Because satellite power is severely limited, analog video transmission through satellites differs from terrestrial TV transmission. AM is a linear modulation method, so a given demodulated signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requires an equally high received RF SNR. The SNR of studio quality video is over 50 dB, so AM would require prohibitively high powers and/or large antennas. Wideband FM is used instead to trade RF bandwidth for reduced power. Increasing the channel bandwidth from 6 to 36 MHz allows a RF SNR of only 10 dB or less. The wider noise bandwidth reduces this 40 dB power saving by 36 MHz / 6 MHz = 8 dB for a substantial net reduction of 32 dB. Sound is on a FM subcarrier as in terrestrial transmission, but frequencies above 4.5 MHz are used to reduce aural/visual interference. 6.8, 5.8 and 6.2 MHz are commonly used. Stereo can be multiplex, discrete, or matrix and unrelated audio and data signals may be placed on additional subcarriers. A triangular 60 Hz energy dispersal waveform is added to the composite baseband signal (video plus audio and data subcarriers) before modulation. This limits the satellite downlink power spectral density in case the video signal is lost. Otherwise the satellite might transmit all of its power on a single frequency, interfering with terrestrial microwave links in the same frequency band. In half transponder mode, the frequency deviation of the composite baseband signal is reduced to 18 MHz to allow another signal in the other half of the 36 MHz transponder. This reduces the FM benefit somewhat, and the recovered SNRs are further reduced because the combined signal power must be "backed off" to avoid intermodulation distortion in the satellite transponder. A single FM signal is constant amplitude, so it can saturate a transponder without distortion. Field order[edit] [22] An NTSC
NTSC
"frame" consists of an "even" field followed by an "odd" field. As far as the reception of an analog signal is concerned, this is purely a matter of convention and, it makes no difference. It's rather like the broken lines running down the middle of a road, it doesn't matter whether it is a line/space pair or a space/line pair; the effect to a driver is exactly the same. The introduction of digital television formats has changed things somewhat. Most digital TV formats store and transmit fields in pairs as a single digital frame. Digital formats that match NTSC
NTSC
field rate, including the popular DVD
DVD
format, record video with the even field first in the digital frame, while the formats that match field rate of the 625 line system often record video with odd frame first. This means that when reproducing many non- NTSC
NTSC
based digital formats it is necessary to reverse the field order, otherwise an unacceptable shuddering "comb" effect occurs on moving objects as they are shown ahead in one field and then jump back in the next. This has also become a hazard where non NTSC
NTSC
progressive video is transcoded to interlaced and vice versa. Systems that recover progressive frames or transcode video should ensure that the "Field Order" is obeyed, otherwise the recovered frame will consist of a field from one frame and a field from an adjacent frame, resulting in "comb" interlacing artifacts. This can often be observed in PC based video playing utilities if an inappropriate choice of de-interlacing algorithm is made. During the decades of high-power NTSC
NTSC
broadcasts in the United States, switching between the views from two cameras was accomplished according to two standards, the choice between the two being made by geography, East versus West. In one region, the switch was made between the odd field that finished one frame and the even field that began the next frame; in the other, the switch was made after an even field and before an odd field. Thus, for example, a home VHS
VHS
recording made of a local television newscast in the East, when paused, would only ever show the view from one camera (unless a dissolve or other multicamera shot were intended), whereas VHS
VHS
playback of a situation comedy taped and edited in Los Angeles and then transmitted nationwide could be paused at the moment of a switch between cameras with half the lines depicting the outgoing shot and the other half depicting the incoming shot.[citation needed] Variants[edit] NTSC-M[edit] Unlike PAL, with its many varied underlying broadcast television systems in use throughout the world, NTSC
NTSC
color encoding is almost invariably used with broadcast system M, giving NTSC-M. NTSC-N/NTSC50[edit] NTSC-N/NTSC50 is an unofficial system combining 625-line video with 3.58 MHz NTSC
NTSC
color. PAL
PAL
software running on an NTSC
NTSC
Atari ST
Atari ST
displays using this system as it cannot display PAL
PAL
color. Television sets and monitors with a V-Hold knob can display this system after adjusting the vertical hold. [23] NTSC-J[edit] Only Japan's variant "NTSC-J" is slightly different: in Japan, black level and blanking level of the signal are identical (at 0 IRE), as they are in PAL, while in American NTSC, black level is slightly higher (7.5 IRE) than blanking level. Since the difference is quite small, a slight turn of the brightness knob is all that is required to correctly show the "other" variant of NTSC
NTSC
on any set as it is supposed to be; most watchers might not even notice the difference in the first place. The channel encoding on NTSC-J
NTSC-J
differs slightly from NTSC-M. In particular, the Japanese VHF band runs from channels 1-12 (located on frequencies directly above the 76-90 MHz Japanese FM radio band) while the North American VHF TV band uses channels 2-13 (54-72 MHz, 76-88 MHz and 174-216 MHz) with 88-108 MHz allocated to FM radio broadcasting. Japan's UHF TV channels are therefore numbered from 13 up and not 14 up, but otherwise uses the same UHF broadcasting frequencies as those in North America. PAL-M
PAL-M
(Brazil)[edit] The Brazilian PAL-M
PAL-M
system, introduced in February 19, 1972, uses the same lines/field as NTSC
NTSC
(525/60), and almost the same broadcast bandwidth and scan frequency (15.750 vs. 15.734 kHz). Prior to the introduction of color, Brazil
Brazil
broadcast in standard black-and-white NTSC. As a result, PAL-M
PAL-M
signals are near identical to North American NTSC
NTSC
signals, except for the encoding of the color subcarrier (3.575611 MHz for PAL-M
PAL-M
and 3.579545 MHz for NTSC). As a consequence of these close specs, PAL-M
PAL-M
will display in monochrome with sound on NTSC
NTSC
sets and vice versa.

