A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in
conjunction with a map or atlas. It typically contains information
concerning the geographical makeup, social statistics and physical
features of a country, region, or continent. Content of a gazetteer
can include a subject's location, dimensions of peaks and waterways,
population, gross domestic product and literacy rate. This information
is generally divided into topics with entries listed in alphabetical
Ancient Greek gazetteers are known to have existed since the
Hellenistic era. The first known Chinese gazetteer was released by the
first century, and with the age of print media in
China by the ninth
century, the Chinese gentry became invested in producing gazetteers
for their local areas as a source of information as well as local
pride. The geographer
Stephanus of Byzantium
Stephanus of Byzantium wrote a geographical
dictionary (which currently has missing parts) in the sixth century
which influenced later European compilers. Modern gazetteers can be
found in reference sections of most libraries as well as on the
2 Types and organization
3.1 Western world
3.1.1 Hellenistic and Greco-Roman eras
3.1.2 Medieval and early modern eras
3.1.3 Modern era
3.2 East Asia
3.3 South Asia
3.4 Muslim world
4 List of gazetteers
4.6 Austro-Hungarian Empire
4.8 New Zealand
4.10 South Africa
4.12 United Kingdom
4.13 United States
4.14 Thematic gazetteers
5 See also
Look up gazetteer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The Oxford English
Dictionary defines a "gazetteer" as a "geographical
index or dictionary". It includes as an example a work by the
Laurence Echard (d. 1730) in 1693 that bore the
title "The Gazetteer's: or Newsman's Interpreter: Being a Geographical
Index". Echard wrote that the title "Gazetteer's" was suggested to
him by a "very eminent person" whose name he chose not to disclose.
For Part II of this work published in 1704, Echard referred to
the book simply as "the Gazeteer". This marked the introduction of the
word "gazetteer" into the English language. Historian Robert C.
White suggests that the "very eminent person" written of by Echard was
his colleague Edmund Bohun, and chose not to mention Bohun because he
became associated with the Jacobite movement.
Since the 18th century, the word "gazetteer" has been used
interchangeably to define either its traditional meaning (i.e., a
geographical dictionary or directory) or a daily newspaper, such as
Types and organization
Gazetteers are often categorized by the type, and scope, of the
information presented. World gazetteers usually consist of an
alphabetical listing of countries, with pertinent statistics for each
one, with some gazetteers listing information on individual cities,
towns, villages, and other settlements of varying sizes. Short-form
gazetteers, often used in conjunction with computer mapping and GIS
systems, may simply contain a list of place-names together with their
locations in latitude and longitude or other spatial referencing
British National Grid
British National Grid reference). Short-form
gazetteers appear as a place–name index in the rear of major
published atlases. Descriptive gazetteers may include lengthy textual
descriptions of the places they contain, including explanation of
industries, government, geography, together with historical
perspectives, maps and/or photographs. Thematic gazetteers list places
or geographical features by theme; for example fishing ports, nuclear
power stations, or historic buildings. Their common element is that
the geographical location is an important attribute of the features
Gazetteer editors gather facts and other information from official
government reports, the census, chambers of commerce, together with
numerous other sources, and organise these in digest form.
History of geography
History of geography and History of cartography
Hellenistic and Greco-Roman eras
A 15th-century manuscript copy of the
Ptolemy world map, reconstituted
from Ptolemy's Geographia (circa 150), indicating the countries of
"Serica" and "Sinae" (China) at the extreme right, beyond the island
of "Taprobane" (Sri Lanka, oversized) and the "Aurea Chersonesus"
John Norden's map of
London published in 1593
John Speed's map of "Bedforde", from his Theatre of the Empire of
Great Britaine, published in 1611
"Prevailing Religions of the British Indian Empire", from the Imperial
Gazetteer of India, Oxford University Press, 1909
American geographer Jedidiah Morse's "A New Map of North America
Shewing all the New Discoveries" from his gazetteer of 1797.
