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Gaziantep
GAZIANTEP (Turkish pronunciation: ), previously and still informally called ANTEP (pronounced ; Armenian : Այնթապ), is a city in the western part of Turkey
Turkey
's Southeastern Anatolia Region
Southeastern Anatolia Region
, some 185 kilometres (115 mi) east of Adana and 97 kilometres (60 mi) north of Aleppo
Aleppo
, Syria
Syria
. The city has two urban districts under its administration, Şahinbey and Şehitkamil . It is the sixth most populous city in Turkey
Turkey
and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world
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Hellenistic
The HELLENISTIC PERIOD covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as signified by the Battle of Actium
Battle of Actium
in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt
Egypt
the following year. At this time, Greek cultural influence and power was at its peak in Europe
Europe
, Africa
Africa
and Asia
Asia
, experiencing prosperity and progress in the arts , exploration , literature , theatre , architecture , music , mathematics , philosophy , and science . It is often considered a period of transition, sometimes even of decadence or degeneration , compared to the enlightenment of the Greek Classical era
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Neolithic
farming , animal husbandry pottery , metallurgy , wheel circular ditches , henges , megaliths Neolithic religion Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
The NEOLITHIC /ˌniːəˈlɪθᵻk/ ( listen ) AGE, ERA, or PERIOD, or NEW STONE AGE, was a period in the development of human technology , beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology , in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age , the Neolithic
Neolithic
followed the terminal Holocene
Holocene
Epipaleolithic
Epipaleolithic
period and commenced with the beginning of farming , which produced the " Neolithic Revolution
Neolithic Revolution
"
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Ottoman Turkish Language
OTTOMAN TURKISH /ˈɒtəmən/ , or the OTTOMAN LANGUAGE (لسان عثمانى‎‎, Lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language
Turkish language
that was used in the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian , and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet
Ottoman Turkish alphabet
. During the peak of Ottoman power, Persian and Arabic
Arabic
vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of its vocabulary, while words of Arabic
Arabic
origins heavily outnumbered native Turkish words
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Byzantine Empire
The BYZANTINE EMPIRE, also referred to as the EASTERN ROMAN EMPIRE, was the continuation of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the East during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages , when its capital city was Constantinople
Constantinople
(modern-day Istanbul
Istanbul
, which had been founded as Byzantium
Byzantium
). It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe
Europe

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Muslim Conquest Of The Levant
SASSANID PERSIAN EMPIRE * Armenia
Armenia
* Caucasian Albania * Georgia * Afghanistan INDUS VALLEY * Rasil CAUCASUS * Georgia * Khazar Khaganate TRANSOXIANA VISIGOTHIC KINGDOM (Hispania) FRANKISH EMPIRE (Gaul) * v * t * e Arab–Byzantine wars EARLY CONFLICTS * Mu\'tah * Dathin * Firaz