PAL-M
PAL-M
(PAL=Phase Alternating Line) specs are:

Transmission band UHF/VHF, Frame rate
Frame rate
30 Lines/fields 525/60 Horizontal freq. 15.750 kHz Vertical freq. 60 Hz Color sub carrier 3.575611 MHz Video
Video
bandwidth 4.2 MHz Sound carrier frequency 4.5 MHz Channel bandwidth 6 MHz

NTSC
NTSC
(National Television System Committee) specs are:

Transmission band UHF/VHF Lines/fields 525/60 Horizontal frequency 15.734 kHz Vertical frequency 59.939 Hz Color subcarrier frequency 3.579545 MHz Video
Video
bandwidth 4.2 MHz Sound carrier frequency 4.5 MHz

PAL-N[edit] Main article: PAL-N This is used in Argentina, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay. This is very similar to PAL-M
PAL-M
(used in Brazil). The similarities of NTSC-M and NTSC-N can be seen on the ITU identification scheme table, which is reproduced here:

World television systems

System Lines  Frame rate Channel b/w Visual b/w Sound offset Vestigial sideband Vision mod. Sound mod. Notes

M 525 29.97 6 4.2 +4.5 0.75 Neg. FM Most of the Americas
Americas
and Caribbean, South Korea, Taiwan, Philippines (all NTSC-M) and Brazil
Brazil
(PAL-M). Greater frame rate results in higher quality.

N 625 25 6 4.2 +4.5 0.75 Neg. FM Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay
Uruguay
(all PAL-N). Greater number of lines results in higher quality.

As it is shown, aside from the number of lines and frames per second, the systems are identical. NTSC-N/ PAL-N
PAL-N
are compatible with sources such as game consoles, VHS/ Betamax
Betamax
VCRs, and DVD
DVD
players. However, they are not compatible with baseband broadcasts (which are received over an antenna), though some newer sets come with baseband NTSC
NTSC
3.58 support ( NTSC
NTSC
3.58 being the frequency for color modulation in NTSC: 3.58 MHz). NTSC
NTSC
4.43[edit] In what can be considered an opposite of PAL-60, NTSC
NTSC
4.43 is a pseudo color system that transmits NTSC
NTSC
encoding (525/29.97) with a color subcarrier of 4.43 MHz instead of 3.58 MHz. The resulting output is only viewable by TVs that support the resulting pseudo-system (usually multi-standard TVs). Using a native NTSC
NTSC
TV to decode the signal yields no color, while using a PAL
PAL
TV to decode the system yields erratic colors (observed to be lacking red and flickering randomly). The format was used by the USAF TV based in Germany during the Cold War.[citation needed] It was also found as an optional output on some LaserDisc
LaserDisc
players and some game consoles sold in markets where the PAL
PAL
system is used. The NTSC
NTSC
4.43 system, while not a broadcast format, appears most often as a playback function of PAL
PAL
cassette format VCRs, beginning with the Sony 3/4" U-Matic format and then following onto Betamax
Betamax
and VHS format machines. As Hollywood has the claim of providing the most cassette software (movies and television series) for VCRs for the world's viewers, and as not all cassette releases were made available in PAL
PAL
formats, a means of playing NTSC
NTSC
format cassettes was highly desired. Multi-standard video monitors were already in use in Europe to accommodate broadcast sources in PAL, SECAM, and NTSC
NTSC
video formats. The heterodyne color-under process of U-Matic, Betamax
Betamax
& VHS
VHS
lent itself to minor modification of VCR
VCR
players to accommodate NTSC
NTSC
format cassettes. The color-under format of VHS
VHS
uses a 629 kHz subcarrier while U-Matic & Betamax
Betamax
use a 688 kHz subcarrier to carry an amplitude modulated chroma signal for both NTSC
NTSC
and PAL formats. Since the VCR
VCR
was ready to play the color portion of the NTSC recording using PAL
PAL
color mode, the PAL
PAL
scanner and capstan speeds had to be adjusted from PAL's 50 Hz field rate to NTSC's 59.94 Hz field rate, and faster linear tape speed. The changes to the PAL
PAL
VCR
VCR
are minor thanks to the existing VCR recording formats. The output of the VCR
VCR
when playing an NTSC
NTSC
cassette in NTSC
NTSC
4.43 mode is 525 lines/29.97 frames per second with PAL
PAL
compatible heterodyned color. The multi-standard receiver is already set to support the NTSC
NTSC
H & V frequencies; it just needs to do so while receiving PAL
PAL
color. The existence of those multi-standard receivers was probably part of the drive for region coding of DVDs. As the color signals are component on disc for all display formats, almost no changes would be required for PAL
PAL
DVD
DVD
players to play NTSC
NTSC
(525/29.97) discs as long as the display was frame-rate compatible. OSKM[edit] In January 1960 (7 years prior to adoption of the modified SECAM version) the experimental TV studio in Moscow started broadcasting using OSKM system. OSKM abbreviation means "Simultaneous system with quadrature modulation" (Russian Одновременная Система с Квадратурной Модуляцией). It used the color coding scheme that was later used in PAL
PAL
(U and V instead of I and Q), because it was based on D/K monochrome standard, 625/50. The color subcarrier frequency was 4.4296875 MHz and the bandwidth of U and V signals was near 1.5 MHz. Only circa 4000 TV sets of 4 models (Raduga, Temp-22, Izumrud-201 and Izumrud-203) were produced for studying the real quality of TV reception. These TV's were not commercially available, despite being included in the goods catalog for trade network of the USSR. The broadcasting with this system lasted about 3 years and was ceased well before SECAM
SECAM
transmissions started in the USSR. None of the current multi-standard TV receivers can support this TV system. NTSC-film[edit] Film
Film
content commonly shot at 24 frames/s can be converted to 30 frames/s through the telecine process to duplicate frames as needed.

