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Halfaya Pass
Coordinates: 31°30′N 25°11′E / 31.500°N 25.183°E / 31.500; 25.183 Halfaya Pass
Halfaya Pass
(Arabic: مَمَرّ حَلْفَيَا translit. Mamarr Ħalfayā‎, known colloquially as Hellfire Pass) is located in Egypt, near the border with Libya. A 600 feet (180 m) high escarpment extends south eastwards from the Egyptian-Libyan border at the coast at as-Salum (or Saloum, Solum, Sollum), with the scarp slope facing into Egypt. Halfaya Pass
Halfaya Pass
is about two miles 2 miles (3.2 km) inland from the Mediterranean and provides a natural route through. The escarpment is known as Akabah el-Kebir عقبة الكبير (`aqabat al-kabīr) "great ascent". To El-Edrisi
El-Edrisi
it was known as عقبة السلوم (`aqabat as-salūm) "graded ascent", whence the modern name of the gulf and the town of Salum. In antiquity it was known as Catabathmus Magnus
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Geographic Coordinate System
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.[note 1] The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation.[1] To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.[2]Contents1 History 2 Geodetic datum 3 Horizontal coordinates3.1 Latitude
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Afrika Korps
World War IINorth African CampaignSonnenblume Siege of Tobruk Battle of Gazala Battleaxe 2nd Battle of El Alamein Tunisia CampaignCommandersNotable commanders Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Ritter von Thoma Walther NehringInsigniaIdentification symbolIdentification symbol Seal of the Deutsches AfrikakorpsGerman Africa Corps Deutsches Afrikakorps (June 1941)Components15th Panzer Division 5th Light Division 102nd (Italien) "Trento" Division Fortress BardiaGerman Africa Corps Deutsches Afrikakorps (November 1941)Parent unitPanzergruppe AfrikaComponents15th Panzer Division 21st Panzer Division Division z.b.V
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11th Hussars
  Kingdom of Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
(1715–1800)   United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1801–1969)Branch British ArmyType CavalryRole Line cavalrySize RegimentNickname(s) The Cherry Pickers, The Cherrybums, from which the more genteel CherubimsMotto(s) Treu und Fest (Loyal and Sure)Anniversaries Balaclava (25 October)CommandersNotable commanders James Brudenell, 7th Earl of CardiganThe 11th Hussars
11th Hussars
(Prince Albert's Own) was a cavalry regiment of the British Army
British Army
established in 1715
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Bardia
Bardia,[2] or El Burdi (Arabic: البردية or البردي‎) is a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
seaport in the Butnan District
Butnan District
of eastern Libya. It is also seldom known as Bórdi Slemán.[3] History[edit] In Roman times the town was known as Petras Maior.[4] During World War I, German U-boats
U-boats
made several landings in the port of Bardia
Bardia
in support of the Senussi
Senussi
order during their revolt against British and Italian colonial rule.[5] During World War II, it was the site of a major Italian fortification, invested by the XXIII Corps under the command of General Annibale Bergonzoli.[6] On 21 June 1940, the town was bombarded by the 7th Cruiser Squadron of the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Fleet
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Allies (World War II)
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations
United Nations
from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers
Axis powers
during the Second World War (1939–1945). The Allies promoted the alliance as seeking to stop German, Japanese and Italian aggression. At the start of the war on 1 September 1939, the Allies consisted of France, Poland and the United Kingdom, and dependent states, such as British India. Within days they were joined by the independent Dominions
Dominions
of the British Commonwealth: Australia, Canada, New Zealand and South Africa.[1] After the start of the German invasion of North Europe till the Balkan Campaign, the Netherlands, Belgium, Greece, and Yugoslavia joined the Allies
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Axis Powers
The Axis powers
Axis powers
(German: Achsenmächte, Italian: Potenze dell'Asse, Japanese: 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces. The Axis powers
Axis powers
agreed on their opposition to the Allies, but did not completely coordinate their activity. The Axis grew out of the diplomatic efforts of Germany, Italy, and Japan to secure their own specific expansionist interests in the mid-1930s. The first step was the treaty signed by Germany and Italy in October 1936
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Arabic Language
Arabic
Arabic
(Arabic: العَرَبِيَّة‎) al-ʻarabiyyah [ʔalʕaraˈbijːah] ( listen) or (Arabic: عَرَبِيّ‎) ʻarabī [ˈʕarabiː] ( listen) or [ʕaraˈbij]) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world.[4] It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
in the east to the Anti- Lebanon
Lebanon
mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic
Arabic