In his journal article "Alexander and the Ganges" (1923), the
20th-century historian W.W. Tarn calls a list and description of
satrapies of Alexander's Empire written between 324 and 323 BC as an
ancient gazetteer. Tarn notes that the document is dated no later
than June 323 BC, since it features Babylon as not yet partitioned by
Alexander's generals. It was revised by the Greek historian
Diodorus Siculus in the 1st century BC. In the 1st century BC,
Dionysius of Halicarnassus
Dionysius of Halicarnassus mentioned the chronicle-type format of the
writing of the logographers in the age before the founder of the Greek
Herodotus (i.e., before the 480s BC),
saying "they did not write connected accounts but instead broke them
up according to peoples and cities, treating each separately".
Historian Truesdell S. Brown asserts that what Dionysius describes in
this quote about the logographers should be categorized not as a true
"history" but rather as a gazetteer. While discussing the Greek
conception of the river delta in ancient Greek literature, Francis
Celoria notes that both
Ptolemy and Pausanias of the 2nd century AD
provided gazetteer information on geographical terms.
Perhaps predating Greek gazetteers were those made in ancient Egypt.
Although she does not specifically label the document as a gazetteer,
Penelope Wilson (Department of Archaeology, Durham University)
describes an ancient Egyptian papyrus found at the site of Tanis,
Egypt (a city founded during the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt) which
provides the following for each administrative area of Egypt at the
...the name of a nome capital, its sacred barque, its sacred tree, its
cemetery, the date of its festival, the names of forbidden objects,
the local god, land, and lake of the city. This interesting
codification of data, probably made by a priest, is paralleled by very
similar editions of data on the temple walls at Edfu, for example.
Medieval and early modern eras
Domesday Book initiated by William I of England in 1086 was a
government survey on all the administrative counties of England; it
was used to assess the properties of farmsteads and landholders in
order to tax them sufficiently. In the survey, numerous English
castles were listed; scholars debate on exactly how many were actually
referenced in the book. However, the
Domesday Book does detail the
fact that out of 3,558 registered houses destroyed in 112 different
boroughs listed, 410 of these destroyed houses were the direct result
of castle construction and expansion. In 1316 the Nomina Villarum
survey was initiated by Edward II of England; it was essentially a
list of all the administrative subdivisions throughout England which
could be utilized by the state in order to assess how much military
troops could be conscripted and summoned from each region. The
Speculum Britanniae (1596) of the Tudor era English cartographer and
John Norden (1548–1625) had an alphabetical list of
places throughout England with headings showing their administrative
hundreds and referenced to attached maps. Englishman John Speed's
Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine published in 1611 provided
gazetteers for counties throughout England, which included
illustrative maps, short local histories, a list of administrative
hundreds, an index of parishes, and the coordinates of longitude and
latitude for county towns. Starting in 1662, the Hearth Tax
Returns with attached maps of local areas were compiled by individual
parishes throughout England while a duplicate of their records were
sent to the central government offices of the Exchequer. To
supplement his "new large Map of England" from 1677, the English
cartographer John Adams compiled the extensive gazetteer "Index
Villaris" in 1680 that had some 24,000 places listed with geographical
coordinates coinciding with the map. The "Geographical Dictionary"
Edmund Bohun was published in
London in 1688, comprising 806 pages
with some 8,500 entries. In his work,
Edmund Bohun attributed the
first known Western geographical dictionary to geographer Stephanus of
Byzantium (fl. 6th century) while also noting influence in his work
from the Thesaurus Geographicus (1587) by the Belgian cartographer
Abraham Ortelius (1527–1598), but stated that Ortelius' work dealt
largely with ancient geography and not up-to-date information.
Only fragments of Stephanus' geographical work Ethnica (Εθνικά)
have survived and were first examined by the Italian printer Aldus
Manutius in his work of 1502.
The Italian monk Phillippus Ferrarius (d. 1626) published his
geographical dictionary "Epitome Geographicus in Quattuor Libros
Divisum" in the Swiss city of
Zurich in 1605. He divided this work
into overhead topics of cities, rivers, mountains, and lakes and
swamps. All placenames, given in Latin, were arranged in
alphabetical order for each overhead division by geographic type;.
A year after his death, his "Lexicon Geographicum" was published,
which contained more than 9,000 different entries for geographic
places. This was an improvement over Ortelius' work, since it
included modern placenames and places discovered since the time of
Pierre Duval (1618–1683), a nephew of the French cartographer
Nicolas Sanson, wrote various geographical dictionaries. These include
a dictionary on the abbeys of France, a dictionary on ancient sites of
the Assyrians, Persians, Greeks, and Romans with their modern
equivalent names, and a work published in
Paris in 1651 that was both
the first universal and vernacular geographical dictionary of
Europe. With the gradual expansion of Laurence Echard's
(d. 1730) gazetteer of 1693, it too became a universal
geographical dictionary that was translated into Spanish in 1750, into
French in 1809, and into Italian in 1810.