23.976 29.97

=

4 5

displaystyle frac 23.976 29.97 = frac 4 5

Mathematically for NTSC
NTSC
this is relatively simple as you need only to duplicate every 4th frame. Various techniques are employed. NTSC
NTSC
with an actual frame rate of ​24⁄1.001  (approximately 23.976) frames/s is often defined as NTSC-film. A process known as pullup, also known as pulldown, generates the duplicated frames upon playback. This method is common for H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2
H.262/MPEG-2 Part 2
digital video so the original content is preserved and played back on equipment that can display it or can be converted for equipment that cannot.

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (June 2008)

Canada/US video game region[edit] Sometimes NTSC-US or NTSC-U/C is used to describe the video gaming region of North America (the U/C refers to US + Canada), as regional lockout usually restricts games released within a region to that region. Comparative quality[edit]

The SMPTE color bars, an example of a test pattern

Reception problems can degrade an NTSC
NTSC
picture by changing the phase of the color signal (actually differential phase distortion), so the color balance of the picture will be altered unless a compensation is made in the receiver. The vacuum-tube electronics used in televisions through the 1960s led to various technical problems. Among other things, the color burst phase would often drift when channels were changed, which is why NTSC
NTSC
televisions were equipped with a tint control. PAL
PAL
and SECAM
SECAM
televisions had no need of one, and although it is still found on NTSC
NTSC
TVs, color drifting generally ceased to be a problem for more modern circuitry by the 1970s. When compared to PAL in particular, NTSC
NTSC
color accuracy and consistency is sometimes considered inferior, leading to video professionals and television engineers jokingly referring to NTSC
NTSC
as Never The Same Color, Never Twice the Same Color, or No True Skin Colors,[24] while for the more expensive PAL
PAL
system it was necessary to Pay for Additional Luxury. PAL
PAL
has also been referred to as Peace At Last, Perfection At Last or Pictures Always Lovely in the color war. This mostly applied to vacuum tube-based TVs, however, and later-model solid state sets using Vertical Interval Reference signals have less of a difference in quality between NTSC
NTSC
and PAL. This color phase, “tint”, or “hue” control allows for anyone skilled in the art to easily calibrate a monitor with SMPTE color bars, even with a set that has drifted in its color representation, allowing the proper colors to be displayed. Older PAL
PAL
television sets did not come with a user accessible “hue” control (it was set at the factory), which contributed to its reputation for reproducible colors. The use of NTSC
NTSC
coded color in S- Video
Video
systems completely eliminates the phase distortions. As a consequence, the use of NTSC
NTSC
color encoding gives the highest resolution picture quality (on the horizontal axis & frame rate) of the three color systems when used with this scheme. (The NTSC
NTSC
resolution on the vertical axis is lower than the European standards, 525 lines against 625.) However, it uses too much bandwidth for over-the-air transmission. The Atari 800 and Commodore 64
Commodore 64
home computers generate S-video, but only when used with specially designed monitors as no TV at the time supported the separate chroma and luma on standard RCA
RCA
jacks. In 1987, a standardized 4-pin mini-DIN socket was introduced for S-video input with the introduction of S- VHS
VHS
players, which were the first device produced to use the 4-pin plugs. However, S- VHS
VHS
never became very popular. Video
Video
game consoles in the 1990s began offering S-video output as well. The mismatch between NTSC’s 30 frames per second and film’s 24 frames is overcome by a process that capitalizes on the field rate of the interlaced NTSC
NTSC
signal, thus avoiding the film playback speedup used for 576i
576i
systems at 25 frames per second (which causes the accompanying audio to increase in pitch slightly, sometimes rectified with the use of a pitch shifter) at the price of some jerkiness in the video. See Frame rate
Frame rate
conversion above. Vertical interval reference[edit] The standard NTSC
