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Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.[1] Bleeding
Bleeding
can occur internally, where blood leaks from blood vessels inside the body, or externally, either through a natural opening such as the mouth, nose, ear, urethra, vagina or anus, or through a break in the skin. Hypovolemia is a massive decrease in blood volume, and death by excessive loss of blood is referred to as exsanguination.[2] Typically, a healthy person can endure a loss of 10–15% of the total blood volume without serious medical difficulties (by comparison, blood donation typically takes 8–10% of the donor's blood volume).[3] The stopping or controlling of bleeding is called hemostasis and is an important part of both first aid and surgery. The use of cyanoacrylate glue to prevent bleeding and seal battle wounds was designed and first used in the Vietnam War. Today many medical treatments use a medical version of "super glue" instead of using traditional stitches used for small wounds that need to be closed at the skin level.

Contents

1 Classification

1.1 Blood
Blood
loss 1.2 Massive hemorrhage 1.3 World Health Organization

2 Types 3 Causes

3.1 Traumatic Injury 3.2 Medical condition

4 Imaging 5 Etymology 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Classification[edit]

A subconjunctival hemorrhage is a common and relatively minor post- LASIK
LASIK
complication.

The endoscopic image of a type of stomach cancer known as linitis plastica. The leather bottle-like appearance can also cause bleeding as can be seen in this image.

Micrograph
Micrograph
showing abundant hemosiderin-laden alveolar macrophages (dark brown), as seen in a pulmonary hemorrhage. H&E stain.

Blood
Blood
loss[edit] Hemorrhaging is broken down into four classes by the American College of Surgeons' advanced trauma life support (ATLS).[4]

Class I Hemorrhage involves up to 15% of blood volume. There is typically no change in vital signs and fluid resuscitation is not usually necessary. Class II Hemorrhage involves 15-30% of total blood volume. A patient is often tachycardic (rapid heart beat) with a reduction in the difference between the systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The body attempts to compensate with peripheral vasoconstriction. Skin may start to look pale and be cool to the touch. The patient may exhibit slight changes in behavior. Volume resuscitation with crystalloids (Saline solution or Lactated Ringer's solution) is all that is typically required. Blood
Blood
transfusion is not usually required. Class III Hemorrhage involves loss of 30-40% of circulating blood volume. The patient's blood pressure drops, the heart rate increases, peripheral hypoperfusion (shock) with diminished capillary refill occurs, and the mental status worsens. Fluid resuscitation with crystalloid and blood transfusion are usually necessary. Class IV Hemorrhage involves loss of >40% of circulating blood volume. The limit of the body's compensation is reached and aggressive resuscitation is required to prevent death.

This system is basically the same as used in the staging of hypovolemic shock. Individuals in excellent physical and cardiovascular shape may have more effective compensatory mechanisms before experiencing cardiovascular collapse. These patients may look deceptively stable, with minimal derangements in vital signs, while having poor peripheral perfusion. Elderly patients or those with chronic medical conditions may have less tolerance to blood loss, less ability to compensate, and may take medications such as betablockers that can potentially blunt the cardiovascular response. Care must be taken in the assessment. Massive hemorrhage[edit] Although there is no universally accepted definition of massive hemorrhage; the following can be used to identify the condition: "(i) blood loss exceeding circulating blood volume within a 24-hour period, (ii) blood loss of 50% of circulating blood volume within a 3-hour period, (iii) blood loss exceeding 150 ml/min, or (iv) blood loss that necessitates plasma and platelet transfusion." [5] World Health Organization[edit] The World Health Organization
World Health Organization
made a standardized grading scale to measure the severity of bleeding.[6]

Grade 0 no bleeding

Grade 1 petechial bleeding;

Grade 2 mild blood loss (clinically significant);

Grade 3 gross blood loss, requires transfusion (severe);

Grade 4 debilitating blood loss, retinal or cerebral associated with fatality

Types[edit]

Upper head

Intracranial hemorrhage
Intracranial hemorrhage
– bleeding in the skull. Cerebral hemorrhage
Cerebral hemorrhage
– a type of intracranial hemorrhage, bleeding within the brain tissue itself. Intracerebral hemorrhage
Intracerebral hemorrhage
– bleeding in the brain caused by the rupture of a blood vessel within the head. See also hemorrhagic stroke. Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
(SAH) implies the presence of blood within the subarachnoid space from some pathologic process. The common medical use of the term SAH refers to the nontraumatic types of hemorrhages, usually from rupture of a berry aneurysm or arteriovenous malformation(AVM). The scope of this article is limited to these nontraumatic hemorrhages.

