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The Tephritidae
Tephritidae
are one of two fly families referred to as fruit flies, the other family being the Drosophilidae. The family Tephritidae
Tephritidae
does not include the biological model organisms of the genus Drosophila
Drosophila
(in the family Drosophilidae), which is often called the "common fruit fly". Nearly 5,000 described species of tephritid fruit fly are categorized in almost 500 genera of the Tephritidae. Description, recategorization, and genetic analyses are constantly changing the taxonomy of this family. To distinguish them from the Drosophilidae, the Tephritidae
Tephritidae
are sometimes called peacock flies, in reference to their elaborate and colorful markings. The name comes from the Greek τεφρος, tephros, meaning "ash grey". They are found in all the ecozones.

Tephritidae
Tephritidae
morphology

Contents

1 Description 2 Ecology 3 Economic importance 4 Systematics 5 Identification 6 Species lists 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

Description[edit] For terms see Morphology of Diptera
Morphology of Diptera
and Tephritidae
Tephritidae
glossary Tephritids are small to medium-sized (2.5–10 mm) flies that are often colourful, and usually with pictured wings, the subcostal vein curving forward at a right angle. The head is hemispherical and usually short. The face is vertical or retreating and the frons is broad. Ocelli and cellar bristles are present. The postvertical bristles are parallel to divergent. Two to eight pairs of frontal bristles are seen (at least one but usually several lower pairs curving inwards and at least one of the upper pairs curving backwards). In some species, the frontal bristles are inserted on a raised tubercle. Interfrontal setulae are usually absent or represented by one or two tiny setulae near the lunula. True vibrissae are absent, but several genera have strong bristles near the vibrissal angle. The wings usually have yellow, brown, or black markings or are dark-coloured with lighter markings. In a few species, the wings are clear. The costa has both a humeral and a subcostal break. The apical part of the subcostal is usually indistinct or even transparent and at about a right angle with respect to the basal part. Crossvein BM-Cu is present; the cell cup (posterior cubital cell or anal cell) is closed and nearly always narrowing to an acute angle. It is closed by a geniculated vein (CuA2). The CuA2 vein is rarely straight or convex. The tibiae lack a dorsal preapical bristle. The female has an oviscape. The larva is amphipneustic (having only the anterior and posterior pairs of spiracle). The body varies from white to yellowish or brown. The posterior end of pale-coloured species is sometimes black. The body tapers at the anterior. The two mandibles sometimes have teeth along the ventral margin. The antennomaxillary lobes at each side of the mandibles have several transverse oral ridges or short laminae directed posteriorly. The anterior spiracles (prothoracic spiracles) end bluntly and are not elongated. Each has at least three openings or up to 50 arranged transversely in one to three groups or irregularly. Each posterior spiracle (anal spiracle) lacks a clearly defined peritreme and each has three spiracular openings (in mature larvae). These are usually more or less horizontal, parallel and usually bear branched spiracular hairs in four tufts.[1][2] Ecology[edit]

Play media

Ovipositing Urophora
Urophora
quadrifasciata on Centaurea
Centaurea
jacea

Play media

Chaetostomella cylindrica
Chaetostomella cylindrica
mating (notice the parting kiss)