Following the American Revolutionary War, United States clergyman and
Jeremy Belknap and Postmaster General Ebenezer Hazard
intended to create the first post-revolutionary geographical works and
gazetteers, but they were anticipated by the clergyman and geographer
Jedidiah Morse with his
Geography Made Easy in 1784. However,
Morse was unable to finish the gazetteer in time for his 1784
geography and postponed it. Yet his delay to publish it lasted too
long, as it was Joseph Scott in 1795 who published the first
post-revolutionary American gazetteer, his
Gazetteer of the United
States. With the aid of
Noah Webster and Rev. Samuel Austin, Morse
finally published his gazetteer The American Universal
1797. However, Morse's gazetteer did not receive distinction by
literary critics, as gazetteers were deemed as belonging to a lower
literary class. The reviewer of Joseph Scott's 1795 gazetteer
commented that it was "little more than medleys of politics, history
and miscellaneous remarks on the manners, languages and arts of
different nations, arranged in the order in which the territories
stand on the map". Nevertheless, in 1802 Morse followed up his
original work by co-publishing A New
Gazetteer of the Eastern
Continent with Rev. Elijah Parish, the latter of whom Ralph H. Brown
asserts did the "lion's share of the work in compiling it".
Gazetteers became widely popular in Britain in the 19th century, with
publishers such as Fullarton, Mackenzie, Chambers and W &
A. K. Johnston, many of whom were Scottish, meeting public demand
for information on an expanding Empire. This British tradition
continues in the electronic age with innovations such as the National
Land and Property Gazetteer, the text-based
Gazetteer for Scotland,
and the new (2008) National
Gazetteer (for Scotland), formerly known
as the Definitive National Address –
Scotland National Gazetteer. In
addition to local or regional gazetteers, there have also been
comprehensive world gazetteers published; an early example would be
the 1912 world gazetteer published by Lippincott Williams &
Wilkins. There are also interregional gazetteers with a specific
focus, such as the gazetteer of the Swedish atlas "Das Bästas Bilbok"
(1969), a road atlas and guide for Sweden, Norway, Finland, and
Portrait painting of Emperor Yang of Sui, painted by
Yan Liben in 643.
Emperor Yang had every commandery in his unified empire collate
gazetteers for the central government.
"Jinling Tuyong" ('
Gazetteer of Jinling'), a
Ming dynasty gazetteer
printed in 1624 with 40 different woodblock printed scenes of
Gazetteer of the Muslim Regions'), a Chinese Qing
dynasty illustration of a Muslim akhoond (Chinese: ahong) from 1772.
In 1755, the
Qianlong Emperor sent an army to put down a Khoja
rebellion in Kashgar. Several officers from that campaign aided in the
compilation of this gazetteer.
Map of the Fengshan County of "
Taiwan Prefectural Gazetteer",
published in 1696 during the Kangxi Emperor's reign in the Qing
Han dynasty (202 BC–220 AD) China, the Yuejue Shu (越絕書)
written in 52 AD is considered by modern sinologists and historians to
be the prototype of the gazetteer (Chinese: difangzhi), as it
contained essays on a wide variety of subjects including changes in
territorial division, the founding of cities, local products, and
customs. However, the first gazetteer proper is considered to be
Chronicles of Huayang by
Chang Qu 常璩. There are over 8,000
gazetteers of pre-modern
China that have survived.
Gazetteers became more common in the
Song dynasty (960–1279), yet
the bulk of surviving gazetteers were written during the Ming dynasty
Qing dynasty (1644–1912). Modern scholar Liu
Weiyi notes that just under 400 gazetteers were compiled in the era
between the fall of the
Han dynasty in 220 and the Tang dynasty
(618–907). Gazetteers from this era focused on boundaries and
territory, place names, mountains and rivers, ancient sites, local
products, local myths and legends, customs, botany, topography, and
locations of palaces, streets, temples, etc. By the Tang dynasty
the gazetteer became much more geographically specific, with a broad
amount of content arranged topically; for example, there would be
individual sections devoted to local astronomy, schools, dikes,
canals, post stations, altars, local deities, temples, tombs, etc.
