A REPUBLIC (Latin : _res publica _) is a form of government in which
the country is considered a "public matter" – not the private
concern or property of the rulers – and where offices of state are
elected or appointed, rather than inherited. It is a form of
government under which the head of state is not a monarch .
In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer
specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent
the citizen body, known elsewhere as a representative democracy (a
democratic republic ), and exercise power according to the rule of
law (a constitutional republic).
As of 2017 , 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word
"republic" as part of their official names; not all of these are
republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor do all
nations with elected governments use the word "republic" in their
Both modern and ancient republics vary widely in their ideology,
composition, and practicality. In the classical and medieval period of
Europe, many states were fashioned on the
Roman Republic , which
referred to the governance of the city of Rome, between it having
kings and emperors. The Italian medieval and
tradition, today referred to as "civic humanism ", is sometimes
considered to derive directly from Roman republicans such as Sallust
Tacitus . However, Greek-influenced Roman authors, such as
Cicero , sometimes also used the term as a translation
for the Greek _politeia_ which could mean regime generally, but could
also be applied to certain specific types of regime that did not
exactly correspond to that of the Roman Republic. Republics were not
equated with classical democracies such as Athens , but had a
Republics became more common in the Western world starting in the
late 18th century, eventually displacing absolute monarchy as the most
common form of government in Europe. In modern republics, the
executive is legitimized both by a constitution and by popular
suffrage . In his work, "
The Spirit of the Laws ", Montesquieu
classified both democracies , where all the people have a share in
rule, and aristocracies , where only some of the people rule, as
republican forms of government.
Most often a republic is a single sovereign state , but there are
also sub-sovereign state entities that are referred to as republics,
or that have governments that are described as 'republican' in nature.
For instance, Article IV of the
to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government". In
Soviet Union was constitutionally described as a
"federal multinational state", composed of 15 republics , two of which
– Ukraine and Belarus – had their own seats at the United Nations.
* 1 Etymology
* 2 History
* 2.1 Classical republics
* 2.2 Other ancient republics
* 2.4 Icelandic
* 2.5 Mercantile republics
* 2.5.1 Mercantile republics outside of
* 2.7 Liberal republics
* 2.9 Socialist republics
* 2.10 Islamic republics
Head of state
* 3.1 Structure
* 3.2 Elections
* 3.3 Ambiguities
* 3.4 Sub-national republics
* 4 Other meanings
* 5 See also
* 6 References
* 7 Further reading
* 8 External links
The term originates as the Latin translation of Greek word _politeia
Cicero , among other Latin writers, translated _politeia_ as _res
publica_ and it was in turn translated by
Renaissance scholars as
_republic_ (or similar terms in various western European languages).
The term _politeia_ can be translated as _form of government_,
_polity_, or _regime_, and is therefore not always a word for a
specific type of regime as the modern word republic is. (One of Plato
's major works on political science was titled _Politeia_ and in
English it is thus known as _The
Republic _. However, apart from the
title, in modern translations of _The Republic_, alternative
translations of _politeia_ are also used. ) However, in Book III of
his _Politics_ (1279a),
Aristotle was apparently the first classical
writer to state that the term _politeia_ can be used to refer more
specifically to one type of _politeia_: "When the citizens at large
govern for the public good, it is called by the name common to all
governments (_to koinon onoma pasōn tōn politeiōn_), government
(_politeia_)". And also amongst classical Latin, the term "republic"
can be used in a general way to refer to any regime, or in a specific
way to refer to governments which work for the public good.
Northern Italy , a number of city states had commune or
signoria based governments. In the late Middle Ages, writers, such as
Giovanni Villani , began writing about the nature of these states and
the differences from other types of regime. They used terms such as
_libertas populi_, a free people, to describe the states. The
terminology changed in the 15th century as the renewed interest in the
Ancient Rome caused writers to prefer using classical
terminology. To describe non-monarchical states writers, most
Leonardo Bruni , adopted the Latin phrase _res publica _.
While Bruni and
Machiavelli used the term to describe the states of
Northern Italy, which were not monarchies, the term _res publica_ has
a set of interrelated meanings in the original Latin. The term can
quite literally be translated as "public matter". It was most often
used by Roman writers to refer to the state and government, even
during the period of the Roman
In subsequent centuries, the English word _commonwealth _ came to be
used as a translation of _res publica_, and its use in English was
comparable to how the Romans used the term _res publica_. Notably,
Oliver Cromwell the word _commonwealth_ was
the most common term to call the new monarchless state, but the word
_republic_ was also in common use. Likewise, in Polish , the term was
translated as _rzeczpospolita_, although the translation is now only
used with respect to Poland.
Presently, the term "republic" commonly means a system of government
which derives its power from the people rather than from another
basis, such as heredity or divine right .
While the philosophical terminology developed in classical Greece and
Rome, as already noted by
Aristotle there was already a long history
of city states with a wide variety of constitutions, not only in
Greece but also in the Middle East. After the classical period, during
Middle Ages , many free cities developed again, such as
Classical republic A map of the
The modern type of "republic" itself is different from any type of
state found in the classical world. Nevertheless, there are a number
of states of the classical era that are today still called republics.
This includes ancient Athens ,
Sparta and the
Roman Republic . While
the structure and governance of these states was very different from
that of any modern republic, there is debate about the extent to which
classical, medieval, and modern republics form a historical continuum.
