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GC-content
In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content
GC-content
(or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA
DNA
or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA
DNA
and adenine and uracil in RNA).[1] This may refer to a certain fragment of DNA
DNA
or RNA, or that of the whole genome. When it refers to a fragment of the genetic material, it may denote the GC-content
GC-content
of section of a gene (domain), single gene, group of genes (or gene clusters), or even a non-coding region. G (guanine) and C (cytosine) undergo a specific hydrogen bonding, whereas A (adenine) bonds specifically with T (thymine, in DNA) or U (uracil, in RNA). The GC pair is bound by three hydrogen bonds, while AT and AU pairs are bound by two hydrogen bonds
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Digital Object Identifier
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to uniquely identify objects, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
(ISO).[1] An implementation of the Handle System,[2][3] DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos. A DOI aims to be "resolvable", usually to some form of access to the information object to which the DOI refers. This is achieved by binding the DOI to metadata about the object, such as a URL, indicating where the object can be found. Thus, by being actionable and interoperable, a DOI differs from identifiers such as ISBNs and ISRCs which aim only to uniquely identify their referents
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Species Problem
The species problem is the set of questions that arises when biologists attempt to define what a species is. Such a definition is called a species concept; there are at least 26 recognized species concepts.[1] A species concept that works well for sexually reproducing organisms such as birds is useless for species that reproduce asexually, such as bacteria. The scientific study of the species problem has been called microtaxonomy.[2] One common, but sometimes difficult, question is how best to decide which species an organism belongs to, because reproductively isolated groups may not be readily recognizable, and cryptic species may be present. There is a continuum from reproductive isolation with no interbreeding, to panmixis, unlimited interbreeding
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Wavelength
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats,[1][2] and thus the inverse of the spatial frequency. It is usually determined by considering the distance between consecutive corresponding points of the same phase, such as crests, troughs, or zero crossings and is a characteristic of both traveling waves and standing waves, as well as other spatial wave patterns.[3][4] Wavelength
Wavelength
is commonly designated by the Greek letter
Greek letter
lambda (λ)
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Nanometer
The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (6991100000000000000♠0.000000001 m). The name combines the SI prefix
SI prefix
nano- (from the Ancient Greek νάνος, nanos, "dwarf") with the parent unit name metre (from Greek μέτρον, metrοn, "unit of measurement"). It can be written in scientific notation as 6991100000000000000♠1×10−9 m, in engineering notation as 1 E−9 m, and is simply 1/7009100000000000000♠1000000000 metres. One nanometre equals ten ångströms
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Flow Cytometry
In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus. A flow cytometer allows simultaneous multiparametric analysis of the physical and chemical characteristics of up to thousands of particles per second. Flow cytometry
Flow cytometry
is routinely used in the diagnosis of health disorders, especially blood cancers, but has many other applications in basic research, clinical practice and clinical trials. A common variation involves linking the analytical capability of the flow cytometer to a sorting device, to physically separate and thereby purify particles of interest based on their optical properties
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Sequenced
In genetics and biochemistry, sequencing means to determine the primary structure (sometimes falsely called primary sequence) of an unbranched biopolymer. Sequencing
Sequencing
results in a symbolic linear depiction known as a sequence which succinctly summarizes much of the atomic-level structure of the sequenced molecule.Contents1 DNA
DNA
sequencing1.1 Sanger sequencing 1.2 Pyrosequencing 1.3 True single molecule sequencing 1.4 Large-scale sequencing2 RNA
RNA
sequencing 3 Protein
Protein
sequencing 4 Polysaccharide
Polysaccharide
sequencing 5 See also 6 References DNA
DNA
sequencing[edit] Main article: DNA
DNA
sequencing DNA sequencing
DNA sequencing
is the process of determining the nucleotide order of a given DNA
DNA
fragment
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Chromosomes
A chromosome (from ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA
DNA
molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism. Most eukaryotic chromosomes include packaging proteins which, aided by chaperone proteins, bind to and condense the DNA
DNA
molecule to prevent it from becoming an unmanageable tangle.[1][2] Chromosomes are normally visible under a light microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division (where all chromosomes are aligned in the center of the cell in their condensed form).[3] Before this happens, every chromosome is copied once (S phase), and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere, resulting either in an X-shaped structure (pictured to the right) if the centromere is located in the middle of the chromosome or a two-arm structure if the centromere is located near one of the ends
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Coding Region
