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 picture info George N. Hatsopoulos George Nicholas Hatsopoulos (born January 7, 1927) is a Greek American mechanical engineer noted for his work in thermodynamics and for having co-founded Thermo Electron. Athens, Greece Athens (/ˈæθɪnz/; Greek: Αθήνα, Athína [aˈθina], Ancient Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athênai [a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯]) is the capital and largest city of Greece. Athens dominates the Attica region and is one of the world's oldest cities, with its recorded history spanning over 3,400 years and its earliest human presence starting somewhere between the 11th and 7th millennium BC. Classical Athens was a powerful city-state that emerged in conjunction with the seagoing development of the port of Piraeus, which had been a distinct city prior to its 5th century BCE incorporation with Athens [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info M.I.T. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the physical sciences and engineering, but more recently in biology, economics, linguistics and management as well [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info International Standard Book Number The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a numeric commercial book identifier which is intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each separate edition and variation (except reprintings) of a publication. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book will each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is ten digits long if assigned before 2007, and thirteen digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-specific and varies between countries, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966 [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info History Of Thermodynamics The history of thermodynamics is a fundamental strand in the history of physics, the history of chemistry, and the history of science in general. Owing to the relevance of thermodynamics in much of science and technology, its history is finely woven with the developments of classical mechanics, quantum mechanics, magnetism, and chemical kinetics, to more distant applied fields such as meteorology, information theory, and biology (physiology), and to technological developments such as the steam engine, internal combustion engine, cryogenics and electricity generation. The development of thermodynamics both drove and was driven by atomic theory [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Chemical Heritage Foundation The Science History Institute is an institution that preserves and promotes understanding of the history of science. Located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, it includes a library, museum, archive, research center and conference center. It was founded in 1982 as a joint venture of the American Chemical Society and the University of Pennsylvania, as the Center for the History of Chemistry (CHOC). The American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) became a co-founder in 1984 [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Heinz Award The Heinz Awards are individual achievement honors given annually by the Heinz Family Foundation. The Heinz Awards each year recognize outstanding individuals for their innovative contributions in five areas: Arts and Humanities; Environment; Human Condition; Public Policy; and Technology, the Economy and Employment. The award was established in 1993 by Teresa Heinz, the chairwoman of the Heinz Family Foundation, in honor of her late husband, Senator H [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] Engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Entropy In statistical mechanics, entropy (usual symbol S) is related to the number of microscopic configurations Ω that a thermodynamic system can have when in a state as specified by some macroscopic variables. Specifically, assuming for simplicity that each of the microscopic configurations is equally probable, the entropy of the system is the natural logarithm of that number of configurations, multiplied by the Boltzmann constant kB. Formally, ${\displaystyle S=k_{\mathrm {B} }\ln \Omega {\text{ (assuming equiprobable states)}}.}$ This is consistent with 19th-century formulas for entropy in terms of heat and temperature, as discussed below [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] Second Law Of Thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time. The total entropy can remain constant in ideal cases where the system is in a steady state (equilibrium), or is undergoing a reversible process. In all spontaneous processes, the total entropy always increases and the process is irreversible. The increase in entropy accounts for the irreversibility of natural processes, and the asymmetry between future and past. Historically, the second law was an empirical finding that was accepted as an axiom of thermodynamic theory. Statistical thermodynamics, classical or quantum, explains the microscopic origin of the law. The second law has been expressed in many ways [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Nicolas Kitsikis Nicolas Kitsikis (Greek: Νίκος Κιτσίκης; Nafplio, August 14, 1887 – July 26, 1978, Athens), was a top civil engineer of 20th century Greece, and father of Beata Maria Panagopoulos (Kitsikis), Elsa Schmid-Kitsikis and Dimitri Kitsikis. He served as professor and rector of the Athens Polytechnic School, was named doctor honoris causa of the Technical University of Berlin, became a member of the Greek Parliament and Senator during the Interbellum, and joined the EAM-ELAS resistance movement against the German occupation of Greece in 1941-1944. At the liberation of Greece in 1944, he joined the Greek Communist Party and became President of the Greek-Soviet Association in 1945, as well as initiating in 1955, with his wife, Beata Kitsikis, a Communist feminist fighter, the Greece-People's China Association. Nicolas Kitsikis [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] picture info Athens Polytechnic School The National (Metsovian) Technical University of Athens (NTUA; Greek: Εθνικό Μετσόβιο Πολυτεχνείο, National Metsovian Polytechnic), sometimes known as Athens Polytechnic, is among the oldest higher education institutions of Greece and the most prestigious among engineering schools. It is named Metsovio(n) in honor of its benefactors Nikolaos Stournaris, Eleni Tositsa, Michail Tositsas and Georgios Averoff, whose origin is from the town of Metsovo in Epirus. It was founded in 1837 as a part-time vocational school named Royal School of Arts which, as its role in the technical development of the fledgling state grew, developed into Greece's sole institution providing engineering degrees up until the 1950s, when polytechnics were established outside Athens [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...] Thermodynamics Thermodynamics is a branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to other forms of energy and work. The behavior of these quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics, irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question. The laws of thermodynamics are explained in terms of microscopic constituents by statistical mechanics [...More Info...]       [...Related Items...]