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Umayyads
The UMAYYAD CALIPHATE ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة‎, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt OMAYYAD, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad
Muhammad
. The caliphate was ruled by the Umayyad dynasty ( Arabic
Arabic
: ٱلأُمَوِيُّون‎, al-ʾUmawiyyūn, or بَنُو أُمَيَّة, Banū ʾUmayya, "Sons of Umayya "), hailing from Mecca
Mecca
. An Umayyad clan member had previously come to power as the third Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
, Uthman ibn Affan (r. 644–656), but official Umayyad rule was established by Muawiya ibn Abi Sufyan , long-time governor of Syria
Syria
, after the end of the First Muslim Civil War in AD 661
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Syria
Coordinates : 35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38 Syrian Arab
Arab
Republic الجمهورية العربية السورية (Arabic ) al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻArabīyah as-Sūrīyah Flag Coat of arms ANTHEM: "حماة الديار" (Arabic ) Humat ad-Diyar Guardians of the Homeland Capital and largest city
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Arabic Language
ARABIC ( Arabic
Arabic
: العَرَبِيَّة‎‎, al-ʻarabiyyah ( listen ) or Arabic
Arabic
: عَرَبِيّ‎‎ ʻarabī ( listen ) or ) is a Central Semitic language complex that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world . It is named after the Arabs , a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. The modern written language ( Modern Standard Arabic
Modern Standard Arabic
) is derived from Classical Arabic
Classical Arabic
. It is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media
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Hittite Language
HITTITE (natively nešili " of Neša "), also known as NESITE and NESHITE, is the extinct language once spoken by the Hittites
Hittites
, an Indo-European-speaking people who created an empire centred on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia
Anatolia
(modern-day Turkey
Turkey
). The language is attested in cuneiform , in records dating from the 16th ( Anitta text ) to the 13th century BC, with isolated Hittite loanwords and numerous personal names appearing in an Old Assyrian context from as early as the 20th century BC. By the Late Bronze Age , Hittite had started losing ground to its close relative Luwian . It appears that in the 13th century BC, Luwian was the most widely spoken language in the Hittite capital of Hattusa
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Hittites
The HITTITES (/ˈhɪtaɪts/ ) were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centered on Hattusa
Hattusa
in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I
Suppiluliuma I
, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant
Levant
and Upper Mesopotamia
Upper Mesopotamia
. Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC the Hittite Empire
Empire
came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire
Egyptian Empire
, Middle Assyrian Empire
Empire
and the empire of the Mitanni
Mitanni
for control of the Near East
Near East
. The Assyrians eventually emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c
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British Museum
6,820,686 (2015) * Ranked 1st nationally * Ranked 5th globally PUBLIC TRANSIT ACCESS Goodge Street ; Holborn ; Tottenham Court Road ; Russell Square ; WEBSITE britishmuseum.org AREA 807,000 sq ft (75,000 m2) in 94 Galleries The centre of the museum was redeveloped in 2001 to become the Great Court , surrounding the original Reading Room . The BRITISH MUSEUM is dedicated to human history , art and culture , and is located in the Bloomsbury
Bloomsbury
area of London
London
. Its permanent collection, numbering some 8 million works, is among the largest and most comprehensive in existence and originates from all continents, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginnings to the present. The British Museum
British Museum
was established in 1753, largely based on the collections of the physician and scientist Sir Hans Sloane
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Ghazi Warriors
GHAZI (غازي, ġāzī) is an Arabic
Arabic
term originally referring to an individual who participates in GHAZW (غزو, ġazw), meaning military expeditions or raiding; after the emergence of Islam, it took on new connotations of religious warfare . The related word GHAZWA (غزوة ġazwah) is a singulative form meaning a battle or military expedition, often one led by the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
. In English language literature, the word often appears as razzia, a borrowing through French from Maghrebi Arabic
Arabic
. In the context of the wars between Russia and the Muslim peoples of the Caucasus
Caucasus
, starting as early as the late 18th century's Sheikh Mansur 's resistance to Russian expansion, the word usually appears in the form gazavat (газават)
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Grand National Assembly Of Turkey
GOVERNMENT (317) * AKP (317)MAIN OPPOSITION * CHP (133)OTHER OPPOSITION * HDP (58) * MHP (36) * Independents (5)VACANT * (1) ELECTIONS VOTING SYSTEM Party-list proportional representation D\'Hondt method LAST ELECTION 1 November 2015 NEXT ELECTION 2019 MEETING PLACE Grand National Assembly of Turkey Ministries Ankara
Ankara
, 06543 Turkey
Turkey
WEBSITE Grand National Assembly of TurkeyThe GRAND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY OF TURKEY (Turkish : Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the TBMM or PARLIAMENT (Turkish : Meclis or PARLAMENTO), is the unicameral Turkish legislature . It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution . It was founded in Ankara
Ankara
on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the Turkish War of Independence
Turkish War of Independence

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Aramaic Language
ARAMAIC (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, Syriac : ܐܪܡܝܐ‎, Arabic
Arabic
آرامية) is a Middle Eastern language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family . More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group , which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician . The Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
was widely adopted for other languages and is ancestral to the Hebrew , Syriac and Arabic alphabets . During its approximately 3100 years of written history, Aramaic has served variously as a language of administration of empires and as a language of divine worship, religious study and as the spoken tongue of a number of Semitic peoples from the Near East
Near East

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