Song dynasty it became more common for gazetteers to provide
biographies of local celebrities, accounts of elite local families,
bibliographies, and literary anthologies of poems and essays dedicated
to famous local spots. Song gazetteers also made lists and
descriptions of city walls, gate names, wards and markets, districts,
population size, and residences of former prefects.
In 610 after the
Sui dynasty (581–618) united a politically divided
Emperor Yang of Sui
Emperor Yang of Sui had all the empire's commanderies prepare
gazetteers called 'maps and treatises' (Chinese: tujing) so that a
vast amount of updated textual and visual information on local roads,
rivers, canals, and landmarks could be utilized by the central
government to maintain control and provide better security.
Although the earliest extant Chinese maps date to the 4th century
BC, and tujing since the Qin (221–206 BC) or Han dynasties, this
was the first known instance in
China when the textual information of
tujing became the primary element over the drawn illustrations.
Sui dynasty process of providing maps and visual aids in written
gazetteers—as well as the submitting of gazetteers with illustrative
maps by local administrations to the central government—was
continued in every subsequent Chinese dynasty.
Historian James M. Hargett states that by the time of the Song
dynasty, gazetteers became far more geared towards serving the current
political, administrative, and military concerns than in gazetteers of
previous eras, while there were many more gazetteers compiled on the
local and national levels than in previous eras. Emperor Taizu of
Song ordered Lu Duosun and a team of cartographers and scholars in 971
to initiate the compilation of a huge atlas and nationwide gazetteer
that covered the whole of
China proper, which comprised
approximately 1,200 counties and 300 prefectures. This project was
completed in 1010 by a team of scholars under Song Zhun, who presented
it in 1,566 chapters to the throne of Emperor Zhenzong. This Sui
dynasty process of infrequently collecting tujing or "map guides"
continued, but it would be enhanced by the matured literary genre of
fangzhi or "treatise on a place" of the Song dynasty. Although
Zheng Qiao of the 12th century did not notice the fangzhi while
writing his encyclopedic Tongzhi including monographs to geography and
cities, others such as the bibliographer Chen Zhensun of the 13th
century were listing gazetteers instead of the map guides in their
works. The main differences between the fangzhi and the tujing was
that the former was a product of "local initiative, not a central
command" according to Peter K. Bol, and were usually ten, twenty, or
even fifty chapters in length compared to the average four chapters
for map guides. Furthermore, the fangzhi were almost always
printed because they were intended for a large reading audience,
whereas tujing were exclusive records read by the local officials who
drafted them and the central government officials who collected
them. Although most Song gazetteers credited local officials as
the authors, already in the Song there were bibliographers who noted
that non-official literati were asked to compose these works or did so
on their own behalf. By the 16th century—during the Ming
dynasty—local gazetteers were commonly composed due to local
decision-making rather than a central government mandate.
Historian Peter K. Bol states that local gazetteers composed in this
manner were the result of increased domestic and international trade
that facilitated greater local wealth throughout China. Historian
R. H. Britnell writes of gazetteers in Ming China, "by the
sixteenth century, for a county or monastery not to have a gazetteer
was regarded as evidence that the place was inconsequential".
While working in the Department of Arms, the
Tang dynasty cartographer
Jia Dan (730–805) and his colleagues would acquire information from
foreign envoys about their respective homelands, and from these
interrogations would produce maps supplemented by textual
information. Even within China, ethnographic information on ethnic
minorities of non-Han peoples were often described in the local
histories and gazetteers of provinces such as
Guizhou during the Ming
and Qing dynasties. As the
Qing dynasty pushed further with its
troops and government authorities into areas of
Guizhou that were
uninhabited and not administered by the Qing government, the official
gazetteers of the region would be revised to include the newly
drawn-up districts and non-Han ethnic groups (mostly Miao peoples)
therein. While the late
Ming dynasty officials who compiled the
information on the ethnic groups of
Guizhou offered scanty details
about them in their gazetteers (perhaps due to their lack of contact
with these peoples), the later
Qing dynasty gazetteers often provided
a much more comprehensive analysis. By 1673 the
featured different written entries for the various Miao peoples of the
region. Historian Laura Holsteter writes on the woodblock print
illustrations of Miao peoples in the
Guizhou gazeteer, stating "the
1692 version of the Kangxi era gazetteer show a refinement in the
quality of the illustrations by comparison to 1673".