J. G. A. Pocock has argued that a distinct republican tradition
stretches from the classical world to the present. Other scholars
disagree. Paul Rahe, for instance, argues that the classical
republics had a form of government with few links to those in any
The political philosophy of the classical republics have in any case
had an influence on republican thought throughout the subsequent
centuries. Philosophers and politicians advocating for republics, such
Montesquieu , Adams , and Madison , relied heavily on
classical Greek and Roman sources which described various types of
Aristotle 's _Politics _ discusses various forms of government. One
Aristotle named _politeia_, which consisted of a mixture of the
other forms. He argued that this was one of the ideal forms of
Polybius expanded on many of these ideas, again focusing
on the idea of mixed government . The most important Roman work in
this tradition is Cicero's _
De re publica _.
Over time, the classical republics were either conquered by empires
or became ones themselves. Most of the Greek republics were annexed to
Empire of Alexander . The
Roman Republic expanded
dramatically conquering the other states of the Mediterranean that
could be considered republics, such as
Carthage . The Roman Republic
itself then became the Roman Empire.
OTHER ANCIENT REPUBLICS
Vaishali was the capital of the Vajjian Confederacy , an early
republic from ancient India .
The term "republic" is not commonly used to refer to pre-classical
city states, especially if outside
Europe and the area which was under
Graeco-Roman influence. However some early states outside
governments that are sometimes today considered similar to republics.
In the ancient Near East , a number of cities of the Eastern
Mediterranean achieved collective rule.
Arwad has been cited as one of
the earliest known examples of a republic, in which the people, rather
than a monarch, are described as sovereign. The Israelite
confederation of the era before the
United Monarchy has also been
considered a type of republic. In Africa the Axum
organized as a confederation ruled similarly to a royal republic.
Similarly the Igbo nation of what is now Nigeria .
Indian subcontinent had a number of early republics known
Mahajanapadas consisted of sixteen oligarchic
republics that existed during the sixth centuries BCE to fourth
centuries BCE. Some Indian scholars, such as
K.P. Jayaswal , have
argued that a number of states in ancient India had republican forms
of government. While there are no surviving constitutions or works
of political philosophy from this period in
Indian history , but
surviving religious texts do refer to a number of states having
sabhās or gaṇa sangha , a type of republic or council-based, as
opposed to monarchical, government. Ancient Greek writers mention
Alexander the Great encountering city states and regions where a
council of elders ruled with paramount authority.
Commonwealth was established in 930 AD by refugees from
Norway who had fled the unification of that country under King Harald
Fairhair . The
Commonwealth consisted of a number of clans run by
chieftains, and the
Althing was a combination of parliament and
supreme court where disputes appealed from lower courts were settled,
laws were decided, and decisions of national importance were taken.
One such example was the
Christianisation of Iceland in 1000, where
Althing decreed, in order to prevent an invasion, that all
Icelanders must be baptized, and forbade celebration of pagan rituals.
Contrary to most states, the Icelandic
Commonwealth had no official
In the early 13th century, the
Age of the Sturlungs , the
Commonwealth began to suffer from long conflicts between warring
clans. This, combined with pressure from the Norwegian king Haakon IV
for the Icelanders to re-join the Norwegian "family", led the
Icelandic chieftains to accept Haakon IV as king by the signing of the
_Gamli sáttmáli_ ("Old Covenant ") in 1262. This effectively brought
Commonwealth to an end. The Althing, however, is still Iceland's
parliament, almost 800 years later.
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo , Neptune offers the wealth of the
sea to Venice_, 1748–50. This painting is an allegory of the power
Europe new republics appeared in the late
Middle Ages when a
number of small states embraced republican systems of government.
These were generally small, but wealthy, trading states, like the
Italian city-states and the
Hanseatic League , in which the merchant
class had risen to prominence. Knud Haakonssen has noted that, by the
Europe was divided with those states controlled by a
landed elite being monarchies and those controlled by a commercial
elite being republics.
Europe a wealthy merchant class developed in the important
trading cities. Despite their wealth they had little power in the
feudal system dominated by the rural land owners, and across Europe
began to advocate for their own privileges and powers. The more
centralized states, such as France and England, granted limited city
charters. _ Beginning of the
Metz . Election of the
first Head-Alderman_ in 1289, by Auguste Migette.
Metz was then a free
imperial city of the
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor .
In the more loosely governed Holy Roman
Empire , 51 of the largest
towns became free imperial cities . While still under the dominion of
Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor most power was held locally and many adopted
republican forms of government. The same rights to imperial immediacy
were secured by the major trading cities of Switzerland. The towns and
villages of alpine
Switzerland had, courtesy of geography, also been
largely excluded from central control. Unlike Italy and Germany, much
of the rural area was thus not controlled by feudal barons, but by
independent farmers who also used communal forms of government. When
Habsburgs tried to reassert control over the region both rural
farmers and town merchants joined the rebellion. The Swiss were
victorious, and the
Swiss Confederacy was proclaimed, and Switzerland
has retained a republican form of government to the present.
Italy was the most densely populated area of Europe, and also one
with the weakest central government. Many of the towns thus gained
considerable independence and adopted commune forms of government.
Completely free of feudal control, the
Italian city-states expanded,
gaining control of the rural hinterland. The two most powerful were
Venice and its rival the
Republic of Genoa . Each were
large trading ports, and further expanded by using naval power to
control large parts of the Mediterranean. It was in Italy that an
ideology advocating for republics first developed. Writers such as
Bartholomew of Lucca ,
Brunetto Latini ,
Marsilius of Padua
Marsilius of Padua , and
Leonardo Bruni saw the medieval city-states as heirs to the legacy of
Greece and Rome.
Two Russian cities with powerful merchant class—Novgorod and Pskov
—also adopted republican forms of government in 12th and 13th
centuries, respectively, which ended when the republics were conquered
by Muscovy /Russia at the end 15th – beginning of 16th century.
