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Hemorrhaging
BLEEDING, also known as HEMORRHAGING or HAEMORRHAGING, is blood escaping from the circulatory system . Bleeding can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth , nose , ear , urethra , vagina or anus , or through a break in the skin . Hypovolemia is a massive decrease in blood volume, and death by excessive loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination . Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties (by comparison, blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume). The stopping or controlling of bleeding is called hemostasis and is an important part of both first aid and surgery . The use of cyanoacrylate glue to prevent bleeding and seal battle wound was designed and first used in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War

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Advanced Trauma Life Support
ADVANCED TRAUMA LIFE SUPPORT (commonly abbreviated ATLS) is a training program for medical providers in the management of acute trauma cases, developed by the American College of Surgeons
American College of Surgeons
. Similar programs exist for immediate care providers such as paramedics. The program has been adopted worldwide in over 60 countries, sometimes under the name of EARLY MANAGEMENT OF SEVERE TRAUMA, especially outside North America. Its goal is to teach a simplified and standardized approach to trauma patients. Originally designed for emergency situations where only one doctor and one nurse are present, ATLS is now widely accepted as the standard of care for initial assessment and treatment in trauma centers . The premise of the ATLS program is to treat the greatest threat to life first
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H&E Stain
HEMATOXYLIN AND EOSIN STAIN or HAEMATOXYLIN AND EOSIN STAIN (H for example when a pathologist looks at a biopsy of a suspected cancer , the histological section is likely to be stained with H&E and termed "H the terminology is based on the affinity of cellular components for the dyes. Other colors, e.g. yellow and brown, can be present in the sample; they are caused by intrinsic pigments, e.g. melanin . Some structures do not stain well. Basal laminae need to be stained by PAS stain or some silver stains , if they have to be well visible. Reticular fibers also require silver stain. Hydrophobic structures also tend to remain clear; these are usually rich in fats, e.g. adipocytes , myelin around neuron axons , and Golgi apparatus membranes. OVERVIEW* Hematoxylin is a dark blue or violet stain that is basic/positive. It binds to basophilic substances (such DNA/RNA - which are acidic and negatively charged)
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Fluid Resuscitation
FLUID REPLACEMENT or FLUID RESUSCITATION is the medical practice of replenishing bodily fluid lost through sweating, bleeding, fluid shifts or other pathologic processes. Fluids can be replaced with oral rehydration therapy (drinking), intravenous therapy , rectally such as with a Murphy drip , or by hypodermoclysis , the direct injection of fluid into the subcutaneous tissue. Fluids administered by the oral and hypodermic routes are absorbed more slowly than those given intravenously
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Systole (medicine)
SYSTOLE /ˈsɪstəliː/ is the part of the cardiac cycle when a heart chamber contracts. The term "systole" originates from New Latin, from Ancient Greek συστολή (sustolē), from συστέλλειν (sustellein, "to contract"), from σύν (syn, "together") + στέλλειν (stellein, "send"). The mammalian heart has 4 chambers: the left atrium , the left ventricle , the right atrium and the right ventricle. When the smaller, upper atria chambers contract in late diastole , they send blood down to the larger, lower ventricle chambers. When the lower chambers are filled and the valves to the atria are closed, the ventricles undergo isovolumetric contraction (contraction of the ventricles while all valves are closed), marking the first stage of systole. The second phase of systole sends blood from the left ventricle to the aorta and body extremities, and from the right ventricle to the lungs . Thus, the atria and ventricles contract in alternating sequence
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Diastolic
DIASTOLE /daɪˈæstəliː/ is the part of the cardiac cycle when the heart refills with blood following systole (contraction). Ventricular diastole is the period during which the ventricles are filling and relaxing, while atrial diastole is the period during which the atria are relaxing. The term diastole originates from the Greek word διαστολη, meaning dilation. CONTENTS * 1 Role in cardiac cycle * 2 Arterial pressure * 3 Clinical notation * 4 Diagnostic value * 5 Effects of impaired diastolic function * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 External links ROLE IN CARDIAC CYCLE Wiggers diagram
Wiggers diagram
, showing various events during diastole (duration marked at bottom). Typically, for a heart rate of 72 beats/minute, a cardiac cycle lasts approximately 0.8 sec, 0.3 sec spent in systole , and 0.5 sec in diastole
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Pulmonary Hemorrhage
PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE (or PULMONARY HAEMORRHAGE) is an acute bleeding from the lung , from the upper respiratory tract and the trachea , and the alveoli. When evident clinically, the condition is usually massive. The onset of pulmonary hemorrhage is characterized by cough productive of blood (hemoptysis) and worsening of oxygenation leading to cyanosis . Treatment should be immediate and should include tracheal suction, oxygen, positive pressure ventilation, and correction of underlying abnormalities (e.g. disorders of coagulation ). A blood transfusion may be necessary. CONTENTS * 1 Incidence * 2 Causes * 3 Pathogenesis * 3.1 Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links INCIDENCEThe outcome of treatment is dependent on causality. Pulmonary Hemorrhage is present in 7 to 10% of neonatal autopsies, but up to 80% of autopsies of very preterm infants. The incidence is 1 in 1,000 live births
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Alveolar Macrophage
An ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE (or DUST CELL) is a type of macrophage found in the pulmonary alveolus , near the pneumocytes , but separated from the wall. Activity of the alveolar macrophage is relatively high, because they are located at one of the major boundaries between the body and the outside world. Dust
Dust
cells are another name for monocyte derivatives in the lungs that reside on respiratory surfaces and clean off particles such as dust or microorganisms . Alveolar macrophages are frequently seen to contain granules of exogenous material such as particulate carbon that they have picked up from respiratory surfaces. Such black granules may be especially common in smoker 's lungs or long-term city dwellers. Inhaled air may contain particles or organisms which would be pathogenic. The respiratory pathway is a prime site for exposure to pathogens and toxic substances