Historian Timothy Brook states that
Ming dynasty gazetteers
demonstrate a shift in the attitudes of Chinese gentry towards the
traditionally lower merchant class. As time went on, the gentry
solicited funds from merchants to build and repair schools, print
scholarly books, build Chinese pagodas on auspicious sites, and other
things that were needed by the gentry and scholar-officials in order
to succeed. Hence, the gentry figures composing the gazetteers in
the latter half of the Ming period spoke favorably of merchants,
whereas before they were rarely mentioned. Brook and other modern
sinologist historians also examine and consult the local Ming
gazetteers to compare population info with the contemporary central
government records, which often provided dubious population figures
that did not reflect the actually larger population size of China
during the time.
Although better known for his work on the Gujin Tushu Jicheng
encyclopedia, the early-to-mid Qing scholar
Jiang Tingxi aided other
scholars in the compilation of the "Daqing Yitongzhi" ('
the Qing Empire'). This was provided with a preface in 1744 (more
than a decade after Jiang's death), revised in 1764, and reprinted in
The Italian Jesuit
Matteo Ricci created the first comprehensive world
map in the
Chinese language in the early 17th century, while
comprehensive world gazetteers were later translated into Chinese by
Europeans. The Christian missionary William Muirhead (1822–1900),
who lived in
Shanghai during the late Qing period, published the
gazetteer "Dili quanzhi", which was reprinted in
Japan in 1859.
Divided into fifteen volumes, this work covered Europe, Asia, Africa,
and the Pacific Ocean Archipelagos, and was sub-divided further into
sections on geography, topography, water masses, atmosphere, biology,
anthropology, and historical geography. Chinese maritime trade
gazetteers mentioned a slew of different countries that came to trade
in China, such as United States vessels docking at Canton in the
Gazetteer of the Maritime Customs of Guangdong')
published in 1839 (reprinted in 1935). The Chinese language
Haiguo Tuzhi ('Illustrated
Gazetteer of the Sea Kingdoms')
Wei Yuan in 1844 (with material influenced by the "Sizhou zhi" of
Lin Zexu) was printed in
Japan two decades later 1854. This
work was popular in
Japan not for its geographical knowledge, but for
its analysis of potential defensive military strategy in the face of
European imperialism and the Qing's recent defeat in the First Opium
War due to European artillery and gunboats.
Continuing an old tradition of fangzhi, the Republic of
gazetteers composed and created national standards for them in 1929,
updating these in 1946. The printing of gazetteers was revived in
Mao Zedong and again in the 1980s, after the reforms of the
Deng era to replace the people's communes with traditional
townships. The difangzhi effort under Mao yielded little results
(only 10 of the 250 designated counties ended up publishing a
gazetteer), while the writing of difangzhi was interrupted during the
Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), trumped by the village and family
histories which were more appropriate for the theme of class
struggle. A Li Baiyu of
Shanxi forwarded a letter to the CCP
Propaganda Department on May 1, 1979, which urged for the revival of
difangzhi. This proposal was sponsored by
Hu Yaobang in June 1979
Hu Qiaomu of the CCP Politburo lent his support for the idea in
April 1980. The first issue of a modern national journal of
difangzhi was issued by January 1981.
In Korea, scholars based their gazetteers largely on the Chinese
model. Like Chinese gazetteers, there were national, provincial,
and local prefecture Korean gazetteers which featured geographic
information, demographic data, locations of bridges, schools, temples,
tombs, fortresses, pavilions, and other landmarks, cultural customs,
local products, resident clan names, and short biographies on
well-known people. In an example of the latter, the 1530
edition of "Sinjŭng tongguk yŏji sŭngnam" ('New Edition of the
Korean National Gazetteer') gave a brief statement about Pak Yŏn
(1378–1458), noting his successful career in the civil service, his
exceptional filiality, his brilliance in music theory, and his
praisable efforts in systematizing ritual music for Sejong's
court. King Sejong established the
Joseon dynasty's first national
gazetteer in 1432, called the "Sinch'an p'aldo" ('Newly Compiled
Geographic Treatise on the Eight Circuits'). With additional
material and correction of mistakes, the title of this gazetteer was
revised in 1454 as the "Sejong Sillok chiriji" ('King Sejong's
Treatise on Geography'), updated in 1531 under the title "Sinjŭng
tongguk yŏji sŭngnam" ('Augmented Survey of the
Korea'), and enlarged in 1612. The
Joseon Koreans also created
international gazetteers. The "Yojisongnam" gazetteer compiled from
1451 to 1500 provides a small description for 369 different foreign
countries known to
Korea in the 15th century.