The dominant form of government for these early republics was control
by a limited council of elite patricians . In those areas that held
elections, property qualifications or guild membership limited both
who could vote and who could run. In many states no direct elections
were held and council members were hereditary or appointed by the
existing council. This left the great majority of the population
without political power, and riots and revolts by the lower classes
were common. The late
Middle Ages saw more than 200 such risings in
the towns of the Holy Roman Empire. Similar revolts occurred in
Italy, notably the
Ciompi Revolt in Florence.
Mercantile Republics Outside Of Europe
Following the collapse of the
Seljuk Sultanate of Rum and
establishment of the Turkish
Anatolian Beyliks , the
fraternities established a state centered on
Ankara that is sometimes
compared to the Italian mercantile republics.
European wars of religion
While the classical writers had been the primary ideological source
for the republics of Italy, in Northern Europe, the Protestant
Reformation would be used as justification for establishing new
republics. Most important was
Calvinist theology, which developed in
the Swiss Confederacy, one of the largest and most powerful of the
John Calvin did not call for the abolition of
monarchy, but he advanced the doctrine that the faithful had the duty
to overthrow irreligious monarchs. Advocacy for republics appeared in
the writings of the
Huguenots during the
French Wars of Religion .
Calvinism played an important role in the republican revolts in
England and the Netherlands. Like the city-states of Italy and the
Hanseatic League, both were important trading centres, with a large
merchant class prospering from the trade with the New World. Large
parts of the population of both areas also embraced Calvinism. During
Dutch Revolt (beginning in 1566), the
Dutch Republic emerged from
rejection of Spanish Habsburg rule. However, the country did not adopt
the republican form of government immediately: in the formal
declaration of independence (
Act of Abjuration , 1581), the throne of
king Philip was only declared vacant, and the Dutch magistrates asked
the Duke of Anjou , queen Elizabeth of England and prince William of
Orange , one after another, to replace Philip. It took until 1588
before the Estates (the _Staten_, the representative assembly at the
time) decided to vest the sovereignty of the country in themselves.
In 1641 the
English Civil War began. Spearheaded by the
funded by the merchants of London, the revolt was a success, and King
Charles I was executed. In England James Harrington , Algernon Sidney
John Milton became some of the first writers to argue for
rejecting monarchy and embracing a republican form of government. The
Commonwealth was short lived, and the monarchy soon restored.
Dutch Republic continued in name until 1795, but by the mid-18th
century the stadtholder had become a _de facto_ monarch. Calvinists
were also some of the earliest settlers of the British and Dutch
colonies of North America.
Liberal republics in early modern
Europe An allegory of the
Republic in Paris.
Septinsular Republic flag from the early 1800s.
A revolutionary Republican hand-written bill from the Stockholm
riots during the
Revolutions of 1848 , reading: "Dethrone Oscar he is
not fit to be a king: Long live the Republic! The Reform! down with
the Royal house, long live
Aftonbladet ! death to the king / Republic
Republic the People.
Brunkeberg this evening". The writer's identity
Along with these initial republican revolts, early modern
saw a great increase in monarchial power. The era of absolute monarchy
replaced the limited and decentralized monarchies that had existed in
most of the Middle Ages. It also saw a reaction against the total
control of the monarch as a series of writers created the ideology
known as liberalism .
Most of these Enlightenment thinkers were far more interested in
ideas of constitutional monarchy than in republics. The Cromwell
regime had discredited republicanism, and most thinkers felt that
republics ended in either anarchy or tyranny . Thus philosophers like
Voltaire opposed absolutism while at the same time being strongly
Jean-Jacques Rousseau and
Montesquieu praised republics, and looked
on the city-states of Greece as a model. However, both also felt that
a nation-state like France, with 20 million people, would be
impossible to govern as a republic. Rousseau admired the republican
experiment in Corsica (1755–1769) and described his ideal political
structure of small self-governing communes .
Montesquieu felt that a
city-state should ideally be a republic, but maintained that a limited
monarchy was better suited to a large nation.
American Revolution began as a rejection only of the authority of
British Parliament over the colonies, not of the monarchy. The
failure of the British monarch to protect the colonies from what they
considered the infringement of their rights to representative
government , the monarch's branding of those requesting redress as
traitors, and his support for sending combat troops to demonstrate
authority resulted in widespread perception of the British monarchy as
tyrannical . With the
United States Declaration of Independence the
leaders of the revolt firmly rejected the monarchy and embraced
republicanism. The leaders of the revolution were well versed in the
writings of the French liberal thinkers, and also in history of the
John Adams had notably written a book on
republics throughout history. In addition, the widely distributed and
popularly read-aloud tract _Common Sense _, by
Thomas Paine ,
succinctly and eloquently laid out the case for republican ideals and
independence to the larger public. The
Constitution of the United
States , ratified in 1789, created a relatively strong federal
republic to replace the relatively weak confederation under the first
attempt at a national government with the Articles of Confederation
and Perpetual Union ratified in 1783. The first ten amendments to the
Constitution, called the
United States Bill of Rights , guaranteed
certain natural rights fundamental to republican ideals that justified
French Revolution was also not republican at its outset. Only
Flight to Varennes removed most of the remaining sympathy
for the king was a republic declared and Louis XVI sent to the
guillotine. The stunning success of France in the French Revolutionary
Wars saw republics spread by force of arms across much of
Europe as a
series of client republics were set up across the continent. The rise
Napoleon saw the end of the
French First Republic and her Sister
Republics , each replaced by 'popular monarchies '. Throughout the
Napoleonic period, the victors extinguished many of the oldest
republics on the continent, including the
Venice , the
Republic of Genoa , and the
Dutch Republic . They were eventually
transformed into monarchies or absorbed into neighbouring monarchies.