NTSC
video image contains some lines (lines 1–21 of each field) that are not visible (this is known as the Vertical Blanking Interval, or VBI); all are beyond the edge of the viewable image, but only lines 1–9 are used for the vertical-sync and equalizing pulses. The remaining lines were deliberately blanked in the original NTSC
NTSC
specification to provide time for the electron beam in CRT-based screens to return to the top of the display. VIR (or Vertical interval reference), widely adopted in the 1980s, attempts to correct some of the color problems with NTSC
NTSC
video by adding studio-inserted reference data for luminance and chrominance levels on line 19.[25] Suitably equipped television sets could then employ these data in order to adjust the display to a closer match of the original studio image. The actual VIR signal contains three sections, the first having 70 percent luminance and the same chrominance as the color burst signal, and the other two having 50 percent and 7.5 percent luminance respectively.[26] A less-used successor to VIR, GCR, also added ghost (multipath interference) removal capabilities. The remaining vertical blanking interval lines are typically used for datacasting or ancillary data such as video editing timestamps (vertical interval timecodes or SMPTE timecodes on lines 12–14[27][28]), test data on lines 17–18, a network source code on line 20 and closed captioning, XDS, and V-chip data on line 21. Early teletext applications also used vertical blanking interval lines 14–18 and 20, but teletext over NTSC
NTSC
was never widely adopted by viewers.[29] Many stations transmit TV Guide On Screen (TVGOS) data for an electronic program guide on VBI lines. The primary station in a market will broadcast 4 lines of data, and backup stations will broadcast 1 line. In most markets the PBS station is the primary host. TVGOS data can occupy any line from 10-25, but in practice its limited to 11-18, 20 and line 22. Line 22 is only used for 2 broadcast, DirecTV
DirecTV
and CFPL-TV. TiVo data is also transmitted on some commercials and program advertisements so customers can autorecord the program being advertised, and is also used in weekly half-hour paid programs on Ion Television and the Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel
which highlight TiVo promotions and advertisers. Countries and territories that are using or once used NTSC[edit]

Parts of this article (those related to individual sections) need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (December 2014)

Below countries and territories currently use or once used the NTSC system. Many of these have switched or are currently switching from NTSC
NTSC
to digital television standards such as ATSC
ATSC
(United States, Canada, Mexico, Suriname, South Korea), ISDB
ISDB
(Japan, Philippines
Philippines
and part of South America), DVB-T
DVB-T
(Taiwan, Panama, Colombia
Colombia
and Trinidad and Tobago) or DTMB (Cuba).

 American Samoa[30]  Anguilla[30]  Antigua and Barbuda[30]  Aruba[30]  Bahamas[30]  Barbados[30]  Belize[30]  Bermuda[30] (Over-the-air NTSC
NTSC
broadcasts (Channel 9) have been terminated as of March 2016, local broadcast stations have now switched to digital channels 20.1 and 20.2.[31] )  Bolivia[30]  Bonaire[30]  British Virgin Islands[30]  British Indian Ocean Territory[30]  Canada,[30] (Over-the-air NTSC
NTSC
broadcasting in major cities ceased August 2011 as a result of legislative fiat, to be replaced with ATSC. Some one-station markets or markets served only by full-power repeaters remain analog.[32])   Caribbean
Caribbean
Netherlands[30]  Cayman Islands[30]  Chile[30] (Analog shutoff scheduled for December 31, 2017, simulcasting in ISDB-Tb.)  Colombia[30] ( NTSC
NTSC
broadcast to be abandoned by 2017, simulcasting DVB-T.)  Costa Rica[30] ( NTSC
NTSC
broadcast to be abandoned by December 2018, simulcasting ISDB-Tb.)  Cuba[30]  Curaçao[30]  Dominica[30]  Dominican Republic[30]  Ecuador[30]   El Salvador
El Salvador
(Over-the-air NTSC
NTSC
broadcasting scheduled to be abandoned by January 1, 2020, simulcast in ATSC.)  Grenada[30]  Guam[30]  Guatemala[30]  Guyana[30]  Haiti[30]  Honduras[30] (Over-the-air NTSC
NTSC
broadcasting scheduled to be abandoned by December 2020, simulcast in ATSC.)