In Japan, there were also local gazetteers in pre-modern times, called
fudoki. Japanese gazetteers preserved historical and legendary
accounts of various regions. For example, the Nara-period (710–794)
provincial gazetteer Harima no kuni fūdoki of Harima Province
provides a story of an alleged visit by
Emperor Ōjin in the 3rd
century while on an imperial hunting expedition. Local Japanese
gazetteers could also be found in later periods such as the Edo
period. Gazetteers were often composed by the request of wealthy
patrons; for example, six scholars in the service of the daimyō of
the Ikeda household published the Biyō kokushi gazetteer for several
counties in 1737. World gazetteers were written by the Japanese in
the 19th century, such as the Kon'yo zushiki ("Annotated Maps of the
World") published by Mitsukuri Shōgo in 1845, the Hakkō tsūshi
Gazetteer of the Entire World") by Mitsukuri Genpo in
1856, and the Bankoku zushi ("Illustrated
Gazetteer of the Nations of
the World"), which was written by an Englishman named Colton,
translated by Sawa Ginjirō, and printed by Tezuka Ritsu in 1862.
Despite the ambitious title, the work by Genpo only covered Yōroppa
bu ("Section on Europe") while the planned section for Asia was not
Akbar the Great
Akbar the Great with Jesuits at his court; Akbar's vizier
wrote a gazetteer on the Mughal realm.
In pre-modern India, local gazetteers were written. For example,
Muhnot Nainsi wrote a gazetteer for the
Marwar region in the 17th
century. B. S. Baliga writes that the history of the
Tamil Nadu can be traced back to the classical corpus of
Sangam literature, dated 200 BC to 300 AD. Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak,
the vizier to
Akbar the Great
Akbar the Great of the Mughal Empire, wrote the
Ain-e-Akbari, which included a gazetteer with valuable information on
India's population in the 16th century.
Islamic world produced gazetteers. Cartographers of the
Safavid dynasty of
Iran made gazetteers of local areas.
List of gazetteers
Examples of electronic world gazetteers can be found at:
NGA GEOnet Names Server
the GEOnet Names Server (GNS) provides access to the National
Geospatial-Intelligence Agency's (NGA) and the U.S. Board on
Geographic Names' (US BGN) database of foreign geographic feature
The World Gazetteer
for a given city it gives the country, province, population (incorrect
for some countries), coordinates, population rank among all towns
within the country (incorrect for some countries)
for each country it gives a map and table of provinces with area and
population, a map of cities, an alphabetical table of cities, and a
table of top cities – tables can be sorted by a column of choice
for each province it gives an alphabetical table of cities.
Contains 2,900,000 towns outside the US. For a given country and town
it gives coordinates, altitude, weather forecast, and a map showing
the position of the town with respect to topography and borders and
bodies of water (not with respect to other towns); it also lists towns
which are very nearby, within 3 km, with direction.
The Alexandria Digital Library at UCSB
http://www.alexandria.ucsb.edu/clients/gazetteer/[permanent dead link]
allows searching for any or a specified type of geographical feature
within a rectangular area or the whole world, with a name equal to or
containing the search term; returns coordinates, country and province
with a small scale map.
The Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names
Similar to the previous one, except that not a rectangular area but a
country can be specified, and that no map is produced.
Similar to the previous two, dictionary search, returns coordinates,
satellite image and CIA World factbook country map.
Gazetteer (European Commission/JRC Digital Map Archive)
Searches for place names worldwide and can handle variations in
spelling, thereby making the searches more robust.
http://www.statoids.com/statoids.html – Hierarchical administrative
subdivision (HASC) codes
Flags of the World, also of subnational entities, with some additional
Scanned images of all the pages of this book.