Europe another group of republics was created as the
Napoleonic Wars allowed the states of Latin America to gain their
independence. Liberal ideology had only a limited impact on these new
republics. The main impetus was the local European descended Creole
population in conflict with the
Peninsulares —governors sent from
overseas. The majority of the population in most of Latin America was
of either African or
Amerindian descent, and the Creole elite had
little interest in giving these groups power and broad-based popular
Simón Bolívar , both the main instigator of the
revolts and one of its most important theorists, was sympathetic to
liberal ideals but felt that Latin America lacked the social cohesion
for such a system to function and advocated autocracy as necessary.
In Mexico this autocracy briefly took the form of a monarchy in the
Empire . Due to the
Peninsular War , the Portuguese
court was relocated to Brazil in 1808. Brazil gained independence as a
monarchy on September 7, 1822, and the
Empire of Brazil lasted until
1889. In the other states various forms of autocratic republic existed
until most were liberalized at the end of the 20th century.
European states in 1815 .
Monarchies (55) Republics (9) European states in 1914 .
Monarchies (22) Republics (4) European states in 1930 .
Monarchies (20) Republics (15) European states in 1950 .
Monarchies (13) Republics (21) European states in 2015 .
Monarchies (12) Republics (35)
French Second Republic was created in 1848, but abolished by
Napoleon III who proclaimed himself Emperor in 1852. The French Third
Republic was established in 1870, when a civil revolutionary committee
refused to accept
Napoleon III's surrender during the Franco-Prussian
War . Spain briefly became the
First Spanish Republic in 1873–74,
but the monarchy was soon restored. By the start of the 20th century
San Marino remained the only republics in
Europe. This changed when, after the 1908
Lisbon Regicide , the 5
October 1910 revolution established the Portuguese
Republic . A
1920s poster that commemorates the permanent
President of the Republic
Yuan Shikai and the provisional
President of the
In East Asia, China had seen considerable anti-Qing sentiment during
the 19th century, and a number of protest movements developed calling
for constitutional monarchy. The most important leader of these
Sun Yat-sen , whose Three Principles of the People
combined American, European, and Chinese ideas. Under his leadership
Republic of China was proclaimed on January 1, 1912.
Republicanism expanded significantly in the aftermath of World War I
, when several of the largest European empires collapsed: the Russian
Empire (1917), German
Empire (1918), Austro-Hungarian
Empire (1922) were all replaced by republics. New states
gained independence during this turmoil, and many of these, such as
Ireland , Poland ,
Czechoslovakia , chose republican forms
of government. Following Greece's defeat in the Greco-Turkish War
(1919–22) , the monarchy was briefly replaced by the Second Hellenic
Republic (1924–35). In 1931, the proclamation of the Second Spanish
Republic (1931–39) resulted in the
Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War that would be
the prelude of
World War II
World War II .
Republican ideas were spreading, especially in Asia. The United
States began to have considerable influence in East Asia in the later
part of the 19th century, with
Protestant missionaries playing a
central role. The liberal and republican writers of the west also
exerted influence. These combined with native
political philosophy that had long argued that the populace had the
right to reject unjust government that had lost the Mandate of Heaven
Two short-lived republics were proclaimed in East Asia, the Republic
of Formosa and the
First Philippine Republic
First Philippine Republic .
A map of the
In the years following World War II, most of the remaining European
colonies gained their independence, and most became republics. The two
largest colonial powers were France and the United Kingdom. Republican
France encouraged the establishment of republics in its former
colonies. The United Kingdom attempted to follow the model it had for
its earlier settler colonies of creating independent Commonwealth
realms still linked under the same monarchy. While most of the settler
colonies and the smaller states of the Caribbean retained this system,
it was rejected by the newly independent countries in Africa and Asia,
which revised their constitutions and became republics.
Britain followed a different model in the Middle East; it installed
local monarchies in several colonies and mandates including
Libya . In subsequent
decades revolutions and coups overthrew a number of monarchs and
installed republics. Several monarchies remain, and the Middle East is
the only part of the world where several large states are ruled by
monarchs with almost complete political control.
See also: People\'s
In the wake of the First World War, the Russian monarchy fell during
Russian Revolution . The
Russian Provisional Government was
established in its place on the lines of a liberal republic, but this
was overthrown by the
Bolsheviks who went on to establish the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics . This was the first republic established
Communism was wholly opposed to
monarchy, and became an important element of many republican movements
during the 20th century. The
Russian Revolution spread into
and overthrew its theocratic monarchy in 1924. In the aftermath of the
Second World War the communists gradually gained control of
Albania , ensuring that the states
were reestablished as socialist republics rather than monarchies.
Communism also intermingled with other ideologies. It was embraced by
many national liberation movements during decolonization . In Vietnam,
communist republicans pushed aside the
Nguyễn Dynasty , and
monarchies in neighbouring
Cambodia were overthrown by
communist movements in the 1970s.
Arab socialism contributed to a
series of revolts and coups that saw the monarchies of
Egypt , Iraq,
Yemen ousted. In Africa Marxist-
Leninism and African
socialism led to the end of monarchy and the proclamation of republics
in states such as
Islamic political philosophy has a long history of opposition to
absolute monarchy, notably in the work of
Sharia law took
precedence over the will of the ruler, and electing rulers by means of
Shura was an important doctrine. While the early caliphate
maintained the principles of an elected ruler, later states became
hereditary or military dictatorships though many maintained some
pretense of a consultative shura.
