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Hemorrhaging
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.[1] Bleeding
Bleeding
can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina or anus, or through a break in the skin. Hypovolemia is a massive decrease in blood volume, and death by excessive loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination.[2] Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties (by comparison, blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume).[3] The stopping or controlling of bleeding is called hemostasis and is an important part of both first aid and surgery. The use of cyanoacrylate glue to prevent bleeding and seal battle wounds was designed and first used in the Vietnam War
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Fuel (band)
Fuel is an American rock band formed by guitarist/songwriter Carl Bell and bassist Jeff Abercrombie
Jeff Abercrombie
in 1994. They are known for their hit songs "Shimmer" from Sunburn, "Hemorrhage (In My Hands)" and "Bad Day" from Something Like Human, and "Falls on Me" from Natural Selection. The band has sold nearly four million records worldwide. They have released five studio albums, most recently Puppet Strings
Puppet Strings
in 2014
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Diastolic
Diastole
Diastole
/daɪˈæstəliː/ is that part of the cardiac cycle during which the heart refills with blood after the emptying done during systole (contraction). Ventricular diastole is the period during which the two ventricles are relaxing from the contortions of contraction, then dilating and filling; atrial diastole is the period during which the two atria likewise are relaxing, dilating, and filling. The term diastole originates from the Greek word διαστολη, meaning dilation.[1]Contents1 Role in cardiac cycle1.1 Early ventricular diastole 1.2 Late ventricular diastole 1.3 Atrial diastole2 Diastolic pressure 3 Clinical notation 4 Diagnostic value 5 Effects of impaired diastolic function 6 See also 7 References 8 External linksRole in cardiac cycle[edit]A Wiggers diagram, showing various events during diastole
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Linitis Plastica
Linitis plastica, also known as Brinton's disease or leather bottle stomach, is a morphological variant of diffuse (or infiltrating) stomach cancer. Causes of linitis plastica could be lye ingestion or metastatic infiltration of the stomach, particularly breast and lung carcinoma.[1] It is not associated with H. pylori
H. pylori
infection or chronic gastritis. The risk factors are undefined, except for rare inherited mutations in E-cadherin, which are found in about 50% of diffuse-type gastric carcinomas.[1]Contents1 Presentation 2 Notable cases 3 References 4 External linksPresentation[edit]Endoscopic image of linitis plastica, a type of stomach cancer where the entire stomach is invaded, leading to a leather bottle-like appearance with blood coming out of it.Diffuse stomach cancer is characterized by the presence of poorly differentiated tumor cells
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Micrograph
A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item. This is opposed to a macrographic image, which is at a scale that is visible to the naked eye. Micrography
Micrography
is the practice or art of using microscopes to make photographs. A micrograph contains extensive details that form the features of a microstructure
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Hemosiderin
Hemosiderin
Hemosiderin
or haemosiderin is an iron-storage complex. It is only found within cells (as opposed to circulating in blood) and appears to be a complex of ferritin, denatured ferritin and other material.[1][2] The iron within deposits of hemosiderin is very poorly available to supply iron when needed. Hemosiderin
Hemosiderin
can be identified histologically with "Perls' Prussian-blue" stain
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Alveolar Macrophage
An alveolar macrophage (or dust cell) is a type of macrophage found in the pulmonary alveolus, near the pneumocytes, but separated from the wall. Activity of the alveolar macrophage is relatively high, because they are located at one of the major boundaries between the body and the outside world. They are responsible for removing particles such as dust or microorganisms from the respiratory surfaces. Alveolar macrophages are frequently seen to contain granules of exogenous material such as particulate carbon that they have picked up from respiratory surfaces. Such black granules may be especially common in smoker's lungs or long-term city dwellers. Inhaled air may contain particles or organisms which would be pathogenic. The respiratory pathway is a prime site for exposure to pathogens and toxic substances
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Pulmonary Hemorrhage
Pulmonary hemorrhage
Pulmonary hemorrhage
(or pulmonary haemorrhage) is an acute bleeding from the lung, from the upper respiratory tract and the trachea, and the alveoli. When evident clinically, the condition is usually massive.[1] The onset of pulmonary hemorrhage is characterized by cough productive of blood (hemoptysis) and worsening of oxygenation leading to cyanosis.[1] Treatment should be immediate and should include tracheal suction, oxygen, positive pressure ventilation, and correction of underlying abnormalities (e.g. disorders of coagulation). A blood transfusion may be necessary.[1]Contents1 Incidence 2 Causes 3 Pathophysiology3.1 Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage4 See also 5 References 6 External linksIncidence[edit] The outcome of treatment is dependent on causality
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H&E Stain
Hematoxylin
Hematoxylin
and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology. It is the most widely used stain in medical diagnosis and is often the gold standard; for example, when a pathologist looks at a biopsy of a suspected cancer, the histological section is likely to be stained with H&E and termed "H&E section", "H+E section", or "HE section". A combination of hematoxylin and eosin, it produces blues, violets, and reds.Contents1 Principle 2 Overview 3 See also 4 References 5 External links5.1 ProtocolPrinciple[edit] The staining method involves application of hemalum, a complex formed from aluminium ions and hematein (an oxidation product of hematoxylin). Hemalum colors nuclei of cells (and a few other objects, such as keratohyalin granules and calcified material) blue