 Jamaica[30]  Kiribati[30]  South Korea[30] (Most over-the-air NTSC
NTSC
broadcasting was switched off on December 31, 2012 at 4 a.m. KST in favor of ATSC. Signals toward North Korea
North Korea
are not immediately affected, nor are remaining analog cable television systems.)  Liberia[30]  Marshall Islands[30] (in Compact of Free Association
Compact of Free Association
with US; US aid funded NTSC
NTSC
adoption)  Montserrat[30]  Micronesia[30] (in Compact of Free Association
Compact of Free Association
with US, transitioning to DVB-T)   Midway Atoll
Midway Atoll
(a US military base)  Myanmar[30]  Nicaragua[30]  Nigeria[30]  Northern Mariana Islands  Palau[30] (in Compact of Free Association
Compact of Free Association
with US; adopted NTSC before independence)  Panama[30] ( NTSC
NTSC
broadcasts to be abandoned by 2020, simulcasting DVB-T. NTSC
NTSC
broadcasts to be abandoned in areas with more than 90% of DVB-T
DVB-T
reception.  Peru,[30] ( NTSC
NTSC
broadcast to be abandoned by December 31, 2017, simulcasting ISDB-Tb.[33])  Philippines[30] ( NTSC
NTSC
broadcast to was intended to abandoned at the end of 2015, however, in later 2014, it was postponed to 2019.[34] All analog broadcasts is expected to be shut off in 2020.[35] It will simulcast in ISDB-T.)  Puerto Rico[30]  Saint Kitts and Nevis[30]  Saint Lucia[30]  Saint Pierre and Miquelon[30]  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[30]  Sint Maarten[30]  Suriname[30]  Trinidad and Tobago[30]  Turks and Caicos Islands[30]  United States[30] (Full-power over-the-air NTSC
NTSC
broadcasting was switched off on June 12, 2009[36][37] in favor of ATSC. Low-power stations, Class A stations were switched off on September 1, 2015. All translators and other Low-power stations were supposed to transition on the same day Class-A stations shut off analog services but it was postponed due to economic concern on a spectrum auction. Most Remaining analog cable television systems are also not affected.) Further information: Digital television transition
Digital television transition
in the United States [38]  Panama   United States
United States
Virgin Islands  Venezuela[30]

Experimented[edit]

  Brazil
Brazil
(Between 1962 and 1963, Rede Tupi
Rede Tupi
and Rede Excelsior
Rede Excelsior
made the first unofficial transmissions in color, in specific programs in the city of São Paulo, before the official adoption of PAL-M
PAL-M
by the Brazilian Government in February 19, 1972)   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
experimented on 405-line variant of NTSC, then UK chose 625-line for PAL
PAL
broadcasting.

Countries and territories that have ceased using NTSC[edit] The following countries no longer use NTSC
NTSC
for terrestrial broadcasts.

Country Switched to Switchover completed

 Bermuda DVB-T 2016-03-01March, 2016

 Canada ATSC 2012-07-31August 31, 2011 (Select markets)

 Japan ISDB-T 2012-03-31March 31, 2012

 South Korea ATSC 2012-12-31December 31, 2012

 Mexico ATSC 2015-12-31December 31, 2015 (Full Power Stations)[39]

 Paraguay PAL-N December 31, 1979

 Taiwan DVB-T 2012-06-30June 30, 2012

 United States ATSC 2009-06-12June 12, 2009 (Full Power Stations)[37] September 1, 2015 (Class-A Stations)

See also[edit]

Broadcast television systems

Advanced Television Systems Committee standards BTSC NTSC-J NTSC-C PAL RCA SECAM

List of common resolutions – Television List of video connectors Moving image formats Oldest television station Television channel frequencies

Very high frequency Ultra high frequency Knife-edge effect Channel 1 (North American TV) Channel 37 North American broadcast television frequencies North American cable television frequencies Australasian TV frequencies

Broadcast-safe Digital television transition
Digital television transition
in the United States Glossary of video terms

Notes[edit]