The larvae of almost all Tephritidae
Tephritidae
are phytophagous. Females deposit eggs in living, healthy plant tissue using their telescopic ovipositors. Here, the larvae find their food upon emerging. The larvae develop in leaves, stems, flowers, seeds, fruits, and roots of the host plant, depending on the species. Some species are gall-forming. One exception to the phytophagous lifestyle is Euphranta toxoneura (Loew) whose larvae develop in galls formed by sawflies.The adults sometimes have a very short lifespan. Some live for less than a week. Some species are monophagous (feeding on only one plant species) others are polyphagous (feeding on several, usually related plant species). The behavioral ecology of tephritid fruit flies is of great interest to biologists. Some fruit flies have extensive mating rituals or territorial displays. Many are brightly colored and visually showy. Some fruit flies show Batesian mimicry, bearing the colors and markings of dangerous arthropods such as wasps or jumping spiders because it helps the fruit flies avoid predation, though the flies lack stingers. Adult tephritid fruit flies are often found on the host plant and feeding on pollen, nectar, rotting plant debris, or honeydew. Natural enemies include the Diapriidae
Diapriidae
and the Braconidae. Economic importance[edit] Tephritid fruit flies are of major economic importance in agriculture. Some have negative effects, some positive. Various species of fruit flies cause damage to fruit and other plant crops. The genus Bactrocera
Bactrocera
is of worldwide notoriety for its destructive impact on agriculture. The olive fruit fly (B. oleae), for example, feeds on only one plant: the wild or commercially cultivated olive, Olea europaea. It has the capacity to ruin 100% of an olive crop by damaging the fruit. Euleia heraclei
Euleia heraclei
is a pest of celery and parsnips. The genus Anastrepha
Anastrepha
includes several important pests, notably A. grandis, A. ludens, A. obliqua, and A. suspensa. Other pests are Strauzia longipennis, a pest of sunflowers and Rhagoletis mendax, a pest of blueberries. Another notorious agricultural pest is the Mediterranean fruit fly
Mediterranean fruit fly
or Medfly, Ceratitis capitata, which is responsible for millions of dollars' worth in expenses by countries for control and eradication efforts, in addition to costs of damage to fruit crops. Some fruit flies are used as agents of biological control, thereby reducing the populations of pest species. Several species of the genus Urophora
Urophora
are used as control agents against rangeland-destroying noxious weeds such as starthistles and knapweeds, but their effectiveness is questionable.[3] Urophora
Urophora
sirunaseva produces larvae that pupate within a woody gall within the flower and disrupt seed production.[4] Chaetorellia acrolophi is an effective biocontrol agent against knapweeds Chaetorellia australis and Chaetorellia succinea, deposit eggs into the starthistle seedheads, where their larvae consume the seeds and flower ovaries.[5] Since economically important tephritid fruit flies exist worldwide, vast networks of researchers, several international symposia, and intensive activities on various subjects extend from ecology to molecular biology (Tephritid Workers Database). Pest management techniques applied to tephritid include the use of cover sprays with conventional pesticides, however, due to deleterious impact of these pesticides, new, less impactful and more targeted pest control techniques have been used, such as toxic food baits, male annihilation technique using specific male attractant parapheromones in toxic baits or mass trapping, or even sterile insect technique as part of integrated pest management. Systematics[edit] Tephritidae
Tephritidae
is divided into several subfamilies:[6]

Blepharoneurinae (5 genera, 34 species) Dacinae
Dacinae
(41 genera, 1066 species) Phytalmiinae
Phytalmiinae
(95 genera, 331 species) Tachiniscinae (8 genera, 18 species) Tephritinae
Tephritinae
(211 genera, 1859 species) Trypetinae
Trypetinae
(118 genera, 1012 species) Chaetostomella cylindrica

The genera Oxyphora, Pseudorellia, and Stylia comprise 32 species, and are not included in any subfamily (incertae sedis). Identification[edit]

Richard H. Foote, P. L. Blanc, Allen L. Norrbom, 1993 Handbook of the Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) of America North of Mexico Cornell University Press (Comstock Publishing). Merz, B. 1994. Diptera Tephritidae. Insecta Helvetica Fauna 10: 1-198. White, I.M. 1988. Tephritid flies. Diptera: Tephritidae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects 10(5a): 1-134. White I.M. & Elson-Harris M.M. 1994 Fruit Flies of Economic Significance: their Identification and Bionomics. 2nd ed. International Institute of Entomology, London. R.A.I. Drew and Meredith C Romig Tropical Fruit Flies of South-East Asia (Tephritidae: Dacinae) CABI ISBN 9781780640358 Hendel1914. Die Gattungen der Bohrfliegen. Wein. Entomol. Ztg. 33: 73–98. Keys to World genera Out of date but still the only world monograph. Hendel, F., 1927. Trypetidae.In: Lindner, E. (Ed.). Die Fliegen der palaearktischen Region 5, 49, 1-221. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision (in German). Séguy, E. (1934) Diptères: Brachycères. II. Muscidae
Muscidae
acalypterae, Scatophagidae. Paris: Éditions Faune de France 28. virtuelle numérique Rikhter, V.A. Family Conopidae
Conopidae
in Bei-Bienko, G. Ya, 1988 Keys to the insects of the European Part of the USSR Volume 5 (Diptera) Part 2 English edition. Keys to Palaearctic species but now needs revision.

Species lists[edit]

West Palaearctic including Russia Australasian/Oceanian Nearctic Japan World list

See also[edit]

Paradesis

References[edit]

^ K. G. V. Smith, 1989 An introduction to the immature stages of British Flies. Diptera Larvae, with notes on eggs, puparia and pupae. Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects
Handbooks for the Identification of British Insects
Vol 10 Part 14. pdf Archived 2014-02-09 at the Wayback Machine. download manual (two parts Main text and figures index) ^ Phillips, V.T., 1946. The biology and identification of trypetid larvae (Diptera: Trypetidae). Memoirs of the American Entomological Society 12: 1-161. ^ Dean E. Pearson & Ragan M. Callaway (2008). "Weed-biocontrol insects reduce native-plant recruitment through second-order apparent competition" (PDF). Ecological Applications. 18 (6): 1489–1500. doi:10.1890/07-1789.1. PMID 18767624.  ^ Sobhian, R. 1993. Life history and host specificity of Urophora sirunaseva (Herng)(Dipt., Tephritidae), an agent for biological control of yellow starthistle, with remarks on the host plant. J. Appl. Entomol. 116: 381-390. ^ Turner, C.E., G.L. Piper and E.M. Coombs. 1996. Chaetorellia australis (Diptera: Tephritidae) for biological control of yellow starthistle, Centaurea
Centaurea
solstitialis (Compositae), in the western USA: establishment and seed destruction. Bull. Entomol. Res. 86: 1 77-182. ^ Allen L. Norrbom (April 30, 2004). "Fruit Fly
Fly
(Diptera: Tephritidae) Phylogeny". The Diptera Site. Agricultural Research Service. Archived from the original on July 9, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