Further information: Composite
Gazetteer of Antarctica
Gazetteer of Antarctica
Gazetteer (detailed Bulgarian version)
USGS Geographic Names Information System: Antarctica
British Antarctic Territory Gazetteer[permanent dead link]
Australian Antarctic Data Centre: Antarctic Gazetteer
East Himalayan Gazetteer
Compiled by Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, UK. An online gazetteer
of 5,000 plant collecting localities in East Nepal, Sikkim, Darjeeling
District, Bhutan and the Chumbi Valley (Tibet).
China Historical Gazetteer
Gazetteer of Australia
Content from the Committee for Geographic Names in Australasia
Hosted by Geoscience Australia
World War 2-era European Gazetteer
European Marine Gazetteer, a database of geographic names with
information and maps of the locations.
von Kendler, Josef and Carl, Orts- und Verkehrs-Lexikon von
Oesterreich-Ungarn ... [in German with English translation]
Gazetteers of Canada (English-language)
Gazetteer of North America – Canada from AllRefer.com
Nova Scotia Gazetter
Government Canadian Geographical Names Data Base (CGNDB) 
Index to Geographical Place Names & Street Names, hosted by Land
Information New Zealand
Wörterbuch der russischen Gewässernamen (The
Dictionary of Russian
Hydronyms), in 6 volumes. Compiled by A. Kernd'l, R. Richhardt, and W.
Eisold, under leadership of Max Vasmer. Wiesbaden, O. Harrassowitz,
Russisches geographisches Namenbuch (The Book of Russian Geographic
Names), founded by Max Vasmer. Compiled by Ingrid Coper et al.
Atlas and Volumes 1-9. O. Harrassowitz, 1964–1981. The
additional volume 11 appeared in 1988, ISBN 3-447-02851-3, and an
additional atlas volume in 1989, ISBN 3-447-02923-4.
South African Geographical Names System – Part of the South African
Government Department for Arts and Culture
Türkiye ve Çevresine ait Coğrafi Adlar Dizini, hosted by Department
of Defence and maintained by General Staff of the Republic of Turkey.
National Land and Property Gazetteer (NLPG)
National Street Gazetteer (NSG)
Software provided by Aligned Assets
Gazetteer for Scotland
Maintained by the
University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh and the Royal Scottish
Scotland by Francis Groome (three editions,
1884, 1892 and 1901); earliest edition appears within The Gazetteer
Scotland by Rev.
John Marius Wilson (1850s)
Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales by Rev. John Marius Wilson
Gazetteer of England and Wales by J.H.F. Brabner (19th
A Vision of Britain through Time, which merges listings of
administrative units, computerised 19th-century gazetteers including
Imperial Gazetteer of England and Wales and the Ordnance Gazetteer
of Scotland, and historical maps, to create a single searchable
gazetteer of British places, including many variant place names.
Maintained by the
Great Britain Historical GIS project at the
University of Portsmouth.
USGS Geographic Names Information System (GNIS)
United States Board on Geographic Names
Gazetteer – US physical and cultural features,
Census 2000 data
Gazetteer (1990, 2000, and 2010 censuses)
American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) Data and Links
Censo 2000 Puerto Rico
Gazetteer of the State of Massachusetts, with Numerous
Illustrations, compiled by Rev. Elias Nason, M.A and revised and
enlarged by George J. Varney, published 1890.
Gazetteer of Texas, published 1902, hosted by the
Portal to Texas
Gazetteer of Texas, by Henry Gannett, published 1904, hosted by the
Portal to Texas History
Gazetteer of the State of New York by Horatio Gates Spafford, A. M.,
originally published by H. C. Southwick, Albany, N.Y. 1824; Heart of
the Lakes Publishing, 1981
Gazetteer of the State of New York by J. H. French, published by R.
Pearsall Smith, Syracuse, N.Y. 1860
Haywards New England
Scanned images of all the pages of this book.
Gazetteer by James Baldwin, published
Offers the pronunciation of international names as well as information
Catalogue of Caravanserais/Khans
A catalogue of georeferenced caravanserais/khans and other built
facilities (bedestans/qaysariyyas, bridges, forts,
lighthouses/beacons, markets/bazaars, hospices, etc.) associated with
long-distance trade routes across Eurasia.