The coding region of a gene, also known as the coding sequence or CDS (from coding DNA
DNA
sequence), is that portion of a gene's DNA
DNA
or RNA, composed of exons, that codes for protein. The region is bounded nearer the 5' end by a start codon and nearer the 3' end with a stop codon
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Gene
A gene is a sequence of DNA
DNA
or RNA
RNA
which codes for a molecule that has a function. During gene expression, the DNA
DNA
is first copied into RNA. The RNA
RNA
can be directly functional or be the intermediate template for a protein that performs a function. The transmission of genes to an organism's offspring is the basis of the inheritance of phenotypic traits. These genes make up different DNA
DNA
sequences called genotypes. Genotypes along with environmental and developmental factors determine what the phenotypes will be. Most biological traits are under the influence of polygenes (many different genes) as well as gene–environment interactions
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Gene-centered View Of Evolution
The gene-centered view of evolution, gene's eye view, gene selection theory, or selfish gene theory holds that adaptive evolution occurs through the differential survival of competing genes, increasing the allele frequency of those alleles whose phenotypic trait effects successfully promote their own propagation, with gene defined as "not just one single physical bit of DNA [but] all replicas of a particular bit of DNA distributed throughout the world".[1][2][3] The proponents of this viewpoint argue that, since heritable information is passed from generation to generation almost exclusively by DNA, natural selection and evolution are best considered from the perspective of genes. Proponents of the gene-centered viewpoint argue that it permits understanding of diverse phenomena such as altruism and intragenomic conflict that are otherwise difficult to explain.[4][5] The gene-centered view of evolution is a synthesis of the theory of evolution by natural selection, the particulate inher
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DNA Repair
DNA
DNA
repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA
DNA
molecules that encode its genome. In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA
DNA
damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day.[1] Many of these lesions cause structural damage to the DNA
DNA
molecule and can alter or eliminate the cell's ability to transcribe the gene that the affected DNA
DNA
encodes. Other lesions induce potentially harmful mutations in the cell's genome, which affect the survival of its daughter cells after it undergoes mitosis. As a consequence, the DNA
DNA
repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA
DNA
structure
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Actinobacteria
The Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
are a phylum of Gram-positive bacteria. They can be terrestrial or aquatic.[1] They are of great economic importance to humans because agriculture and forests depend on their contributions to soil systems. In soil, they behave much like fungi, helping to decompose the organic matter of dead organisms so the molecules can be taken up anew by plants. In this role the colonies often grow extensive mycelia, like a fungus would, and the name of an important order of the phylum, Actinomycetales
Actinomycetales
(the actinomycetes), reflects that they were long believed to be fungi. Some soil actinobacteria (such as Frankia) live symbiotically with the plants whose roots pervade the soil, fixing nitrogen for the plants in exchange for access to some of the plant's saccharides. Beyond the great interest in Actinobacteria
Actinobacteria
for their soil role, much is yet to be learned about them
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Hydrogen Bond
A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons. Hydrogen
Hydrogen
bonds can occur between molecules (intermolecular) or within different parts of a single molecule (intramolecular).[1] Depending on the nature of the donor and acceptor atoms which constitute the bond, their geometry, and environment, the energy of a hydrogen bond can vary between 1 and 40 kcal/mol.[2] This makes them somewhat stronger than a van der Waals interaction, and weaker than fully covalent or ionic bonds
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Streptomyces Coelicolor
Streptomyces coelicolor is a soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacterium that belongs to the genus Streptomyces.[1]Contents1 Genome 2 Small noncoding RNA 3 Usage in biotechnology 4 References 5 Further reading 6 External linksGenome[edit] The genome of one strain of S. coelicolor was sequenced in 2002.[2] It contains 8,667,507 bp, encoding 7,825 predicted genes, including over 20 gene clusters for the synthesis of known or predicted natural products. Small noncoding RNA[edit] See also: s-SodF RNA Bacterial small RNAs are involved in post-transcriptional regulation. Using deep sequencing S. coelicolor transcriptome was analysed at the end of exponential growth. 63 small RNAs were identified. Expression of 11 of them was confirmed by Northern blot. The sRNAs were shown to be only present in Streptomyces species.[3] sRNA scr4677 (Streptomyces coelicolor sRNA 4677) is located in the intergenic region between anti-sigma factor SCO4677 gene and a putative regulatory protein gene SCO4676
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Yeast
Ascomycota
Ascomycota
p. p. Saccharomycotina
Saccharomycotina
(true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina
Taphrinomycotina
p. p. Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota
Basidiomycota
p. p. Agaricomycotina
Agaricomycotina
p. p.Tremellomycetes Pucciniomycotina
Pucciniomycotina
p. p.MicrobotryomycetesYeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom
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