Eyes

Subconjunctival hemorrhage
Subconjunctival hemorrhage
- bloody eye arising from a broken blood vessel in the sclera (whites of the eyes). Often the result of strain, including sneezing, coughing, vomiting or other kind of strain

Nose

Epistaxis - nosebleed

Mouth

Tooth eruption
Tooth eruption
– losing a tooth Hematemesis – vomiting fresh blood Hemoptysis
Hemoptysis
– coughing up blood from the lungs

Lungs

Pulmonary hemorrhage

Gastrointestinal

Upper gastrointestinal bleed Lower gastrointestinal bleed Occult gastrointestinal bleed

Urinary tract

Hematuria
Hematuria
– blood in the urine from urinary bleeding

Gynecologic

Vaginal bleeding

Postpartum hemorrhage Breakthrough bleeding

Ovarian bleeding - this is a potentially catastrophic and not so rare complication among lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing transvaginal oocyte retrieval.[7]

Anus

Melena - upper gastrointestinal bleeding Hematochezia
Hematochezia
– lower gastrointestinal bleeding, or brisk upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Causes[edit] Bleeding
Bleeding
arises due to either traumatic injury, underlying medical condition, or a combination. Traumatic Injury[edit] Traumatic bleeding is caused by some type of injury. There are different types of wounds which may cause traumatic bleeding. These include:

Abrasion - Also called a graze, this is caused by transverse action of a foreign object against the skin, and usually does not penetrate below the epidermis. Excoriation
Excoriation
- In common with Abrasion, this is caused by mechanical destruction of the skin, although it usually has an underlying medical cause. Hematoma
Hematoma
- Caused by damage to a blood vessel that in turn causes blood to collect under the skin. Laceration
Laceration
- Irregular wound caused by blunt impact to soft tissue overlying hard tissue or tearing such as in childbirth. In some instances, this can also be used to describe an incision. Incision - A cut into a body tissue or organ, such as by a scalpel, made during surgery. Puncture Wound
Wound
- Caused by an object that penetrated the skin and underlying layers, such as a nail, needle or knife. Contusion - Also known as a bruise, this is a blunt trauma damaging tissue under the surface of the skin. Crushing Injuries - Caused by a great or extreme amount of force applied over a period of time. The extent of a crushing injury may not immediately present itself. Ballistic Trauma - Caused by a projectile weapon such as a firearm. This may include two external wounds (entry and exit) and a contiguous wound between the two.

The pattern of injury, evaluation and treatment will vary with the mechanism of the injury. Blunt trauma causes injury via a shock effect; delivering energy over an area. Wounds are often not straight and unbroken skin may hide significant injury. Penetrating trauma follows the course of the injurious device. As the energy is applied in a more focused fashion, it requires less energy to cause significant injury. Any body organ, including bone and brain, can be injured and bleed. Bleeding
Bleeding
may not be readily apparent; internal organs such as the liver, kidney and spleen may bleed into the abdominal cavity. The only apparent signs may come with blood loss. Bleeding
Bleeding
from a bodily orifice, such as the rectum, nose, or ears may signal internal bleeding, but cannot be relied upon. Bleeding
Bleeding
from a medical procedure also falls into this category. Medical condition[edit] "Medical bleeding" denotes hemorrhage as a result of an underlying medical condition (i.e. causes of bleeding that are not directly due to trauma). Blood
Blood
can escape from blood vessels as a result of 3 basic patterns of injury:

Intravascular changes - changes of the blood within vessels (e.g. ↑ blood pressure, ↓ clotting factors) Intramural changes - changes arising within the walls of blood vessels (e.g. aneurysms, dissections, AVMs, vasculitides) Extravascular changes - changes arising outside blood vessels (e.g. H pylori infection, brain abscess, brain tumor)

The underlying scientific basis for blood clotting and hemostasis is discussed in detail in the articles, coagulation, hemostasis and related articles. The discussion here is limited to the common practical aspects of blood clot formation which manifest as bleeding. Some medical conditions can also make patients susceptible to bleeding. These are conditions that affect the normal hemostatic (bleeding-control) functions of the body. Such conditions either are, or cause, bleeding diatheses. Hemostasis
Hemostasis
involves several components. The main components of the hemostatic system include platelets and the coagulation system. Platelets
Platelets
are small blood components that form a plug in the blood vessel wall that stops bleeding. Platelets
Platelets
also produce a variety of substances that stimulate the production of a blood clot. One of the most common causes of increased bleeding risk is exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The prototype for these drugs is aspirin, which inhibits the production of thromboxane. NSAIDs inhibit the activation of platelets, and thereby increase the risk of bleeding. The effect of aspirin is irreversible; therefore, the inhibitory effect of aspirin is present until the platelets have been replaced (about ten days). Other NSAIDs, such as "ibuprofen" (Motrin) and related drugs, are reversible and therefore, the effect on platelets is not as long-lived. There are several named coagulation factors that interact in a complex way to form blood clots, as discussed in the article on coagulation. Deficiencies of coagulation factors are associated with clinical bleeding. For instance, deficiency of Factor VIII
Factor VIII
causes classic hemophilia A while deficiencies of Factor IX cause "Christmas disease"(hemophilia B). Antibodies to Factor VIII
Factor VIII
can also inactivate the Factor VII and precipitate bleeding that is very difficult to control. This is a rare condition that is most likely to occur in older patients and in those with autoimmune diseases. Another common bleeding disorder is Von Willebrand disease. It is caused by a deficiency or abnormal function of the "Von Willebrand" factor, which is involved in platelet activation. Deficiencies in other factors, such as factor XIII or factor VII are occasionally seen, but may not be associated with severe bleeding and are not as commonly diagnosed. In addition to NSAID-related bleeding, another common cause of bleeding is that related to the medication, warfarin ("Coumadin" and others). This medication needs to be closely monitored as the bleeding risk can be markedly increased by interactions with other medications. Warfarin
Warfarin
acts by inhibiting the production of Vitamin K
Vitamin K
in the gut. Vitamin K
Vitamin K
is required for the production of the clotting factors, II, VII, IX, and X in the liver. One of the most common causes of warfarin-related bleeding is taking antibiotics. The gut bacteria make vitamin K and are killed by antibiotics. This decreases vitamin K levels and therefore the production of these clotting factors. Deficiencies of platelet function may require platelet transfusion while deficiencies of clotting factors may require transfusion of either fresh frozen plasma or specific clotting factors, such as Factor VIII
Factor VIII
for patients with hemophilia. Imaging[edit] Dioxaborolane chemistry enables radioactive fluoride (18F) labeling of red blood cells, which allows for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of intracerebral hemorrhages.[8] Etymology[edit] The word "Haemorrhage" (or hæmorrhage; using the æ ligature) comes from Latin haemorrhagia, from Ancient Greek αἱμορραγία (haimorrhagía, “a violent bleeding”), from αἱμορραγής (haimorrhagḗs, “bleeding violently”), from αἷμα (haîma, “blood”) + -ραγία (-ragía), from ῥηγνύναι (rhēgnúnai, “to break, burst”).[9] See also[edit]