Gazetteer search engine of the JewishGen website, using the
Daitch–Mokotoff Soundex and Beider–Morse Phonetic Name Matching
Algorithm systems for approximate spellings of place names
Searchable catalogue of Jewish-populated locales in 19th and mid-20th
centuries in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East; features
hotlinked map coordinates.
VLIMAR: the VLIZ Marine Gazetteer
A marine standard, relational list of geographic names, coupled with
information and maps of the geographic location of these features.
A community-built gazetteer and graph of ancient places
A database of places and toponyms from the ancient world
List of geography topics
^ Aurousseau, 61.
^ a b c d e White, 658.
^ Thomas, 623–636.
^ Asquith, 703–724.
^ Tarn, 93–94.
^ a b Tarn, 94.
^ a b Brown (1954), 837.
^ Celoria, 387.
^ a b Wilson (2003), 98.
^ Harfield, 372.
^ Harfield, 373–374.
^ a b Ravenhill, 425.
^ a b Ravenhill, 424.
^ Ravenhill, 426.
^ a b c White, 657.
^ a b c d e White, 656.
^ White, 659.
^ Brown (1941), 153–154.
^ a b Brown (1941), 189.
^ Brown (1941), 189–190.
^ a b Brown (1941), 190.
^ Brown (1941), 194.
^ Aurousseau, 66.
^ Murphy, 113.
^ Hargett (1996), 406.
^ a b Hargett (1996), 405.
^ Thogersen & Clausen, 162.
^ Bol, 37–38.
^ a b Hargett (1996), 407.
^ Hargett (1996), 408.
^ Hargett (1996), 411.
^ Bol, 41.
^ Hargett (1996), 414.
^ Hargett (1996), 409–410.
^ a b c Needham, Volume 3, 518.
^ Hsu, 90.
^ Hargett (1996), 409.
^ Hargett (1996), 410.
^ Hargett (1996), 412.
^ a b c Bol, 44.
^ a b Bol, 46.
^ Bol, 47.
^ a b Bol, 38.
^ Britnell, 237.
^ Schafer, 26–27.
^ a b Hostetler, 633.
^ a b Hostetler, 634.
^ Hostetler, 637–638.
^ a b c Brook, 6–7, 73, 90–93, 129–130, 151.
^ Brook, 28, 94–96, 267.
^ a b Fairbank & Teng, 211.
^ Wong, 44.
^ a b c Masuda, 18.
^ Masuda, 18–19.
^ Fairbank & Teng, 215.
^ Masuda, 32.
^ a b Masuda, 23–24.
^ Vermeer 440.
^ Thogersen & Clausen, 161–162.
^ a b c d Thogersen & Clausen, 163.
^ Vermeer, 440–443.
^ a b McCune, 326.
^ a b Provine, 8.
^ Lewis, 225–226.
^ a b Pratt & Rutt, 423.
^ a b Lewis, 225.
^ Miller, 279.
^ Taryō, 178.
^ Levine, 78.
^ Hall, 211.
^ Gole, 102.
^ Baliga, 255.
^ Floor & Clawson, 347–348.
^ King, 79.
^ Book info on Russisches geographisches Namenbuch Archived 2011-07-17
at the Wayback Machine.
^ A Universal Pronouncing Gazetteer; Containing Topographical,
Statistical, and Other Information of All the More Important Places in
the Known World, from the Most Recent and Authentic Sources [book
review]. The North American Review [serial online].
^ "Universal Pronouncing
Gazetteer at the Internet Archive". Retrieved
26 July 2013.
^ "Baldwin's Universal Pronouncing Gazetteer", Signal of Liberty,
January 02, 1847, Online at Ann Arbor Digital Library,
Look up gazetteer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Baliga, B.S. (2002). Madras District Gazetteers. Chennai:
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Britnell, R.H. (1997). Pragmatic Literacy, East and West, 1200–1330.
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Herodotus and His Profession," The American
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Gole, Susan. "Size as a Measure of Importance in Indian Cartography,"
Imago Mundi (Volume 42, 1990): 99–105.
Hall, John Whitney. "Materials for the Study of Local History in
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Harfield, C.G. "A Hand-List of Castles Recorded in the Domesday Book,"
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