^ National Television System Committee (1951–1953), [Report and Reports of Panel No. 11, 11-A, 12-19, with Some supplementary references cited in the Reports, and the Petition for adoption of transmission standards for color television before the Federal Communications Commission, n.p., 1953], 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables. 28 cm. LC Control No.:54021386 Library of Congress Online Catalog ^ NTSC
NTSC
system information and the countries that use it. High-Tech Productions ^ Digital Television. FCC.gov. Retrieved on 2014-05-11. ^ a b DTV and Over-the-Air Viewers Along U.S. Borders. FCC.gov. Retrieved on 2014-05-11. ^ Canada... PAL
PAL
or NTSC?. Video Help Forum Retrieved on 2015-01-23. ^ What actually occurred was the RCA
RCA
TG-1 synch generator system was upgraded from 441 lines per frame, 220.5 lines per field, interlaced, to 525 lines per frame 261.5 lines per field, also interlaced, with minimal additional changes, particularly not those affecting the vertical interval, which, in the extant RCA
RCA
system, included serrated equalizing pulses bracketing the vertical sync pulse, itself being serrated. For RCA/NBC, this was a very simple change from a 26,460 Hz master oscillator to a 31,500 Hz master oscillator, and minimal additional changes to the generator's divider chain. The equalizing pulses and the serration of the vertical sync pulse were necessary because of the limitations of the extant TV receiver video/sync separation technology, thought to be necessary because the sync was transmitted in band with the video, although at a quite different dc level. The early TV sets did not possess a DC restorer circuit, hence the need for this level of complexity. In-studio monitors were provided with separate horizontal and vertical sync, not composite synch and certainly not in-band synch (possibly excepting early color TV monitors, which were often driven from the output of the station's colorplexer). ^ A third line sequential system from Color Television Inc. (CTI) was also considered. The CBS
CBS
and final NTSC
NTSC
systems were called field-sequential and dot-sequential systems, respectively. ^ "Color TV Shelved As a Defense Step", The New York Times, October 20, 1951, p. 1. "Action of Defense Mobilizer in Postponing Color TV Poses Many Question for the Industry", The New York Times, October 22, 1951, p. 23. "TV Research Curb on Color Avoided", The New York Times, October 26, 1951. Ed Reitan, CBS
CBS
Field Sequential Color System Archived 2010-01-05 at the Wayback Machine., 1997. A variant of the CBS
CBS
system was later used by NASA
NASA
to broadcast pictures of astronauts from space. ^ " CBS
CBS
Says Confusion Now Bars Color TV," Washington Post, March 26, 1953, p. 39. ^ "F.C.C. Rules Color TV Can Go on Air at Once", The New York Times, December 19, 1953, p. 1. ^ The master oscillator is 315/22 = 14.31818 MHz, from which the 3.579545 color burst frequency is obtained by dividing by four; and the 31 kHz horizontal drive and 60 Hz vertical drive are also synthesized from that frequency. This facilitates a conversion to color of the then common, but monochrome, RCA
RCA
TG-1 synchronizing generator by the simple expedient of adding-on an external 14.31818 MHz temperature-controlled oscillator and a few dividers, and inputting the outputs of that chassis to certain test points within the TG-1, thereby disabling the TG-1's own 31500 Hz reference oscillator. ^ "Choice of Chrominance
Chrominance
Subcarrier Frequency
Frequency
in the NTSC
NTSC
Standards," Abrahams, I.C., Proc. IRE, Vol. 42, Issue 1, p.79–80 ^ "The Frequency
Frequency
Interleaving Principle in the NTSC
NTSC
Standards," Abrahams, I.C., Proc. IRE, vol. 42, Issue 1, p. 81–83 ^ " NBC
NBC
Launches First Publicly-Announced Color Television Show", Wall Street Journal, August 31, 1953, p. 4. ^ 47 CFR § 73.682 (20) (iv) ^ DeMarsh, Leroy (1993): TV Display Phosphors/Primaries — Some History. SMPTE Journal, December 1993: 1095–1098. ^ a b c International Telecommunications Union Recommendation ITU-R 470-6 (1970–1998): Conventional Television Systems, Annex 2. ^ Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
(1987–2004): Recommended Practice RP 145-2004. Color Monitor Colorimetry. ^ Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
(1994, 2004): Engineering Guideline EG 27-2004. Supplemental Information for SMPTE 170M and Background on the Development of NTSC
NTSC
Color Standards, pp. 9 ^ Advanced Television Systems Committee (2003): ATSC
ATSC
Direct-to-Home Satellite Broadcast Standard Doc. A/81, pp.18 ^ European Broadcasting Union
European Broadcasting Union
(1975) Tech. 3213-E.: E.B.U. Standard for Chromaticity Tolerances for Studio Monitors. ^ CCIR Report 308-2 Part 2 Chapter XII — Characteristics of Monochrome
Monochrome
Television Systems (1970 edition). ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=REsrXKGuPpg ^ Jain, Anal K., Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, Upper Saddle River NJ: Prentice Hall, 1989, p. 82. ^ "LM1881 Video
Video
Sync Separator" (PDF). 2006-03-13. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-03-13.  ^ Waveform Mons & Vectorscopes. Danalee.ca. Retrieved on 2014-05-11. ^ SMPTE EBU timecode by Phil Rees. Philrees.co.uk. Retrieved on 2014-05-11. ^ Technical Introduction to Timecode. Poynton.com. Retrieved on 2014-05-11. ^ Tools The History Project. Experimentaltvcenter.org. Retrieved on 2014-05-11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb Michael Hegarty; Anne Phelan; Lisa Kilbride (1 January 1998). Classrooms for Distance Teaching and Learning: A Blueprint. Leuven University Press. pp. 260–. ISBN 978-90-6186-867-5.  ^ http://bernews.com/2016/03/dd-bermuda-broadcasting-moving-digital-tv-output/ ^ Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission
(CRTC) Press release May 2007 Archived 2007-05-19 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Philip J. Cianci (9 January 2012). High Definition Television: The Creation, Development and Implementation of HDTV Technology. McFarland. pp. 302–. ISBN 978-0-7864-8797-4.  ^ " Philippines
Philippines
to start digital TV shift in 2019". NexTV Asia-Pacific. Archived from the original on 2015-02-09. Retrieved 2014-10-27.  ^ Bayos, Kris (16 September 2014). "NTC expects shift to digital TV by 2020". Retrieved 20 January 2015.  ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20090210110616/http://commerce.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=PressReleases.Detail&PressRelease_Id=84452e41-ca68-4aef-b15f-bbca7bab2973. Archived from the original on February 10, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2009.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ a b " ATSC
ATSC
SALUTES THE 'PASSING' OF NTSC". NTSC. Archived from the original on May 24, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2009.  ^ http://apps.fcc.gov/ecfs/document/view?id=60000976623 ^ Transicion a TDT (Transition to DT) (Spanish)

