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Germplasm Resources Information Network
Germplasm
Germplasm
Resources Information Network or GRIN is an online USDA National Genetic Resources Program software project to comprehensively manage the computer database for the holdings of all plant germplasm collected by the National Plant Germplasm
Germplasm
System.[1] GRIN has extended its role to manage information on the germplasm reposits of insect (invertebrate), microbial, and animal species (see Sub-Projects).[2]Contents1 Description 2 Sub-projects 3 See also 4 References 5 External linksDescription[edit] The site is a resource for identifying taxonomic information (scientific names) as well as common names[3] on more than 500,000 accessions (distinct varieties, cultivars etc.) of plants covering 10,000 species;[4][5] both economically important ones[3] and wild species
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USDA
The United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture
(USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, agriculture, forestry, and food. It aims to meet the needs of farmers and ranchers, promote agricultural trade and production, work to assure food safety, protect natural resources, foster rural communities and end hunger in the United States and internationally. Approximately 80% of the USDA's $141 billion budget goes to the Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) program
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Cultivars
The term cultivar[nb 1] most commonly refers to an assemblage of plants selected for desirable characters that are maintained during propagation. More generally, cultivar refers to the most basic classification category of cultivated plants in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP). Most cultivars arose in cultivation, but a few are special selections from the wild. Popular ornamental garden plants like roses, camellias, daffodils, rhododendrons, and azaleas are cultivars produced by careful breeding and selection for floral colour and form. Similarly, the world's agricultural food crops are almost exclusively cultivars that have been selected for characters such as improved yield, flavour, and resistance to disease, and very few wild plants are now used as food sources
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Special
Special
Special
or specials may refer to:Contents1 Music 2 Film and television 3 Other uses 4 See alsoMusic[edit] Special
Special
(album), a 1992 album by Vesta Williams "Special" (Garbage song), 1998 "Special
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International Standard Book Number
"ISBN" redirects here. For other uses, see ISBN (other).International Standard Book
Book
NumberA 13-digit ISBN, 978-3-16-148410-0, as represented by an EAN-13 bar codeAcronym ISBNIntroduced 1970; 48 years ago (1970)Managing organisation International ISBN AgencyNo. of digits 13 (formerly 10)Check digit Weighted sumExample 978-3-16-148410-0Website www.isbn-international.orgThe International Standard Book
Book
Number (ISBN) is a unique[a][b] numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.[1] An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007
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International Plant Names Index
The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) describes itself as "a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of seed plants, ferns and lycophytes." Coverage of plant names is best at the rank of species and genus.[2] It includes basic bibliographical details, associated with the names, and its goals include eliminating the need for repeated reference to primary sources for basic bibliographic information about plant names.[3][4] The IPNI also maintains a list of standardized author abbreviations. These were initially based on Brummitt & Powell (1992), but new names and abbreviations are constantly added.Contents1 Description 2 See also 3 References 4 External linksDescription[edit] IPNI is the product of a collaboration between The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (Index Kewensis), The
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Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service
Natural Resources Conservation Service
(NRCS), formerly known as the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture
Agriculture
(USDA) that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers. Its name was changed in 1994 during the presidency of Bill Clinton to reflect its broader mission. It is a relatively small agency, currently comprising about 12,000 employees[1]. Its mission is to improve, protect, and conserve natural resources on private lands through a cooperative partnership with state and local agencies
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Beltsville, Maryland
Beltsville is a census-designated place (CDP) in northern Prince George's County, Maryland, United States.[1] The population was 16,772 at the 2010 census.[2] Beltsville includes the unincorporated community of Vansville.[3]Contents1 Geography1.1 Climate2 Demographics 3 History3.1 Historic sites4 Education4.1 Schools 4.2 Libraries5 Notable businesses 6 Notable people 7 In popular culture 8 References 9 External linksGeography[edit] Beltsville is located at 39°2′15″N 76°55′4″W / 39.03750°N 76.91778°W / 39.03750; -76.91778 (39.037509, −76.917847),[4] adjacent to the Montgomery County – Prince George's County line
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Variety (botany)
In botanical nomenclature, variety (abbreviated var.; in Latin: varietas) is a taxonomic rank below that of species and subspecies but above that of form.[1] As such, it gets a three-part infraspecific name. It is sometimes recommended that the subspecies rank should be used to recognize geographic distinctiveness, whereas the variety rank is appropriate if the taxon is seen throughout the geographic range of the species.[2]Contents1 Example 2 Definitions 3 Other nomenclature uses 4 See also 5 References 6 BibliographyExample[edit] The pincushion cactus, Escobaria vivipara
