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Gazetteer
A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.[1] It typically contains information concerning the geographical makeup, social statistics and physical features of a country, region, or continent. Content of a gazetteer can include a subject's location, dimensions of peaks and waterways, population, gross domestic product and literacy rate. This information is generally divided into topics with entries listed in alphabetical order. Ancient Greek gazetteers are known to have existed since the Hellenistic era. The first known Chinese gazetteer was released by the first century, and with the age of print media in China
China
by the ninth century, the Chinese gentry became invested in producing gazetteers for their local areas as a source of information as well as local pride
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Santa Fe Trail
The Santa Fe Trail
Trail
was a 19th-century transportation route through central North America that connected Independence, Missouri
Missouri
with Santa Fe, New Mexico. Pioneered in 1821 by William Becknell, it served as a vital commercial highway until the introduction of the railroad to Santa Fe in 1880. Santa Fe was near the end of the El Camino Real de Tierra Adentro, which carried trade from Mexico
Mexico
City. The route skirted the northern edge and crossed the north-western corner of Comancheria, the territory of the Comanches, who demanded compensation for granting passage to the trail, and represented another market for American traders. Comanche
Comanche
raiding farther south in Mexico
Mexico
isolated New Mexico, making it more dependent on the American trade, and provided the Comanches
Comanches
with a steady supply of horses for sale
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Ptolemy World Map
The Ptolemy
Ptolemy
world map is a map of the world known to Hellenistic society in the 2nd century. It is based on the description contained in Ptolemy's book Geography, written c. 150. Based on an inscription in several of the earliest surviving manuscripts, it is traditionally credited to Agathodaemon of Alexandria. Significant contributions of Ptolemy's maps are the first use of longitudinal and latitudinal lines as well as specifying terrestrial locations by celestial observations. The Geography was translated from Greek into Arabic in the 9th century and played a role in the work of al-Khwārizmī before lapsing into obscurity. The idea of a global coordinate system revolutionized European geographical thought, however, and inspired more mathematical treatment of cartography. Ptolemy's work probably originally came with maps, but none have been discovered
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Dictionary
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.[1] or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, sometimes known as a lexicon.[1] It is a lexicographical product which shows inter-relationships among the data.[2] A broad distinction is made between general and specialized dictionaries. Specialized dictionaries include words in specialist fields, rather than a complete range of words in the language. Lexical items that describe concepts in specific fields are usually called terms instead of words, although there is no consensus whether lexicology and terminology are two different fields of study
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Spatial Referencing Systems
A spatial reference system (SRS) or coordinate reference system (CRS) is a coordinate-based local, regional or global system used to locate geographical entities. A spatial reference system defines a specific map projection, as well as transformations between different spatial reference systems. Spatial reference systems are defined by the OGC's Simple feature access using well-known text, and support has been implemented by several standards-based geographic information systems. Spatial reference systems can be referred to using a SRID
SRID
integer, including EPSG
EPSG
codes defined by the International Association of Oil and Gas Producers
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British National Grid
The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
National Grid reference
Grid reference
system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude. It is often called British National Grid (BNG).[1][2] The Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
(OS) devised the national grid reference system, and it is heavily used in their survey data, and in maps based on those surveys, whether published by the Ordnance Survey
Ordnance Survey
or by commercial map producers
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Industries
Industry
Industry
is the production of goods or related services within an economy.[1] The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry.[2] When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing
Manufacturing
industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and feudal economies
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Government
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.[1] In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislature, executive, and judiciary. Government
Government
is a means by which state policies are enforced, as well as a mechanism for determining the policy. Each government has a kind of constitution, a statement of its governing principles and philosophy. Typically the philosophy chosen is some balance between the principle of individual freedom and the idea of absolute state authority (tyranny). While all types of organizations have governance, the word government is often used more specifically to refer to the approximately 200 independent national governments on Earth, as well as subsidiary organizations.[2] Historically prevalent forms of government include aristocracy, timocracy, oligarchy, democracy, theocracy and tyranny
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Nuclear Power
2012 World [civil] electricity generation by fuels (IEA, 2014)[4]   Coal/Peat (40.4%)   Natural Gas (22.5%)   Hydro (16.2%)    Nuclear fission
Nuclear fission
(10.9%)   Oil (5.0%)   Others (Renew.) (5.0%) Nuclear power
Nuclear power
is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy[5] to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant. The term includes nuclear fission, nuclear decay and nuclear fusion. Presently, the nuclear fission of elements in the actinide series of the periodic table produce the vast majority of nuclear energy in the direct service of humankind, with nuclear decay processes, primarily in the form of geothermal energy, and radioisotope thermoelectric generators, in niche uses making up the rest
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Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common censuses include agriculture, business, and traffic censuses. The United Nations
United Nations
defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory, simultaneity and defined periodicity", and recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years
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Chambers Of Commerce
A chamber of commerce (or board of trade) is a form of business network, for example, a local organization of businesses whose goal is to further the interests of businesses. Business
Business
owners in towns and cities form these local societies to advocate on behalf of the business community
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Seres
Serica
Serica
was one of the easternmost countries of Asia
Asia
known to the Ancient Greek and Roman geographers. It is generally taken as referring to North China
North China
during its Zhou, Qin, and Han dynasties, as it was reached via the overland Silk Road
Silk Road
in contrast to the Sinae, who were reached via the maritime routes. A similar distinction was later observed during the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
between "Cathay" (north) and "Mangi" or "China" (south). The people of Serica
Serica
were the Seres, whose name was also used for their region. Access to Serica
Serica
was eased following the Han conquest of the Tarim Basin
Tarim Basin
(modern Xinjiang) but largely blocked when the Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
fell to the Sassanids
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Geographic Information System
A geographic information system (GIS) is a system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and present spatial or geographic data
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China
China, officially the People's Republic
People's Republic
of China
China
(PRC), is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia
East Asia
and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion.[13] Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area,[k][19] depending on the source consulted. China
China
also has the most neighbor countries in the world
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Sri Lanka
Coordinates: 7°N 81°E / 7°N 81°E / 7; 81Democratic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Sri Lanka ශ්‍රී ලංකා ප්‍රජාතාන්ත්‍රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය (Sinhalese) Srī Lankā prajātāntrika samājavādī janarajaya இலங்கை ஜனநாயக சோசலிச குடியரசு (Tamil) Ilaṅkai jaṉanāyaka sōsalisa kuṭiyarasuFlagEmblemAnthem: "Sri
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Malay Peninsula
The Malay Peninsula
Peninsula
(Malay: Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; Thai: คาบสมุทรมลายู RTGS: Khapsamut Malayu, pronounced [kʰâːp.sā.mùt mā.lāː.jūː], Burmese: မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, Chinese: 马来半岛) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia. The land mass runs approximately north-south and, at its terminus, is the southernmost point of the Asian mainland. The area contains Peninsular Malaysia, Southern Thailand, and the southernmost tip of Myanmar. The Titiwangsa Mountains
Titiwangsa Mountains
are part of the Tenasserim Hills
Tenasserim Hills
system, and form the backbone of the Peninsula
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