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Ministry Of Foreign Affairs (Egypt)
Member State of the Arab League In the 19th century, the Ministry was one of the divans established by Muhammad Ali Pasha, known as the 'founder of modern Egypt'.[3] The aim of the Ministry was to organize Egypt's internal, and external affairs, and was concerned with trade, and commerce. Later, it became the Divan of Foreign Affairs, and was concerned with trade, and citizen's affairs. It continued to function after the Muhammad Ali’s reign, and it was one of the fundamental divans of the state. It was concerned with abolishing slavery, and following up international treaties. During the era of Sa'id Pasha, and Isma'il Pasha, there were some modifications in the Ministry, due to the increasing presence of the Europeans in Egypt.[3] Due to the change of rule in Egypt in 1878, the absolute jurisdictions given to rulers were diminished, and the divans were replaced by portfolios
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Egyptian Passport
Egyptian passports (Arabic: جواز السفر المصري‎) are issued to nationals of Egypt for the purpose of international travel. Besides serving as a proof of Egyptian citizenship, they facilitate the process of securing assistance from Egyptian consular officials abroad if needed. Egyptian passports are valid for seven years for adults, and is issued for lesser periods for school or college students, or those who have not finalized their status of the military conscription. Starting in 2008, The Egyptian government introduced newer machine-readable passport (MRP), in order to comply with international passport standards and requirements with 96.7% conformance to ICAO Document 9303.[2] The newer passports offer better security and state-of-the-art anti forging parameters and have a soft cover. Egyptian passports are dark green, with the Egyptian Coats of Arms emblazoned in the centre of the front cover
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Republicanism
Republicanism is a political ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic. Historically, it ranges from the rule of a representative minority or oligarchy to popular sovereignty. It has had different definitions and interpretations which vary significantly based on historical context and methodological approach. Republicanism may also refer to the non-ideological scientific approach to politics and governance. As the republican thinker and second president of the United States John Adams stated in the introduction to his famous Defense of the Constitution,[1] the "science of politics is the science of social happiness" and a republic is the form of government arrived at when the science of politics is appropriately applied to the creation of a rationally designed government
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