References[edit]

A standard defining the NTSC
NTSC
system was published by the International Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Union in 1998 under the title "Recommendation ITU-R BT.470-7, Conventional Analog Television Systems". It is publicly available on the Internet
Internet
at ITU-R BT.470-7 or can be purchased from the ITU. Ed Reitan (1997). CBS
CBS
Field Sequential Color System.

External links[edit]

National Television System Committee US cable television channel frequencies Commercial Television Frequencies – at TVTower.com Representation of the NTSC
NTSC
refresh rate on a television and on a DVD Why 59.94 vs 60 Hz

v t e

Digital video resolutions

Designation

Usage examples Definition (lines) Rate (Hz)

Interlaced (fields) Progressive (frames)

Low, MP@LL

LDTV, VCD, HTV 240, 288 (SIF)   24, 30; 25

Standard, MP@ML

SDTV, SVCD, DVD, DV 480 (NTSC), 576 (PAL) 60, 50 24, 30; 25

Enhanced, HMP@HML

EDTV 480 (NTSC-HQ), 576   60, 50

High, MP@HL

HDTV, BD, HD DVD, HDV 720   24, 30, 60; 25, 50

1080 25, 30 24, 50, 60

Ultra-high

UHDTV 2160, 4320   60, 120,180

v t e

Broadcast video formats

Television

Analog

525 lines

System M NTSC NTSC-J PAL-M

625 lines

PAL

System B System D System G System H System I System K

PAL-N PALplus SECAM

System B System D System G System K System L (SECAM-L)

Audio

BTSC (MTS) EIAJ NICAM SAP Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton
Zweikanalton
(A2/IGR)

Hidden signals

Captioning CGMS-A EPG GCR PDC Teletext VBI VEIL VIT VITC WSS XDS

Historical

Pre-1940 Mechanical television 180-line 405-line

System A

441-line 819-line MAC MUSE

Digital

Interlaced

SDTV

480i 576i

HDTV

1080i

Progressive

LDTV

1seg 240p 288p

EDTV

480p 576p

HDTV

720p 1080p

UHDTV

2160p 4320p

MPEG-2
MPEG-2
standards

ATSC DVB ISDB DTMB DVB 3D-TV

MPEG-4 AVC standards

ATSC
ATSC
A/72 DMB DTMB DVB SBTVD 1seg

HEVC standards

ATSC
ATSC
3.0

Audio

AC-3 (5.1) DTS MPEG-1 Audio Layer II MPEG Multichannel PCM LPCM AAC HE-AAC

Hidden signals

AFD Broadcast flag Captioning CPCM EPG Teletext

Technical issues

14:9 compromise Broadcast-safe Digital cinema
Digital cinema
(DCI) Display motion blur Moving image formats MPEG transport stream Reverse Standards Conversion Standards conversion Television transmitter Video
Video
on demand Video
Video
processing Widescreen signaling Templates (Analogue TV Topics)

v t e

SMPTE standards

Standards

SMPTE 259M SMPTE 292M SMPTE 296M SMPTE 344M SMPTE 356M SMPTE 367M SMPTE 372M SMPTE 274M SMPTE 424M SMPTE 2022 SMPTE ST 2071 SMPTE color bars SMPTE timecode Digital Picture Exchange Material Exchange Format Unique Material Identifier