Christenson, L. D. and Foote, R.H. 1960. Biology of fruit flies, Annu. Rev. Entomol., vol. 5, pp. 171–192. Bruce A. McPheron, Gary J. Steck (Editors), 1996 Fruit fly pests : a world assessment of their biology and management International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance (4th : 1994 : Sand Key, Florida, USA) Delray Beach, Fla. : St Lucie Press Foote R.H., Steyskal G.C. 1981 Tephritidae. in: McAlpine J.F. (Ed.), Manual of Nearctic Diptera. Agriculture
Agriculture
Canada, Ottawa, pp. 817–831.ISBN 0660107317 pdf download manual Pest Information Wiki

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tephritidae.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Tephritidae

General

Natural Enemies of True Fruit Flies (Tephritidae), USDA Tephritidae
Tephritidae
Information from the Diptera Site

Identification

The Diptera site Comprehensive guide to identification literature with a worldwide perspective.

Galleries

Diptera.info images Images at BugGuide Family Tephritidae
Tephritidae
at EOL Image Gallery

Control

IPC-Fruit Flies webpage Pest Fruit Flies of the World Biological Control of Tephritidae

v t e

Extant Diptera families

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Subclass: Pterygota Infraclass: Neoptera Superorder: Endopterygota

Suborder Nematocera

Axymyiomorpha

Axymyiidae

Culicomorpha

Culicoidea

Dixidae
Dixidae
(meniscus midges) Corethrellidae
Corethrellidae
(frog-biting midges) Chaoboridae
Chaoboridae
(phantom midges) Culicidae (mosquitoes)

Chironomoidea

Thaumaleidae
Thaumaleidae
(solitary midges) Simuliidae (black flies) Ceratopogonidae
Ceratopogonidae
(biting midges) Chironomidae
Chironomidae
(non-biting midges)

Blephariceromorpha

Blephariceridae
Blephariceridae
(net-winged midges) Deuterophlebiidae (mountain midges) Nymphomyiidae

Bibionomorpha

Bibionoidea

Bibionidae
Bibionidae
(march flies, lovebugs)

Anisopodoidea

Anisopodidae
Anisopodidae
(wood gnats)

Sciaroidea (fungus gnats)

Bolitophilidae Diadocidiidae Ditomyiidae Keroplatidae Mycetophilidae Sciaridae
Sciaridae
(dark-winged fungus gnats) Cecidomyiidae
Cecidomyiidae
(gall midges)

Psychodomorpha

Scatopsoidea

Canthyloscelidae Perissommatidae Scatopsidae
Scatopsidae
(minute black scavenger flies, or dung midges)

Psychodoidea

Psychodidae (moth flies)

Ptychopteromorpha

Ptychopteridae
Ptychopteridae
(phantom crane flies) Tanyderidae (primitive crane flies)

Tipulomorpha

Trichoceroidea

Trichoceridae
Trichoceridae
(winter crane flies)

Tipuloidea

Pediciidae
Pediciidae
(hairy-eyed craneflies) Tipulidae (crane flies)

Suborder Brachycera

Asilomorpha

Asiloidea

Apioceridae (flower-loving flies) Apsilocephalidae Apystomyiidae Asilidae
Asilidae
(robber flies) Bombyliidae
Bombyliidae
(bee flies) Evocoidae Hilarimorphidae (hilarimorphid flies) Mydidae (mydas flies) Mythicomyiidae Scenopinidae
Scenopinidae
(window flies) Therevidae
Therevidae
(stiletto flies)

Empidoidea

Atelestidae Hybotidae
Hybotidae
(dance flies) Dolichopodidae
Dolichopodidae
(long-legged flies) Empididae
Empididae
(dagger flies, balloon flies)

Nemestrinoidea

Acroceridae
Acroceridae
(small-headed flies) Nemestrinidae
Nemestrinidae
(tangle-veined flies)