Anaesthesia Trauma and Critical Care Aneurysm Autohemorrhaging Coagulation Exsanguination Hemophage Hemophilia

References[edit]

^ " Bleeding
Bleeding
Health Article". Healthline. Retrieved 2007-06-18.  ^ "Dictionary Definitions of Exsanguination". Reference.com. Retrieved 2007-06-18.  ^ " Blood
Blood
Donation Information". UK National Blood
Blood
Service. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-06-18.  ^ Manning, JE "Fluid and Blood
Blood
Resuscitation" in Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. JE Tintinalli Ed. McGraw-Hill: New York, 2004, p. 227. ^ Irita, K. (2011). Risk and crisis management in intraoperative hemorrhage: Human factors in hemorrhagic critical events. Korean journal of anesthesiology, 60(3), 151-160. ^ Webert KE, Cook RJ, Sigouin CS, et al. The risk of bleeding in thrombocytopenic patients with acute myeloid leukemia. haematologica 2006;91:1530-1537 ^ Liberty G, Hyman JH, Eldar-Geva T, Latinsky B, Gal M, Margalioth EJ (December 2008). "Ovarian hemorrhage after transvaginal ultrasonographically guided oocyte aspiration: a potentially catastrophic and not so rare complication among lean patients with polycystic ovary syndrome". Fertil. Steril. 93 (3): 874–879. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.10.028. PMID 19064264.  ^ Wang, Ye; An, Fei-Fei; Chan, Mark; Friedman, Beth; Rodriguez, Erik A; Tsien, Roger Y; Aras, Omer; Ting, Richard (2017-01-05). "18F-positron-emitting/fluorescent labeled erythrocytes allow imaging of internal hemorrhage in a murine intracranial hemorrhage model". Journal of Cerebral Blood
Blood
Flow & Metabolism. doi:10.1177/0271678x16682510.  ^ "Hemorrhage Origin". dictionary.com. Retrieved 16 July 2015. 

External links[edit]

Classification

V · T · D

ICD-10: R58 ICD-9-CM: 459.0 MeSH: D006470

External resources

MedlinePlus: 000045

v t e

First aid

Techniques

Abdominal thrusts Airway management Cardiopulmonary resuscitation Emergency bleeding control

Equipment

Automated external defibrillator Bag valve mask Bandage Dressing First aid
First aid
kit Nasopharyngeal airway Oropharyngeal airway

Mnemonics

ABC DCAP-BTLS OPQRST RICE SAMPLE SOAP

Certifications

Certified first responder Emergency medical technician Wilderness Emergency Medical Technician

Topics

Bleeding Golden hour Good Samaritan law Wilderness medicine

v t e

Disorders of blood flow

Decreases

Clots

Thrombus Thrombosis Renal vein thrombosis

Ischemia

Brain ischemia Ischaemic heart disease large intestine: Ischemic colitis small intestine: Mesenteric ischemia

Infarction

Types

Anemic Hemorrhagic

Location

Heart Brain Spleen Limb

Increases

Hemorrhage

Bruise/Hematoma Petechia Purpura Ecchymosis

head

Epistaxis Hemoptysis Intracranial hemorrhage Hyphema Subconjunctival hemorrhage

torso

Hemothorax Hemopericardium Pulmonary hematoma

abdomen

Gastrointestinal bleeding Haemobilia Hemoperitoneum Hematocele Hematosalpinx

joint

Hemarthrosis

Edema

Anasarca Angioedema/Lymphedema Exudate/Transudate

Cerebral edema Pulmonary edema Hydrothorax Ascites/hydroperitoneum Hydrosalpinx

Other

Hyperemia

Authority control

GND: 41399

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