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Hagen
HAGEN (German pronunciation: ( listen )) is the 41st-largest city in Germany
Germany
. The municipality is located in the state of North Rhine- Westphalia
Westphalia
. It is located on the south eastern edge of the Ruhr area , 15 km south of Dortmund
Dortmund
, where the rivers Lenne and Volme (met by the river Ennepe ) meet the river Ruhr
Ruhr
. As of 31 December 2010, the population was 188,529. The city is home to the FernUniversität Hagen
Hagen
, which is the only state funded distance education university in Germany. Counting more than 67,000 students (March 2010), it is the largest university in Germany
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Royal Air Force
The ROYAL AIR FORCE (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force . Formed towards the end of the First World War
First World War
on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world. Following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. Since its formation, the RAF has taken a significant role in British military history , in particular, playing a large part in the Second World War
Second World War
where it fought its most famous campaign, the Battle of Britain
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World War II
Allied victory * Collapse of Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany
* Fall of Japanese and Italian Empires * Dissolution of the League of Nations * Creation of the United Nations
United Nations
* Emergence of the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as superpowers * Beginning of the Cold War (more... ) PARTICIPANTS ALLIES AXIS COMMANDERS AND LEADERS MAIN ALLIED LEADERS Joseph Stalin Franklin D
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Avro Lancaster
The AVRO LANCASTER is a British four-engined Second World War heavy bomber . It was designed and manufactured by Avro
Avro
as a contemporary of the Handley Page Halifax
Handley Page Halifax
, both bombers having been developed to the same specification, as well as the Short Stirling
Short Stirling
, all three aircraft being four-engined heavy bombers adopted by the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
(RAF) during the same wartime era. The Lancaster has its origins in the twin-engine Avro
Avro
Manchester which had been developed during the late 1930s in response to the Air Ministry Specification P.13/36 for a capable medium bomber for "world-wide use"
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City
A CITY is a large and permanent human settlement . CITIES generally have extensive systems for housing , transportation , sanitation , utilities , land use , and communication . Their density facilitates interaction between people and businesses, sometimes benefiting both parties in the process. Historically citydwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but today, following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization , half of the world population is said to live in cities. Present-day cities usually form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas , creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment, entertainment, and edification. The most populated city proper is Shanghai
Shanghai
while the largest metropolitan areas also include the Greater Tokyo Area
Greater Tokyo Area
and Jabodetabek ( Jakarta
Jakarta
)
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Province Of Westphalia
The PROVINCE OF WESTPHALIA (German : Provinz Westfalen) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia
Prussia
and the Free State of Prussia
Prussia
from 1815 to 1946. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Economy * 3 After World War II
World War II
* 4 Maps * 5 Upper presidents for the Province of Westphalia
Westphalia
* 6 Land captains of Westphalia
Westphalia
HISTORYNapoleon Bonaparte founded the Kingdom of Westphalia
Kingdom of Westphalia
, which was a client state of the First French Empire
First French Empire
from 1807 to 1813. This state shared only the name with the historical region, containing mostly Hessian and Eastphalian regions and only a relatively small part of the region of Westphalia
Westphalia

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De Havilland Mosquito
The DE HAVILLAND DH.98 MOSQUITO is a British multi-role combat aircraft with a two-man crew. It served during and after the Second World War . It was one of few operational front-line aircraft of the era constructed almost entirely of wood and was nicknamed The Wooden Wonder. The Mosquito was also known affectionately as the "Mossie" to its crews. Originally conceived as an unarmed fast bomber , the Mosquito was adapted to roles including low to medium-altitude daytime tactical bomber , high-altitude night bomber , pathfinder , day or night fighter , fighter-bomber , intruder , maritime strike aircraft , and fast photo-reconnaissance aircraft. It was also used by the British Overseas Airways Corporation
British Overseas Airways Corporation
(BOAC) as a fast transport to carry small high-value cargoes to, and from, neutral countries , through enemy-controlled airspace . A single passenger could ride in the aircraft's bomb bay when it was adapted for the purpose
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Ruhr Red Army
The RED RUHR ARMY was an army of between 50,000 and 80,000 left wing workers from the Communist Party of Germany , the Communist Workers\' Party of Germany
Germany
, the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany , and the Free Workers Union of Germany , formed in the Ruhr Valley (the most important industrial area of Germany