Escobaria vivipara
(Nutt.) Buxb., is a wide-ranging variable species occurring from Canada
Canada
to Mexico, and found throughout New Mexico
Mexico
below about 2,600 metres (8,500 ft). Nine varieties have been described. Where the varieties of the pincushion cactus meet, they intergrade. The variety Escobaria vivipara var
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Taxonomic
Taxonomy (from Ancient Greek τάξις (taxis), meaning 'arrangement', and -νομία (-nomia), meaning 'method') is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics. Organisms are grouped together into taxa (singular: taxon) and these groups are given a taxonomic rank; groups of a given rank can be aggregated to form a super-group of higher rank, thus creating a taxonomic hierarchy. The principal ranks in modern use are domain, kingdom, phylum (division is sometimes used in botany in place of phylum), class, order, family, genus and species
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Microbe
A microorganism, or microbe,[a] is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures
Jain scriptures
from 6th-century-BC India and the 1st-century-BC book On Agriculture
Agriculture
by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur
found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch
Robert Koch
discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse
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Invertebrate
Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord. This includes all animals apart from the subphylum Vertebrata. Familiar examples of invertebrates include insects; crabs, lobsters and their kin; snails, clams, octopuses and their kin; starfish, sea-urchins and their kin; jellyfish, and worms. The majority of animal species are invertebrates; one estimate puts the figure at 97%.[1] Many invertebrate taxa have a greater number and variety of species than the entire subphylum of Vertebrata.[2] Some of the so-called invertebrates, such as the Tunicata and Cephalochordata are more closely related to the vertebrates than to other invertebrates
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Germplasm
Germplasm
Germplasm
are living genetic resources such as seeds or tissues that are maintained for the purpose of animal and plant breeding, preservation, and other research uses. These resources may take the form of seed collections stored in seed banks, trees growing in nurseries, animal breeding lines maintained in animal breeding programs or gene banks, etc. Germplasm
Germplasm
collections can range from collections of wild species to elite, domesticated breeding lines that have undergone extensive human selection. Germplasm
Germplasm
collection is important for the maintenance of biological diversity and food security
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National Animal Germplasm Program
The National Animal Germplasm
Germplasm
Program, or NAGP, is a program of the United States Department of Agriculture
United States Department of Agriculture
that captures and cryogenically preserves germplasm from plants and animals it considers important to agriculture for the purpose of preserving biodiversity and to provide economic benefits to the agriculture industry. Germplasm
Germplasm
consists of semen, embryos, and other tissues that contain genetic information.[1] The online Germplasm
Germplasm
Resources Information Network contains information from the NAGP, along with related projects such as the USDA's National Plant Germplasm
Germplasm
System. References[edit]^ "The National Animal Germplasm
Germplasm
Program (NAGP)" (PDF). USDA. 8 February 2000. Retrieved 2 December 2011. This agriculture article is a stub
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Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database
Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) is a multilingual database of names of taxa of plants. It is located at the University of Melbourne and it is managed and maintained by Michel H. Porcher. This database includes the names of taxa of more than 900 genera of higher plants (not counting mushrooms). In addition to the scientific name and synonyms, it contains the names of the taxa in 82 major languages (its website says it includes 70 languages) in which 40 languages or dialects more are included). MMPND is mentioned in many taxa of GRIN-Global (Germplasm Resources Information Network), “References” as a: Porcher, M. H. et al. Searchable World Wide Web Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database (MMPND) (on-line resource)
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National Plant Germplasm System
The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) is a cooperative effort by U.S. state and federal government and private organizations to preserve the genetic diversity of plants. The NPGS aids scientists and the need for genetic diversity by acquiring, preserving, evaluating, documenting and distributing crop germplasm. Since many important crop species originate outside the United States, the first steps toward diversity are acquisition and introduction. New germplasm (accessions) enter NPGS through collection, donation by foreign cooperators or international germplasm collections. An identifying number such as the Plant Introduction number (PI number) is assigned to each accession. The accession is then evaluated, maintained, and made available for distribution. Through these efforts, NPGS assists in improving the quality and productivity of crops
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