None of these states are typically referred to as republics. The
current usage of republic in Muslim countries is borrowed from the
western meaning, adopted into the language in the late 19th century.
The 20th century saw republicanism become an important idea in much of
the Middle East, as monarchies were removed in many states of the
Iraq became a secular state. Some nations, such as Indonesia
Azerbaijan , began as secular. In
Iran , the 1979 revolution
overthrew the monarchy and created an
Islamic republic based on the
Islamic democracy .
HEAD OF STATE
With no monarch, most modern republics use the title president for
the head of state . Originally used to refer to the presiding officer
of a committee or governing body in Great Britain the usage was also
applied to political leaders, including the leaders of some of the
Thirteen Colonies (originally Virginia in 1608); in full, the
President of the Council." The first republic to adopt the title was
United States of America
United States of America . Keeping its usage as the head of a
President of the Continental Congress was the leader of
the original congress. When the new constitution was written the title
President of the
United States was conferred on the head of the new
executive branch .
If the head of state of a republic is also the head of government ,
this is called a presidential system . There are a number of forms of
presidential government. A full-presidential system has a president
with substantial authority and a central political role.
In other states the legislature is dominant and the presidential role
is almost purely ceremonial and apolitical, such as in Germany and
India. These states are parliamentary republics and operate similarly
to constitutional monarchies with parliamentary systems where the
power of the monarch is also greatly circumscribed. In parliamentary
systems the head of government, most often titled prime minister ,
exercises the most real political power. Semi-presidential systems
have a president as an active head of state, but also have a head of
government with important powers.
The rules for appointing the president and the leader of the
government, in some republics permit the appointment of a president
and a prime minister who have opposing political convictions: in
France, when the members of the ruling cabinet and the president come
from opposing political factions, this situation is called
In some countries, like
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina and San
Marino , the head of state is not a single person but a committee
(council) of several persons holding that office. The Roman Republic
had two consuls , elected for a one year-term by the _comitia
centuriata _, consisting of all adult, freeborn males who could prove
In liberal democracies presidents are elected, either directly by the
people or indirectly by a parliament or council. Typically in
presidential and semi-presidential systems the president is directly
elected by the people, or is indirectly elected as done in the United
States. In that country the president is officially elected by an
electoral college , chosen by the States, all of which do so by direct
election of the electors. The indirect election of the president
through the electoral college conforms to the concept of republic as
one with a system of indirect election. In the opinion of some, direct
election confers legitimacy upon the president and gives the office
much of its political power. However, this concept of legitimacy
differs from that expressed in the
established the legitimacy of the
United States president as resulting
from the signing of the
Constitution by nine states. The idea that
direct election is required for legitimacy also contradicts the spirit
of the Great Compromise , whose actual result was manifest in the
clause that provides voters in smaller states with slightly more
representation in presidential selection than those in large states.
In states with a parliamentary system the president is usually
elected by the parliament. This indirect election subordinates the
president to the parliament, and also gives the president limited
legitimacy and turns most presidential powers into reserve powers that
can only be exercised under rare circumstance. There are exceptions
where elected presidents have only ceremonial powers, such as in
The distinction between a republic and a monarchy is not always
clear. The constitutional monarchies of the former British
Europe today have almost all real political power vested in
the elected representatives, with the monarchs only holding either
theoretical powers, no powers or rarely used reserve powers. Real
legitimacy for political decisions comes from the elected
representatives and is derived from the will of the people. While
hereditary monarchies remain in place, political power is derived from
the people as in a republic. These states are thus sometimes referred
to as crowned republics .
Terms such as _liberal republic_ are also used to describe all of the
modern liberal democracies.
There are also self-proclaimed republics that act similarly to
monarchies with absolute power vested in the leader and passed down
from father to son. North Korea and Syria are two notable examples
where a son has inherited political control. Neither of these states
are officially monarchies. There is no constitutional requirement that
power be passed down within one family, but it has occurred in
There are also elective monarchies where ultimate power is vested in
a monarch, but the monarch is chosen by some manner of election. A
current example of such a state is
Malaysia where the Yang di-Pertuan
Agong is elected every five years by the
Conference of Rulers composed
of the nine hereditary rulers of the
Malay states , and the Vatican
City-State , where the pope is selected by cardinal-electors,
currently all cardinals under a specific age. While rare today,
elective monarchs were common in the past. The Holy Roman
Empire is an
important example, where each new emperor was chosen by a group of
electors. Islamic states also rarely employed primogeniture , instead
relying on various forms of election to choose a monarch's successor.
Commonwealth had an elective monarchy, with a
wide suffrage of some 500,000 nobles. The system, known as the Golden
Liberty , had developed as a method for powerful landowners to control
the crown. The proponents of this system looked to classical examples,
and the writings of the Italian Renaissance, and called their elective
monarchy a _rzeczpospolita _, based on _res publica._
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In general being a republic also implies sovereignty as for the state
to be ruled by the people it cannot be controlled by a foreign power.
There are important exceptions to this, for example, republics in the
Soviet Union were member states which had to meet three criteria to be
* be on the periphery of the
Soviet Union so as to be able to take
advantage of their theoretical right to secede;
* be economically strong enough to be self-sufficient upon
* be named after at least one million people of the ethnic group
which should make up the majority population of said republic.
It is sometimes argued that the former
Soviet Union was also a
supra-national republic, based on the claim that the member states
were different nations .