Germany
) on 13 March 1920 as a reaction to the Kapp Putsch . After calling a general strike on 14 March, the Red Ruhr Army defeated the Freikorps
Freikorps
and regular army units in the area and started the biggest armed workers' uprising in Germany, the Ruhr Uprising (Ruhraufstand). While the middle and upper classes feared a left wing putsch, 300,000 mine workers supported the Ruhr Red Army. The strikers took over Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
, Elberfeld , Essen and soon had control over the whole Ruhr area
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Steel
STEEL is an alloy of iron and other elements, primarily carbon . Because of its high tensile strength and low cost, it is a major component in buildings , infrastructure , tools , ships , automobiles , machines , appliances, and weapons . Steel's base metal is iron, which is able to take on two crystalline forms (allotropic forms), body centered cubic (BCC) and face centered cubic (FCC) , depending on its temperature. It is the interaction of those allotropes with the alloying elements, primarily carbon, that gives steel and cast iron their range of unique properties. In the body-centred cubic arrangement, there is an iron atom in the centre of each cube, and in the face-centred cubic, there is one at the center of each of the six faces of the cube. In pure iron, the crystal structure has relatively little resistance to the iron atoms slipping past one another, and so pure iron is quite ductile , or soft and easily formed
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Kingdom Of Prussia
The KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA (German : Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia
Prussia
between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium
Belgium
and the Czech Republic. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany
Germany
in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire
German Empire
until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia
Prussia
, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg , where its capital was Berlin
Berlin
. The kings of Prussia
Prussia
were from the House of Hohenzollern
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Fourth Coalition
FOURTH COALITION: * Prussia
Prussia
* Russian Empire
Russian Empire
* United Kingdom
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Treaty Of Xanten
The TREATY OF XANTEN (German: Vertrag von Xanten) was signed in the Lower Rhine town of Xanten
Xanten
on November 12, 1614 between Wolfgang Wilhelm, Count Palatine of Neuburg and John Sigismund, Elector of Brandenburg , with representatives from England and France serving as mediators. The treaty ended the War of the Jülich Succession and all hostilities between Wolfgang William and John Sigismund. Based on the terms of the treaty, the territories of Jülich-Berg and Ravenstein went to Wolfgang William. Moreover, the territories of Cleves-Mark and Ravensberg went to John Sigismund. These last territories were the first provinces at the Rhine and in Westphalia to be governed by the House of Hohenzollern , and were the oldest constituents of the future Prussian Rhineland and the future Province of Westphalia
Province of Westphalia

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Margraviate Of Brandenburg
The MARGRAVIATE OF BRANDENBURG (German: Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
from 1157 to 1806 that played a pivotal role in the history of Germany
Germany
and Central Europe . Brandenburg
Brandenburg
developed out of the Northern March founded in the territory of the Slavic Wends . It derived one of its names from this inheritance, the MARCH OF BRANDENBURG (Mark Brandenburg). Its ruling margraves were established as prestigious prince-electors in the Golden Bull of 1356 , allowing them to vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
. The state thus became additionally known as ELECTORAL BRANDENBURG or the ELECTORATE OF BRANDENBURG (Kurbrandenburg or Kurfürstentum Brandenburg)
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Coal
COAL is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called COAL BEDS or COAL SEAMS. The harder forms, such as anthracite coal , can be regarded as metamorphic rock because of later exposure to elevated temperature and pressure . Coal
Coal
is composed primarily of carbon , along with variable quantities of other elements, chiefly hydrogen , sulfur , oxygen , and nitrogen . A fossil fuel , coal forms when dead plant matter is converted into peat , which in turn is converted into lignite , then sub-bituminous coal, after that bituminous coal , and lastly anthracite . This involves biological and geological processes that take place over time. Throughout human history, coal has been used as an energy resource, primarily burned for the production of electricity and heat, and is also used for industrial purposes, such as refining metals
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County Of Mark
The COUNTY OF MARK (German: Grafschaft Mark, French: Comté de La Marck colloquially known as Die Mark) was a county and state of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
in the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle . It lay on both sides of the Ruhr
Ruhr
river along the Volme and Lenne rivers. The Counts of the Mark were among the most powerful and influential Westphalian lords in the Holy Roman Empire. The name Mark is recalled in the present-day Märkischer Kreis
Märkischer Kreis
district in lands s