is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form (Modern Standard Arabic) [5]. The modern written language (Modern Standard Arabic) is derived from Classical Arabic
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55th Infantry Division Savona
World War IIOperation Crusader Siege of TobrukCommandersCurrent commander Generale di Divisione Fedele de Giorgis[nb 1]Notable commanders Generale di Divisione Fedele de GiorgisThe 55th Infantry
Infantry
Division Savona
Savona
was a North African type auto-transportable Infantry
Infantry
Division of the Italian Army during World War II. It was formed in April 1939 in Salerno
Salerno
and was destroyed 17 January 1942 at Naqb al Ḩalfāyah. Its men were drafted from Naples, Salerno
Salerno
and their surroundings
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7th Armoured Division (United Kingdom)
The 7th Armoured Division was an armoured division of the British Army that saw distinguished active service during World War II, where its exploits in the Western Desert Campaign
Western Desert Campaign
gained it the Desert Rats nickname. After the Munich Agreement, the division was formed in Egypt
Egypt
during 1938 as the Mobile Division (Egypt)[2] and its first divisional commander was the tank theorist Major-General
Major-General
Sir Percy Hobart. In February 1940, the name of the unit was changed to the 7th Armoured Division.[2] The division fought in most major battles during the North African Campaign; later it would land and fight in the Italian Campaign during the early stages of the invasion of Italy before being withdrawn to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
where it prepared to fight in North-west Europe
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Siege Of Tobruk
Tobruk
Tobruk
or Tubruq (Ancient Greek: Αντίπυργος) (/təˈbrʊk, toʊ-/;[3] Arabic: طبرق‎ Ṭubruq; also transliterated as Tóbruch, Tobruch, Tobruck and Tubruk) is a port city on Libya's eastern Mediterranean coast, near the border of Egypt. It is the capital of the Butnan District
Butnan District
(formerly Tobruk
Tobruk
District) and has a population of 120,000 (2011 est.).[4] Tobruk
Tobruk
was the site of an ancient Greek colony and, later, of a Roman fortress guarding the frontier of Cyrenaica.[4] Over the centuries, Tobruk
Tobruk
also served as a waystation along the coastal caravan route.[4] By 1911, Tobruk
Tobruk
had become an Italian military post, but during World War II, Allied forces, mainly the Australian 6th Division, took Tobruk on 22 January 1941
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El Agheila
El Agheila
El Agheila
(Arabic: العقيلة al-'Uqaylah‎) is a coastal city at the bottom of the Gulf of Sidra
Gulf of Sidra
in far western Cyrenaica, Libya. In 1988 it was placed in Ajdabiya
Ajdabiya
District; it was in that district until 1995
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International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique.[a][b] Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book
Book
Numbering (SBN) created in 1966
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Wilhelm Bach
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
(German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes) and its variants were the highest awards in the military of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II. The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of extreme gallantry.[1] Presentations were made to members of the three military branches of the Wehrmacht—the Heer (Army), Kriegsmarine
Kriegsmarine
(Navy) and Luftwaffe (Air Force)—as well as the Waffen-SS, the Reichsarbeitsdienst (RAD—Reich Labour Service) and the Volkssturm
Volkssturm
(German national militia). There were also 43 recipients in the military forces of allies of Nazi Germany.[2] There is currently no official German Government list of KC recipients
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Knight's Cross Of The Iron Cross
The Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross
Iron Cross
(German: Ritterkreuz des Eisernen Kreuzes), or simply the Knight's Cross (Ritterkreuz), and its variants were the highest awards in the military and paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
during World War II. The Knight's Cross was awarded for a wide range of reasons and across all ranks, from a senior commander for skilled leadership of his troops in battle to a low-ranking soldier for a single act of military valour
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World War II
Pacific WarChina Pacific Ocean South-East Asia South West Pacific Japan Manchuria & North Korea Mediterranean and Middle EastNorth Africa East Africa Mediterranean Sea Adriatic Malta Yugoslavia Iraq Syria–Lebanon Iran Italy Dodecanese Southern France Other campaignsAtlantic Arctic Strategic bombing Americas French West Africa Indian Ocean Madagascar Contemporaneous warsSoviet–Japanese border conflicts Franco-Thai War Ecuadorian–Peruvian War Ili Rebellion World War II Alphabetical indices A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 0–9Navigation CampaignsCountriesEquipment TimelineOutlineLists PortalCategoryBibliography vte World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis
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