Yugoslavia (and earlier names) was a
federal entity composed of six republics (Socialist
Republic of Bosnia
and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and
Slovenia). Each republic had its parliament, government, institute of
citizenship, constitution, etc... but certain functions were delegated
to the federation (army, monetary matters). Each republic also had a
right of self-determination according to the conclusions of the second
session of the AVNOJ and according to the federal constitution .
States of the
United States are required, like the federal
government, to be republican in form, with final authority resting
with the people. This was required because the states were intended to
create and enforce most domestic laws, with the exception of areas
delegated to the federal government and prohibited to the states. The
founding fathers of the country intended most domestic laws to be
handled by the states. Requiring the states to be a republic in form
was seen as protecting the citizens' rights and preventing a state
from becoming a dictatorship or monarchy, and reflected unwillingness
on the part of the original 13 states (all independent republics) to
unite with other states that were not republics. Additionally, this
requirement ensured that only other republics could join the union.
In the example of the United States, the original 13 British colonies
became independent states after the American Revolution, each having a
republican form of government. These independent states initially
formed a loose confederation called the
United States and then later
formed the current
United States by ratifying the current U.S.
Constitution , creating a union of sovereign states with the union or
federal government also being a republic. Any state joining the union
later was also required to be a republic.
The term _republic_ originated from the writers of the
a descriptive term for states that were not monarchies. These writers,
such as Machiavelli, also wrote important prescriptive works
describing how such governments should function. These ideas of how a
government and society should be structured is the basis for an
ideology known as classical republicanism or civic humanism . This
ideology is based on the
Roman Republic and the city states of Ancient
Greece and focuses on ideals such as civic virtue , rule of law , and
This understanding of a republic as a distinct form of government
from a liberal democracy is one of the main theses of the Cambridge
School of historical analysis. This grew out of the work of J. G. A.
Pocock who in 1975 argued that a series of scholars had expressed a
consistent set of republican ideals. These writers included
Machiavelli, Milton, Montesquieu, and the founders of the United
States of America.
Pocock argued that this was an ideology with a history and principles
distinct from liberalism. These ideas were embraced by a number of
different writers, including
Quentin Skinner ,
Philip Pettit and
Cass Sunstein . These subsequent writers have further explored the
history of the idea, and also outlined how a modern republic should
Republicanism in the
A distinct set of definitions for the word _republic_ evolved in the
United States . In common parlance, a republic is a state that does
not practice direct democracy but rather has a government indirectly
controlled by the people. This understanding of the term was
originally developed by James Madison, and notably employed in
Federalist Paper No. 10 . This meaning was widely adopted early in the
history of the United States, including in
Noah Webster 's dictionary
of 1828. It was a novel meaning to the term; representative democracy
was not an idea mentioned by
Machiavelli and did not exist in the
classical republics. Also, there is evidence that contemporaries of
Madison considered the meaning of the word to reflect the definition
found elsewhere, as is the case with a quotation of Benjamin Franklin
taken from the notes of
James McHenry where the question is put forth,
Republic or a Monarchy?"
The term _republic_ does not appear in the Declaration of
Independence , but does appear in Article IV of the
"guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican form of
Government." What exactly the writers of the constitution felt this
should mean is uncertain. The Supreme Court , in _
Luther v. Borden _
(1849), declared that the definition of _republic_ was a "political
question " in which it would not intervene. In two later cases, it did
establish a basic definition. In _
United States v. Cruikshank _
(1875), the court ruled that the "equal rights of citizens" were
inherent to the idea of a republic.
However, the term _republic_ is not synonymous with the republican
form. The republican form is defined as one in which the powers of
sovereignty are vested in the people and are exercised by the people,
either directly, or through representatives chosen by the people, to
whom those powers are specially delegated. _In re Duncan_, 139 U.S.
449, 11 S.Ct. 573, 35 L.Ed. 219; _Minor v. Happersett_, 88 U.S. (21
Wall.) 162, 22 L.Ed. 627.
Beyond these basic definitions the word _republic_ has a number of
other connotations. W. Paul Adams observes that _republic_ is most
often used in the
United States as a synonym for state or government,
but with more positive connotations than either of those terms.
Republicanism is often referred to as the founding ideology of the
United States. Traditionally scholars believed this American
republicanism was a derivation of the classical liberal ideologies of
John Locke and others developed in Europe.
A political philosophy of republicanism that formed during the
Renaissance period, and initiated by Machiavelli, was thought to have
had little impact on the founders of the United States. In the 1960s
and 1970s a revisionist school led by the likes of Bernard Bailyn
began to argue that republicanism was just as or even more important
than liberalism in the creation of the United States. This issue is
still much disputed and scholars like
Isaac Kramnick completely reject
* Free state
List of republics
* Index: Republics
Republics of Russia
Guarantee Clause of the U.S. Constitution
* ^ Bohn, H. G. (1849). _The Standard Library Cyclopedia of
Political, Constitutional, Statistical and Forensic Knowledge_. p.
640. A _republic_, according to the modern usage of the word,
signifies a political community which is not under monarchical
government ... in which one person does not possess the entire
* ^ _A_ _B_ "Definition of Republic". _Merriam-Webster Dictionary_.
Retrieved 2017-02-18. a government having a chief of state who is not
a monarch ... a government in which supreme power resides in a body of
citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by elected officers and
representatives responsible to them and governing according to law
* ^ "The definition of republic". _Dictionary.com_. Retrieved
2017-02-18. a state in which the supreme power rests in the body of
citizens entitled to vote and is exercised by representatives chosen
directly or indirectly by them. ... a state in which the head of
government is not a monarch or other hereditary head of state.
* ^ "republic – government". _Encyclopædia Britannica_.