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LASIK
LASIK
LASIK
or LASIK
LASIK
(laser -assisted in situ keratomileusis ), commonly referred to as LASER EYE SURGERY or LASER VISION CORRECTION, is a type of refractive surgery for the correction of myopia , hyperopia , and astigmatism . The LASIK
LASIK
surgery is performed by an ophthalmologist who uses a laser or microkeratome to reshape the eye's cornea in order to improve visual acuity . For most people, LASIK
LASIK
provides a long-lasting alternative to eyeglasses or contact lenses . LASIK
LASIK
is most similar to another surgical corrective procedure, photorefractive keratectomy (PRK), and LASEK . All represent advances over radial keratotomy in the surgical treatment of refractive errors of vision
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Linitis Plastica
LINITIS PLASTICA, also known as BRINTON\'S DISEASE or LEATHER BOTTLE STOMACH, is a morphological variant of diffuse (or infiltrating) stomach cancer . Causes of linitis plastica could be lye ingestion or metastatic infiltration of the stomach, particularly breast and lung carcinoma. It is not associated with H. pylori infection or chronic gastritis. The risk factors are undefined, except for rare inherited mutations in E-cadherin , which are found in about 50% of diffuse-type gastric carcinomas. This cancer (and most other stomach cancers) is more common in Asian countries, particularly Japan
Japan
. CONTENTS * 1 Presentation * 2 Notable cases * 3 References * 4 External links PRESENTATION Endoscopic image of linitis plastica, a type of stomach cancer where the entire stomach is invaded, leading to a leather bottle-like appearance with blood coming out of it
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Micrograph
A MICROGRAPH or PHOTOMICROGRAPH is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. MICROGRAPHY is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure. A wealth of information can be obtained from a simple micrograph like behavior of the material under different conditions, the phases found in the system, failure analysis, grain size estimation, elemental analysis and so on. The neuropathologist Solomon Carter Fuller
Solomon Carter Fuller
designed and created the first photomicrograph in 1900. Micrographs are widely used in all fields of microscopy
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Hemosiderin
HEMOSIDERIN or HAEMOSIDERIN is an iron -storage complex. It is only found within cells (as opposed to circulating in blood) and appears to be a complex of ferritin , denatured ferritin and other material. The iron within deposits of hemosiderin is very poorly available to supply iron when needed. Hemosiderin
Hemosiderin
can be identified histologically with "Perls' Prussian-blue" stain. In normal animals, hemosiderin deposits are small and commonly inapparent without special stains. Excessive accumulation of hemosiderin is usually detected within cells of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) or occasionally within epithelial cells of liver and kidney. Several disease processes result in deposition of larger amounts of hemosiderin in tissues; although these deposits often cause no symptoms, they can lead to organ damage
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Vasoconstriction
VASOCONSTRICTION is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles . The process is the opposite of vasodilation , the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in staunching hemorrhage and acute blood loss. When blood vessels constrict, the flow of blood is restricted or decreased, thus retaining body heat or increasing vascular resistance . This makes the skin turn paler because less blood reaches the surface, reducing the radiation of heat. On a larger level, vasoconstriction is one mechanism by which the body regulates and maintains mean arterial pressure . Medications causing vasoconstriction, also known as vasoconstrictors, are one type of medicine used to raise blood pressure
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Saline (medicine)
SALINE, also known as SALINE SOLUTION, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine. Applied to the affected area it is used to clean wounds, help remove contact lenses , and help with dry eyes . By injection into a vein it is used to treat dehydration such as from gastroenteritis and diabetic ketoacidosis . It is also used to dilute other medications to be given by injection. Large amounts may result in fluid overload , swelling , acidosis , and high blood sodium . In those with long standing low blood sodium excessive use may result in osmotic demyelination syndrome . Saline is in the crystalloid family of medications. It is most commonly used as a sterile 9 g of salt per litre (0.9%) solution, known as normal saline. Higher and lower concentrations may also occasionally be used. The medical use of saline began around 1831
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World Health Organization
World Health Organization Organisation mondiale de la santé (in French) Flag of the World Health Organization
World Health Organization
ABBREVIATION WHO OMS FORMATION 7 April 1948; 69 years ago (1948-04-07) TYPE Specialized agency of the United Nations LEGAL STATUS Active HEADQUARTERS Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland HEAD Tedros Adhanom , Director-General PARENT ORGANIZATION United Nations Economic and Social Council
United Nations Economic and Social Council
(ECOSOC) WEBSITE www.who.intThe WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations
United Nations
that is concerned with international public health . It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva
Geneva
, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations
United Nations
Development Group
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Packed Red Blood Cells
PACKED RED BLOOD CELLS, also known as RED CELL CONCENTRATE and PACKED CELLS, are red blood cells that have been separated for blood transfusion . They are typically used in anemia that is either resulting in symptoms or when the hemoglobin is less than 70-80 g/L (7-8 g/dL). One unit brings up hemoglobin levels by about 10 g/L. Repeated transfusions may be required in people receiving cancer chemotherapy or who have hemoglobin disorders . Cross matching is typically required before the blood is given. It is given by injection into a vein . Side effects include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis , red blood cell breakdown , infection , volume overload , and lung injury . With current preparation methods in the developed world the risk of viral infections such as hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS
are less than one in a million
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