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Gall
Galls or cecidia are a kind of swelling growth on the external tissues of plants or animals. Plant
Plant
galls are abnormal outgrowths[1] of plant tissues, similar to benign tumors or warts in animals. They can be caused by various parasites, from fungi and bacteria, to insects and mites. Plant
Plant
galls are often highly organized structures and because of this the cause of the gall can often be determined without the actual agent being identified. This applies particularly to some insect and mite plant galls
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Root
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil. Roots can also be aerial or aerating, that is, growing up above the ground or especially above water. Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either (see rhizome). Therefore, the root is best defined as the non-leaf, non-nodes bearing parts of the plant's body
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Herbivore
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet. As a result of their plant diet, herbivorous animals typically have mouthparts adapted to rasping or grinding
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Scale Insects
The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, suborder Sternorrhyncha. They comprise the superfamily Coccoidea, previously placed in the now obsolete group called "Homoptera". There are about 8,000 described species of scale insects.Armored scale insects:(A) Lepidosaphes gloverii, adult females. (B) Parlatoria oleae, adult females (circular, with dark spot) and immatures (oblong). (C) Diaspidiotus juglansregiae, adult female walnut scale with waxy scale cover removed.Oystershell scale (Ceroplastes sp.), a waxy scale on young blueberryContents1 Description 2 Ecology 3 Economic significance 4 Systematics 5 See also 6 References 7 Further references 8 External linksDescription[edit] Scale insects vary dramatically in appearance; from very small organisms (1–2 mm) that grow beneath wax covers (some shaped like oyster shells, others like mussel shells), to shiny pearl-like objects (about 5 mm), to creatures covered with mealy wax
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Psyllid
Acizzia Agonoscena Allocaridara Arytainilla Blastopsylla Boreioglycaspis Cacopsylla Cryptoneossa Ctenarytaina Diaphorina Eucalyptolyma Euphyllura Glycaspis Heteropsylla Pachypsylla Prosopidopsylla Psylla Psyllopsis Retroacizzia Tetragonocephela and others (see text)Jumping plant lice or psyllids form the family Psyllidae of small plant-feeding insects that tend to be very host-specific, i.e. each plant-louse species only feeds on one plant species (monophagous) or feeds on a few closely related plants (oligophagous). Together with aphids, phylloxerans, scale insects and whiteflies, they form the group called Sternorrhyncha, which is considered to be the most "primitive" group within the true bugs (Hemiptera). They have traditionally been considered a single family, Psyllidae, but recent classifications divide the group into a total of seven families;[citation needed] the present restricted definition still includes more than 70 genera in the Psyllidae
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Fruit
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means by which angiosperms disseminate seeds. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition; in fact, humans and many animals have become dependent on fruits as a source of food.[1] Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, and some (such as the apple and the pomegranate) have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, and edible in the raw state, such as apples, bananas, grapes, lemons, oranges, and strawberries
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Flower
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). The biological function of a flower is to effect reproduction, usually by providing a mechanism for the union of sperm with eggs. Flowers may facilitate outcrossing (fusion of sperm and eggs from different individuals in a population) or allow selfing (fusion of sperm and egg from the same flower). Some flowers produce diaspores without fertilization (parthenocarpy). Flowers contain sporangia and are the site where gametophytes develop. Many flowers have evolved to be attractive to animals, so as to cause them to be vectors for the transfer of pollen
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Kalanchoe
Around 125, see text.SynonymsBryophyllum Kalanchoe
Kalanchoe
/ˌkæləŋˈkoʊ.iː/,[1] or kal-un-KOH-ee,[2] or kal-un-kee, also written Kalanchöe or Kalanchoë, is a genus of about 125 species of tropical, succulent flowering plants in the family Crassulaceae, mainly native to Madagascar
Madagascar
and tropical Africa. Kalanchoe
Kalanchoe
was one of the first plants to be sent into space, sent on a resupply to the Soviet Salyut 1
Salyut 1
space station in 1971.Contents1 Description 2 Name and taxonomy 3 Distribution and Ecology 4 Cultivation and uses 5 Diseases 6 Toxicity and traditional medicine 7 Selected species 8 References 9 External linksDescription[edit] Most are shrubs or perennial herbaceous plants, but a few are annual or biennial
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Bud
In botany, a bud is an undeveloped or embryonic shoot and normally occurs in the axil of a leaf or at the tip of a stem. Once formed, a bud may remain for some time in a dormant condition, or it may form a shoot immediately. Buds may be specialized to develop flowers or short shoots, or may have the potential for general shoot development. The term bud is also used in zoology, where it refers to an outgrowth from the body which can develop into a new individual.Contents1 Overview 2 Types of buds2.1 Image gallery3 Within zoology 4 ReferencesOverview[edit] Inflorescence
Inflorescence
bud scales in Halesia carolinaThe buds of many woody plants, especially in temperate or cold climates, are protected by a covering of modified leaves called scales which tightly enclose the more delicate parts of the bud. Many bud scales are covered by a gummy substance which serves as added protection
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Branch