* ^ Allan, T. R. S. (2003-01-01). _Constitutional Justice: A
Liberal Theory of the Rule of Law_. Oxford University Press. ISBN
9780199267880 . When the idea of the rule of law is interpreted as a
principle of constitutionalism, ...
* ^ Peacock, Anthony Arthur (2010-01-01). _Freedom and the Rule of
Law_. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780739136188 . The rule of law is
fundamental to all liberal constitutional regimes...
* ^ Everitt, Anthony (2012). _The Rise of Rome_. New York: Random
House. p. 125. ISBN 9781400066636 .
* ^ Montesquieu, _Spirit of the Laws_, Bk. II, ch. 2–3.
* ^ "Transcript of the
Constitution of the
United States –
* ^ Bloom, Allan . _The Republic_. Basic Books, 1991. pp. 439–40
* ^ Rubinstein, Nicolai. "
Machiavelli and Florentine Republican
Experience" in _
Machiavelli and Republicanism_ Cambridge University
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ "Republic"j, _New Dictionary of the History
of Ideas_. Ed.
Maryanne Cline Horowitz . Vol. 5. Detroit: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 2005. p. 2099
* ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Charles Short (1879). "res, II.K". _A Latin
Dictionary _. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Retrieved August 14,
* ^ _A_ _B_ Haakonssen, Knud. "Republicanism." _A Companion to
Contemporary Political Philosophy_. Robert E. Goodin and Philip
Pettit. eds. Cambridge: Blackwell, 1995.
* ^ Everdell (2000) p. xxiii.
* ^ Nippel, Wilfried. "Ancient and Modern Republicanism." _The
Invention of the Modern Republic_ ed. Biancamaria Fontana. Cambridge
University Press, 1994 p. 6
* ^ Reno, Jeffrey. "republic." _International Encyclopedia of the
Social Sciences_ p. 184
* ^ Pocock, J.G.A. _The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political
Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition_ (1975; new ed. 2003)
* ^ Paul A. Rahe, _Republics, Ancient and Modern_, three volumes,
University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1994.
* ^ Martin Bernal, _Black Athena Writes Back_ (Durham: Duke
University Press, 2001), p. 359.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Everdell (2000)
* ^ UNESCO World Heritage Centre. "Aksum".
* ^ "Concepts of
Democracy and Democratization in Africa
Revisited". Paper presented at the Fourth Annual Kent State University
Symposium on Democracy. by Apollos O. Nwauwa
* ^ 16
Mahajanapadas - Sixteen Mahajanapadas, 16 Maha Janapadas
India, Maha Janapada Ancient India. Iloveindia.com. Retrieved on
* ^ Anguttara Nikaya I. p. 213; IV. pp. 252, 256, 261.
* ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). _A History of Ancient and Early Medieval
India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century_. Delhi: Pearson
Education. pp. 260–64. ISBN 978-81-317-1120-0 .
* ^ http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9074639/Vaisali Vaisali,
Encyclopædia Britannica _
* ^ Kulke, Hermann; Dietmar Rothermund (2004). _A history of
India_. Routledge. p. 57. ISBN 0-415-32919-1 .
* ^ Sharma, RS. _Aspects of Political Ideas and Institutions in
Ancient India._ Motilal Banarsidass Publ., 1999 p. xxix
* ^ Altekar, Anant Sadashiv (1 April 2002). _State and Government
in Ancient India_. Motilal Banarsidass Publications. pp. 36–40. ISBN
978-81-208-1009-9 . Retrieved 9 April 2017.
* ^ Chu, Henry (April 2, 2011). "Iceland seeks to become sanctuary
for free speech". _Los Angeles Times_.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Finer, Samuel. _The History of Government from the
Earliest Times_ Oxford University Press, 1999. pp. 950–55.
* ^ Ferdinand Joseph Maria Feldbrugge. _Law in
IDC Publishers, 2009
* ^ Finer, pp. 955–956.
* ^ Finer, Samuel. _The History of Government from the Earliest
Times._ Oxford University Press, 1999. p. 1020.
* ^ "Republicanism." _Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment_ p. 435
* ^ "Introduction." _Republicanism: a Shared European Heritage._ By
Martin van Gelderen and Quentin Skinner. Cambridge University Press,
2002 p. 1
* ^ "Republicanism." _Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment_ p. 431
* ^ "Latin American Republicanism" New Dictionary of the History of
Ideas. Ed. Maryanne Cline Horowitz. Vol. 5. Detroit: Charles
Scribner's Sons, 2005.
* ^ The Ottoman
Empire and Russian
Empire are counted amongst
Europe . Counted as republics are the Swiss
Confederation , the Free
Cities of Hamburg , Bremen , Lübeck and Frankfurt , the Most Serene
San Marino , the
Republic of Cospaia , the Septinsular
Republic and the German
Confederation ; however, member states of the
Confederation are also separately counted (35 monarchies).
* ^ The Ottoman
Empire and Russian
Empire are counted amongst
* ^ The
Turkey is counted amongst Europe, the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics as a single republic, the Irish Free State
as an independent monarchy (see also Irish head of state from 1936 to
Vatican City as an elective monarchy , the Kingdom of Hungary
as a nominal monarchy.
* ^ The
Turkey is counted amongst
Europe , the Union of
Soviet Socialist Republics as a single republic, the Free Territory of
Trieste as an independent republic,
Vatican City as an elective
monarchy , the
Spanish State as a nominal monarchy.