Related articles

Broadcast-safe Broadcast television systems

Related standards organizations

National Television System Committee Moving Picture Experts Group ITU Radiocommunication Sector (formerly CCIR) ITU Telecommunication
Telecommunication
Sector (formerly CCITT) Digital Video
Video
Broadcasting European Broadcasting Union BBC Research NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories

v t e

Color space

List of color spaces Color models

CAM

CIECAM02 iCAM

CIE

CIEXYZ CIELAB CIECAM02 CIELUV Yuv CIEUVW CIE RGB

RGB

RGB color space sRGB rg chromaticity Adobe Wide-gamut ProPhoto scRGB DCI-P3 Rec. 709 Rec. 2020 Rec. 2100

YUV

YUV

PAL

YDbDr

SECAM PAL-N

YIQ

NTSC

YCbCr

Rec. 601 Rec. 709 Rec. 2020 Rec. 2100

ICtCp YPbPr xvYCC YCoCg

Other

CcMmYK CMYK Coloroid LMS Hexachrome HSL, HSV HCL Imaginary color OSA-UCS PCCS RG RYB

Color systems and standards

ACES ANPA Colour Index International

CI list of dyes

DIC Federal Standard 595 HKS ICC profile ISCC–NBS Munsell NCS Ostwald Pantone RAL

list

For the vision capacities of organisms or machines, see  Color vision.

v t e

Analog television
Analog television
broadcasting topics

Systems

180-line 405-line ( System A ) 441-line 525-line ( System J , System M ) 625-line ( System B , System C , System D , System G , System H , System I , System K , System L , System N ) 819-line ( System E , System F )

Color systems

NTSC PAL PAL-M PAL-S PALplus SECAM

Video

Back porch and front porch Black level Blanking level Chrominance Chrominance
Chrominance
subcarrier Colorburst Color killer Color TV Composite video Frame (video) Horizontal scan rate Horizontal blanking interval Luma Nominal analogue blanking Overscan Raster scan Safe area Television lines Vertical blanking interval White clipper

Sound

Multichannel television sound NICAM Sound-in-Syncs Zweikanalton

Modulation

Frequency
Frequency
modulation Quadrature amplitude modulation Vestigial sideband
Vestigial sideband
modulation (VSB)

Transmission

Amplifiers Antenna (radio) Broadcast transmitter/Transmitter station Cavity amplifier Differential gain Differential phase Diplexer Dipole antenna Dummy load Frequency
Frequency
mixer Intercarrier method Intermediate frequency Output power of an analog TV transmitter Pre-emphasis Residual carrier Split sound system Superheterodyne transmitter Television receive-only Direct-broadcast satellite television Television transmitter Terrestrial television Transposer

Frequencies & Bands

Frequency
Frequency
offset Microwave transmission Television channel frequencies UHF VHF

Propagation

Beam tilt Distortion Earth bulge Field strength in free space Knife-edge effect Noise (electronics) Null fill Path loss Radiation pattern Skew Television interference

Testing

Distortionmeter Field strength meter Vectorscope VIT signals Zero reference pulse

Artifacts

Dot crawl Ghosting Hanover bars Sparklies

v t e

Telecommunications

History

Beacon Broadcasting Cable protection system Cable TV Communications satellite Computer network Drums Electrical telegraph Fax Heliographs Hydraulic telegraph Internet Mass media Mobile phone Optical telecommunication Optical telegraphy Pager Photophone Prepay mobile phone Radio Radiotelephone Satellite communications Semaphore Smartphone Smoke signals Telecommunications history Telautograph Telegraphy Teleprinter
Teleprinter
(teletype) Telephone The Telephone Cases Television Timeline of communication technology Undersea telegraph line Videoconferencing Videophone Videotelephony Whistled language

Pioneers

Edwin Howard Armstrong John Logie Baird Paul Baran Alexander Graham Bell Tim Berners-Lee Jagadish Chandra Bose Vint Cerf Claude Chappe Donald Davies Lee de Forest Philo Farnsworth Reginald Fessenden Elisha Gray Erna Schneider Hoover Charles K. Kao Hedy Lamarr Innocenzo Manzetti Guglielmo Marconi Antonio Meucci Radia Perlman Alexander Stepanovich Popov Johann Philipp Reis Nikola Tesla Camille Tissot Alfred Vail Charles Wheatstone Vladimir K. Zworykin

Transmission media

Coaxial cable Fiber-optic communication

Optical fiber

Free-space optical communication Molecular communication Radio waves Transmission line

Network topology and switching

Links Nodes Terminal node Network switching (circuit packet) Telephone exchange

Multiplexing

Space-division Frequency-division Time-division Polarization-division Orbital angular-momentum Code-division

Networks

ARPANET BITNET Cellular network Computer CYCLADES Ethernet FidoNet Internet ISDN LAN Mobile NGN NPL network Public Switched Telephone Radio Telecommunications equipment Television Telex WAN Wireless World Wide Web

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