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Advanced Trauma Life Support
Advanced trauma life support
Advanced trauma life support
(commonly abbreviated ATLS) is a training program for medical providers in the management of acute trauma cases, developed by the American College of Surgeons. Similar programs exist for immediate care providers such as paramedics. The program has been adopted worldwide in over 60 countries,[2] sometimes under the name of Early Management of Severe Trauma, especially outside North America. Its goal is to teach a simplified and standardized approach to trauma patients. Originally designed for emergency situations where only one doctor and one nurse are present, ATLS is now widely accepted as the standard of care for initial assessment and treatment in trauma centers. The premise of the ATLS program is to treat the greatest threat to life first
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Fluid Resuscitation
Fluid replacement or fluid resuscitation is the medical practice of replenishing bodily fluid lost through sweating, bleeding, fluid shifts or other pathologic processes. Fluids can be replaced with oral rehydration therapy (drinking), intravenous therapy, rectally such as with a Murphy drip, or by hypodermoclysis, the direct injection of fluid into the subcutaneous tissue. Fluids administered by the oral and hypodermic routes are absorbed more slowly than those given intravenously.Contents1 Oral 2 Intravenous2.1 Types of fluids used 2.2 Maintenance 2.3 Procedure3 Clinical uses3.1 Septic shock 3.2 Acute kidney injury4 Fluid overload 5 Other treatments 6 See also 7 ReferencesOral[edit] Main article: Oral rehydration therapy Oral rehydration therapy
Oral rehydration therapy
(ORT) is a simple treatment for dehydration associated with diarrhea, particularly gastroenteritis/gastroenteropathy, such as that caused by cholera or rotavirus
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Tachycardia
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.[1] In general, a resting heart rate over 100 beats per minute is accepted as tachycardia in adults.[1] Heart rates above the resting rate may be normal (such as with exercise) or abnormal (such as with electrical problems within the heart).Contents1 Definition 2 Causes 3 Differential diagnosis3.1 Sinus 3.2 Ventricular 3.3 Supraventricular3.3.1 Atrial fibrillation 3.3.2 AV nodal reentrant tachycardia 3.3.3 AV reentrant tachycardia 3.3.4 Junctional tachycardia4 Management4.1 Unstable5 Terminology 6 References 7 External linksDefinition[edit] The upper threshold of a normal human resting heart rate is based on age
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Systole (medicine)
The systole /ˈsɪstəliː/ is that part of the cardiac cycle during which some chambers of the heart muscle contract after refilling with blood.[2] The term "systole" originates from New Latin via Ancient Greek συστολή (sustolē): from συστέλλειν (sustellein, "to contract") via [σύν (syn, "together") + στέλλειν (stellein, "send"). The use of systole, "to contract", is very similar to the use of the English term "to squeeze". The mammalian heart has four chambers: the left atrium above the left ventricle (lighter pink, see graphic), which two are connected through the mitral (or bicuspid) valve; and the right atrium above the right ventricle (lighter blue), connected through the tricuspid valve. The atria are the receiving chambers for the circulation of blood and the ventricles are the discharging chambers. When, in late ventricular diastole, the atrial chambers contract, they send blood down to the larger, lower ventricle chambers
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Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
Vasoconstriction
is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels, in particular the large arteries and small arterioles. The process is the opposite of vasodilation, the widening of blood vessels. The process is particularly important in staunching hemorrhage and acute blood loss. When blood vessels constrict, the flow of blood is restricted or decreased, thus retaining body heat or increasing vascular resistance. This makes the skin turn paler because less blood reaches the surface, reducing the radiation of heat. On a larger level, vasoconstriction is one mechanism by which the body regulates and maintains mean arterial pressure. Medications causing vasoconstriction, also known as vasoconstrictors, are one type of medicine used to raise blood pressure
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Subconjunctival Hemorrhage
Subconjunctival hemorrhage, also known as subconjunctival haemorrhage and hyposphagma, is bleeding underneath the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva contains many small, fragile blood vessels that are easily ruptured or broken. When this happens, blood leaks into the space between the conjunctiva and sclera. Such a hemorrhage may be caused by a sudden or severe sneeze or cough, or due to high blood pressure or as a side effect of blood thinners such as aspirin or warfarin.[1] It may also be caused by heavy lifting, vomiting, or even rubbing one's eyes too roughly.[2][3] In other cases, it may result from being choked or from straining due to constipation. Also, it can result as a minor post-operative complication in eye surgeries such as LASIK. Whereas a bruise typically appears black or blue underneath the skin, a subconjunctival hemorrhage initially appears bright-red underneath the transparent conjunctiva. Later, the hemorrhage may spread and become green or yellow, like a bruise
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Saline (medicine)
Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine.[1] Applied to the affected area it is used to clean wounds, help remove contact lenses, and help with dry eyes.[2] By injection into a vein it is used to treat dehydration such as from gastroenteritis and diabetic ketoacidosis.[2] It is also used to dilute other medications to be given by injection.[1] Large amounts may result in fluid overload, swelling, acidosis, and high blood sodium.[2][1] In those with long standing low blood sodium excessive use may result in osmotic demyelination syndrome.[2] Saline is in the crystalloid family of medications.[3] It is most commonly used as a sterile 9 g of salt per litre (0.9%) solution, known as normal saline.[1] Higher and lower concentrations may also occasionally be used.[4][5] The medical use of saline began around 1831.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and saf
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