* ^ The
Turkey is counted amongst
Europe , the Russian
Federation as a single republic, the
Republic of Kosovo (recognised by
most other European states) as an independent republic, Vatican City
as an elective monarchy . The
Azerbaijan , Georgia ,
Kazakhstan are not shown on this map and excluded from the
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (recognised only by
Turkey) and all other unrecognised states are excluded from the count.
* ^ Anderson, Lisa. "Absolutism and the Resilience of Monarchy in
the Middle East." _Political Science Quarterly_, Vol. 106, No. 1
(Spring, 1991), pp. 1–15
Bernard Lewis . "The Concept of an Islamic Republic" _Die Welt
des Islams_, New Series, Vol. 4, Issue 1 (1955), pp. 1–9
OED , _s. v._
* ^ "Presidential Systems" _Governments of the World: A Global
Guide to Citizens' Rights and Responsibilities._ Ed. C. Neal Tate.
Vol. 4. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2006. pp. 7–11.
* ^ Article VII,
Constitution of the United States
* ^ Article II, Para 2,
Constitution of the United States
* ^ The novelist and essayist
H. G. Wells regularly used the term
crowned republic to describe the United Kingdom, for instance in his
work _A Short History of the World_.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson
Alfred, Lord Tennyson in his poem
_Idylls of the King_.
* ^ Dunn, John . "The Identity of the Bourgeois Liberal Republic."
The Invention of the Modern Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University
* ^ "Republicanism" _Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy._ Jun 19,
* ^ McCormick, John P. "
Machiavelli against Republicanism: On the
Cambridge School's 'Guicciardinian Moments'" _Political Theory_, Vol.
31, No. 5 (Oct., 2003), pp. 615–43
* ^ Pocock, J. G. A _The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political
Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition_ Princeton: 1975, 2003
* ^ Philip Pettit, _Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and
Government_, NY: Oxford U.P., 1997, ISBN 0-19-829083-7 ; Oxford:
Clarendon Press, 1997.
* ^ Everdell (2000) p. 6
* ^ "1593.
Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790). Respectfully Quoted: A
Dictionary of Quotations. 1989".
* ^ GOVERNMENT (Republican Form of Government) – One in which the
powers of sovereignty are vested in the people and are exercised by
the people ... directly ... Black's Law Dictionary, Sixth Edition, p.
* ^ W. Paul Adams "
Republicanism in Political Rhetoric Before
1776." _Political Science Quarterly_, Vol. 85, No. 3 (Sep., 1970), pp.
* ^ Bailyn, Bernard. _The Ideological Origins of the American
Revolution_. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press,
* ^ Kramnick, Isaac. _
Republicanism and Bourgeois Radicalism:
Political Ideology in Late Eighteenth-Century England and America._
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1990.
* Martin van Gelderen &
Quentin Skinner , eds., _Republicanism: A
Shared European Heritage_, v. 1, _
Republicanism and Constitutionalism
in Early Modern Europe_, Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press ., 2002
* Martin van Gelderen & Quentin Skinner, eds., _Republicanism: A
Shared European Heritage_, v. 2, _The Values of
Republicanism in Early
Modern Europe_, Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 2002
* Willi Paul Adams, “
Republicanism in Political Rhetoric before
1776,” _Political Science Quarterly_ 85(1970), pp. 397–421.
* Joyce Appleby, “
Republicanism in Old and New Contexts,” in
_William & Mary Quarterly_, 3rd series, 43 (January, 1986), pp.
* Joyce Appleby, ed., “Republicanism” issue of _American
Quarterly_ 37 (Fall, 1985).
* Sarah Barber, _Regicide and Republicanism: Politics and Ethics in
the English Republic, 1646–1649_, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University
* Gisela Bock,
Quentin Skinner & Maurizio Viroli, eds., _Machiavelli
and Republicanism_, Cambridge: Cambridge U.P., 1990.
* Everdell, William R. (2000), _The End of Kings: A History of
Republics and Republicans_ (2nd ed.), Chicago: University of Chicago
* Eric Gojosso, _Le concept de république en France (XVIe –
XVIIIe siècle)_, Aix/Marseille, 1998, pp. 205–45.
* James Hankins, "Exclusivist
Republicanism and the Non-Monarchical
Republic," _Political Theory_ 38.4 (August 2010), 452–82.
* Frédéric Monera, _L'idée de République et la jurisprudence du
Conseil constitutionnel_ – Paris: L.G.D.J., 2004 Fnac, LGDJ.fr
* Philip Pettit, _Republicanism: A Theory of Freedom and
Government_, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, pp. x and 304.
* J. G. A. Pocock, _The Machiavellian Moment: Florentine Political
Thought and the Atlantic Republican Tradition_, Princeton: Princeton
University Press, 1975
* J. G. A. Pocock, “Between Gog and Magog: The Republican Thesis
and the Ideologia Americana,” _Journal of the History of Ideas_ 48
(1987), p. 341
* J. G. A. Pocock, "_The Machiavellian Moment_ Revisited: A Study in
History and Ideology” _Journal of Modern History_ 53 (1981)
* Paul A. Rahe, _Republics Ancient and Modern: Classical
Republicanism and the American Revolution_, 3 v., Chapel Hill: U. of
North Carolina Press 1992, 1994.
* Jagdish P. Sharma, _Republics in ancient India, c. 1500 B.C.–500
* David Wootton, ed., _Republicanism, Liberty, and Commercial
Society, 1649–1776_ (The Making of Modern Freedom series), Stanford,
CA: Stanford University Press, 1994.
• Thomas Corwin, Senate Speech Against the Mexican
War-Congressional Globe 1847 Speech of U.S. Senator against the
Mexican–American War characterizing it as imperialist and
* William R. Everdell , “From State to Freestate: The Meaning of