Muscomorpha

Aschiza

Platypezoidea

Phoridae
Phoridae
(scuttle flies, coffin flies, humpbacked flies) Opetiidae
Opetiidae
(flat-footed flies) Ironomyiidae (ironic flies) Lonchopteridae
Lonchopteridae
(spear-winged flies) Platypezidae
Platypezidae
(flat-footed flies)

Syrphoidea

Syrphidae (hoverflies) Pipunculidae
Pipunculidae
(big-headed flies)

Schizophora

Acalyptratae

Conopoidea

Conopidae
Conopidae
(thick-headed flies)

Tephritoidea

Pallopteridae
Pallopteridae
(flutter flies) Piophilidae
Piophilidae
(cheese flies) Platystomatidae
Platystomatidae
(signal flies) Pyrgotidae Richardiidae Tephritidae
Tephritidae
(peacock flies) Ulidiidae
Ulidiidae
(picture-winged flies)

Nerioidea

Cypselosomatidae Micropezidae
Micropezidae
(stilt-legged flies) Neriidae
Neriidae
(cactus flies, banana stalk flies)

Diopsoidea

Diopsidae (stalk-eyed flies) Gobryidae Megamerinidae Nothybidae Psilidae
Psilidae
(rust flies) Somatiidae Strongylophthalmyiidae Syringogastridae Tanypezidae

Sciomyzoidea

Coelopidae
Coelopidae
(kelp flies) Dryomyzidae Helosciomyzidae Ropalomeridae Huttoninidae Heterocheilidae Phaeomyiidae Sepsidae
Sepsidae
(black scavenger flies) Sciomyzidae
Sciomyzidae
(marsh flies)

Sphaeroceroidea

Chyromyidae Heleomyzidae Sphaeroceridae
Sphaeroceridae
(small dung flies) Nannodastiidae

Lauxanioidea

Celyphidae
Celyphidae
(beetle-backed flies) Chamaemyiidae
Chamaemyiidae
(aphid flies) Lauxaniidae

Opomyzoidea

Agromyzidae
Agromyzidae
(leaf miner flies) Anthomyzidae Asteiidae Aulacigastridae (sap flies) Clusiidae
Clusiidae
(lekking, or druid flies) Fergusoninidae Marginidae Neminidae Neurochaetidae (upside-down flies) Odiniidae Opomyzidae Periscelididae Teratomyzidae Xenasteiidae

Ephydroidea

Camillidae Curtonotidae
Curtonotidae
(quasimodo flies) Diastatidae
Diastatidae
(bog flies) Ephydridae
Ephydridae
(shore flies) Drosophilidae
Drosophilidae
(vinegar and fruit flies)

Carnoidea

Acartophthalmidae Australimyzidae Braulidae
Braulidae
(bee lice) Canacidae
Canacidae
(beach flies) Carnidae Chloropidae
Chloropidae
(frit flies) Cryptochaetidae Inbiomyiidae Milichiidae
Milichiidae
(freeloader flies)

Lonchaeoidea

Cryptochetidae Lonchaeidae
Lonchaeidae
(lance flies)

Calyptratae

Muscoidea

Anthomyiidae
Anthomyiidae
(cabbage flies) Fanniidae
Fanniidae
(little house flies) Muscidae
Muscidae
(house flies, stable flies) Scathophagidae
Scathophagidae
(dung flies)

Oestroidea

Calliphoridae
Calliphoridae
(blow-flies: bluebottles, greenbottles) Mystacinobiidae (New Zealand batfly) Oestridae (botflies) Rhinophoridae Sarcophagidae (flesh flies) Tachinidae
Tachinidae
(tachina flies)

Hippoboscoidea

Glossinidae (tsetse flies) Hippoboscidae
Hippoboscidae
(louse flies) Mormotomyiidae
Mormotomyiidae
(frightful hairy fly) Nycteribiidae
Nycteribiidae
(bat flies) Streblidae
Streblidae
(bat flies)

Stratiomyomorpha

Stratiomyoidea

Pantophthalmidae
Pantophthalmidae
(timber flies) Stratiomyidae
Stratiomyidae
(soldier flies) Xylomyidae
Xylomyidae
(wood soldier flies)

Tabanomorpha

Rhagionoidea

Austroleptidae Bolbomyiidae Rhagionidae
Rhagionidae
(snipe flies)

Tabanoidea

Athericidae
Athericidae
(water snipe flies) Oreoleptidae Pelecorhynchidae Tabanidae (horse and deer flies)

Vermileonomorpha

Vermileonoidea

Vermileonidae

Xylophagomorpha

Xylophagoidea

Xylophagidae
Xylophagidae
(awl flies)

List of families of Diptera

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q626843 BugGuide: 7017 EoL: 9023 EPPO: 1TEPHF Fauna Europaea: 10966 Fossilworks: 139205 GBIF: 3520 ITIS: 142604 NCBI: 7211

Authority control

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