A branch (UK: /ˈbrɑːntʃ/ or UK: /ˈbræntʃ/, US: /ˈbræntʃ/) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany as a ramus) is a woody structural member connected to but not part of the central trunk of a tree (or sometimes a shrub). Large branches are known as boughs and small branches are known as twigs.[1] Due to a broad range of species of trees, branches and twigs can be found in many different shapes and sizes. While branches can be nearly horizontal, vertical, or diagonal, the majority of trees have upwardly diagonal branches. The term "twig" often refers to a terminus, while "bough" refers only to branches coming directly from the trunk.Contents1 Words1.1 Specific terms 1.2 History and etymology2 See also 3 ReferencesWords[edit] Because of the enormous quantity of branches in the world, there are a variety of names in English alone for them
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Plant Stem
A stem is one of two main structural axes of a vascular plant, the other being the root. The stem is normally divided into nodes and internodes:The nodes hold one or more leaves, as well as buds which can grow into branches (with leaves, conifer cones, or inflorescences (flowers)). Adventitious roots
Adventitious roots
may also be produced from the nodes. The internodes distance one node from another.The term "shoots" is often confused with "stems"; "shoots" generally refers to new fresh plant growth including both stems and other structures like leaves or flowers. In most plants stems are located above the soil surface but some plants have underground stems. Stems have four main functions which are:[1]Support for and the elevation of leaves, flowers and fruits
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Meristem
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place. Meristematic cells give rise to various organs of the plant and keep the plant growing. There are three types of meristematic tissues: apical( at the tips), intercalary(at middle) and lateral (at the sides). There are two types of apical meristem tissue: shoot apical meristem (SAM), which gives rise to organs like the leaves and flowers, and root apical meristem (RAM), which provides the meristematic cells for future root growth. SAM and RAM cells divide rapidly and are considered indeterminate, in that they do not possess any defined end status
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Adult
Biologically, an adult is a human or other organism that has reached sexual maturity. In human context, the term adult additionally has meanings associated with social and legal concepts. In contrast to a "minor", a legal adult is a person who has attained the age of majority and is therefore regarded as independent, self-sufficient, and responsible. The typical age of attaining adulthood is 18, although definition may vary by legal rights and country. Human
Human
adulthood encompasses psychological adult development. Definitions of adulthood are often inconsistent and contradictory; a person may be biologically an adult, and have adult behavior but still be treated as a child if they are under the legal age of majority. Conversely, one may legally be an adult but possess none of the maturity and responsibility that may define an adult character. In different cultures there are events that relate passing from being a child to becoming an adult or coming of age
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Ash Tree
Fraxinus
Fraxinus
/ˈfræksɪnəs/,[4] English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae. It contains 45–65 species of usually medium to large trees, mostly deciduous though a few subtropical species are evergreen. The genus is widespread across much of Europe, Asia and North America.[3][5][6][7][8] The tree's common English name, "ash", traces back to the Old English æsc, while the generic name originated in Latin. Both words also mean "spear" in their respective languages.[9] The leaves are opposite (rarely in whorls of three), and mostly pinnately compound, simple in a few species. The seeds, popularly known as "keys" or "helicopter seeds", are a type of fruit known as a samara. Most Fraxinus
Fraxinus
species are dioecious, having male and female flowers on separate plants[10] but gender in ash is expressed as a continuum between male and female individuals, dominated by unisexual trees
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Pathology
Pathology
Pathology
(from the Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" whence the English word "path" is derived by transliteration, and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant component of the causal study of pathogens and a major field in modern medicine and diagnosis. Hence, 'the study of paths', by which disease comes. The term pathology itself may be used broadly to refer to the study of disease in general, incorporating a wide range of bioscience research fields and medical practices (including plant pathology and veterinary pathology), or more narrowly to describe work within the contemporary medical field of "general pathology," which includes a number of distinct but inter-related medical specialties that diagnose disease—mostly through analysis of tissue, cell, and body fluid samples
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Plant
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae. They form the clade Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants") that includes the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, clubmosses, hornworts, liverworts, mosses and the green algae, and excludes the red and brown algae. Historically, plants were treated as one of two kingdoms including all living things that were not animals, and all algae and fungi were treated as plants. However, all current definitions of Plantae exclude the fungi and some algae, as well as the prokaryotes (the archaea and bacteria). Green plants have cell walls containing cellulose and obtain most of their energy from sunlight via photosynthesis by primary chloroplasts that are derived from endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which gives them their green color
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