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Fatalism
Related concepts and fundamentals: * Agnosticism * Epistemology * Presupposition * Probability
Probability
* v * t * e FATALISM is a philosophical doctrine that stresses the subjugation of all events or actions to fate . Fatalism generally refers to any of the following ideas: * The view that we are powerless to do anything other than what we actually do. Included in this is that humans have no power to influence the future, or indeed, their own actions. This belief is very similar to predeterminism . * An attitude of resignation in the face of some future event or events which are thought to be inevitable. Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
named this idea with "Turkish fatalism" in his book The Wanderer and His Shadow . * That acceptance is appropriate, rather than resistance against inevitability
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Siddhartha Gautama
GAUTAMA BUDDHA (c. 563 BCE/480 BCE – c. 483 BCE/400 BCE), also known as SIDDHāRTHA GAUTAMA , SHAKYAMUNI BUDDHA , or simply the BUDDHA, after the title of Buddha , was an ascetic (śramaṇa ) and sage , on whose teachings Buddhism
Buddhism
was founded. He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the sixth and fourth centuries BCE . Gautama taught a Middle Way
Middle Way
between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the śramaṇa movement common in his region. He later taught throughout other regions of eastern India
India
such as Magadha and Kosala . Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism. He is recognized by Buddhists as an enlightened teacher who attained full Buddhahood
Buddhahood
, and shared his insights to help sentient beings end rebirth and suffering
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Buddhism
BUDDHISM ( /ˈbʊdɪzəm/ or /ˈbuːdɪzəm/ ) is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions , beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha
Buddha
. Buddhism
Buddhism
originated in Ancient India
Ancient India
sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia
Asia
, whereafter it declined in India
India
during the Middle Ages. Two major extant branches of Buddhism
Buddhism
are generally recognized by scholars: Theravada ( Pali : "The School of the Elders") and Mahayana ( Sanskrit : "The Great Vehicle"). Buddhism
Buddhism
is the world\'s fourth-largest religion , with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists
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Mahavira
MAHAVIRA (Mahāvīra), also known as VARDHAMāNA, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara
Tirthankara
(ford maker) of Jainism . In the Jain tradition, it is believed that Mahavira
Mahavira
was born in early part of the 6th-century BC into a royal family in what is now Bihar , India
India
. At the age of 30, he left his home in pursuit of spiritual awakening , abandoned all worldly possessions, and became an ascetic . For the next twelve-and-a-half years, Mahavira
Mahavira
practiced intense meditation and severe austerities, after which he is believed to have attained Kevala Jnana (omniscience). He preached for 30 years, and is believed by Jains to have died in the 6th-century BC
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Jainism
JAINISM (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/ ), traditionally known as JAIN DHARMA, is an ancient Indian religion
Indian religion
. Jainism followers are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina (victor) and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains
Jains
trace their history through a succession of twenty-four victorious saviors and teachers known as Tirthankaras , with the first being Rishabhanatha
Rishabhanatha
, who is believed to have lived millions of years ago, and twenty-fourth being the Mahavira
Mahavira
around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism
Jainism
is an eternal dharma with the Tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain
Jain
cosmology
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Ascetic
ASCETICISM (/əˈsɛtɪsɪzəm/ ; from the Greek : ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise" or "training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from worldly pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals. Ascetics may withdraw from the world for their practices or continue to be part of their society, but typically adopt a frugal lifestyle, characterised by the renunciation of material possessions and physical pleasures, and time spent fasting while concentrating on the practice of religion or reflection upon spiritual matters. Asceticism
Asceticism
is classified into two types. "Natural asceticism" consists of a lifestyle where material aspects of life are reduced to utmost simplicity and a minimum but without maiming the body or harsher austerities that make the body suffer, while "unnatural asceticism" is defined as a practice that involves body mortification and self infliction of pain such as by sleeping on a bed of nails
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Philosophical
PHILOSOPHY (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom" ) is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence , knowledge , values , reason , mind , and language . The term was probably coined by Pythagoras
Pythagoras
(c. 570–495 BCE). Philosophical methods include questioning , critical discussion , rational argument and systematic presentation. Classic philosophical questions include: Is it possible to know anything and to prove it? What is most real ? However, philosophers might also pose more practical and concrete questions such as: Is there a best way to live? Is it better to be just or unjust (if one can get away with it)? Do humans have free will ? Historically, "philosophy" encompassed any body of knowledge. From the time of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle
Aristotle
to the 19th century, "natural philosophy " encompassed astronomy , medicine and physics
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Mahajanapada
A MAHāJANAPADA ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: महाजनपद, lit. 'great realm', from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe", "country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE. Two of them were most probably 'ganas' or republics — and others had forms of monarchy. Ancient Buddhist texts like the Anguttara Nikaya make frequent reference to sixteen great kingdoms and republics which had evolved and flourished in a belt stretching from Gandhara in the northwest to Anga
Anga
in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and included parts of the trans-Vindhyan region, prior to the rise of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India
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The Wanderer And His Shadow
HUMAN, ALL TOO HUMAN: A BOOK FOR FREE SPIRITS (German : Menschliches, Allzumenschliches: Ein Buch für freie Geister) is a book by 19th-century philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
Friedrich Nietzsche
, originally published in 1878. A second part, Assorted Opinions and Maxims (Vermischte Meinungen und Sprüche), was published in 1879, and a third part, The Wanderer and his Shadow (Der Wanderer und sein Schatten), followed in 1880. The book is Nietzsche's first in the aphoristic style that would come to dominate his writings, discussing a variety of concepts in short paragraphs or sayings
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Friedrich Nietzsche
FRIEDRICH WILHELM NIETZSCHE (/ˈniːtʃə/ German: ( listen ); 15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher , cultural critic , poet , philologist , and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. He became the youngest ever to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel
Basel
in 1869, at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems that plagued him most of his life, and he completed much of his core writing in the following decade. In 1889, at age 44, he suffered a collapse and a complete loss of his mental faculties. He lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897, and then with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche
Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche
, and died in 1900
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Karma
KARMA (Sanskrit : कर्म, translit. karma; IPA: ( listen ); Pali : kamma; Hindi : कर्म, translit. karm) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deed contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deed contribute to bad karma and future suffering. Karma
Karma
is closely associated with the idea of rebirth in many schools of Asian religions. In these schools, karma in the present affects one's future in the current life, as well as the nature and quality of future lives - one's saṃsāra . With origins in ancient India, karma is a key concept in Hinduism , Buddhism
Buddhism
, Jainism
Jainism
, Sikhism
Sikhism
, and Taoism
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Indian Philosophy
INDIAN PHILOSOPHY (Sanskrit : दर्शन or darśana) comprises the ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. The schools of Indian philosophical thought are classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on one of three alternate criteria: whether it believes the Vedas
Vedas
are a valid source of knowledge; whether the school believes in the premises of Brahman and Atman ; and whether the school believes in afterlife and Devas . There are six major schools of orthodox Hindu philosophy
Hindu philosophy
Nyaya
Nyaya
, Vaisheshika , Samkhya
Samkhya
, Yoga
Yoga
, Mīmāṃsā and Vedanta
Vedanta
, and five major heterodox schools—Jain , Buddhist , Ajivika
Ajivika
, Ajñana , and Cārvāka
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Origen
ORIGEN (/ˈɒrɪdʒən/ ; Greek : Ὠριγένης, Ōrigénēs), or ORIGEN ADAMANTIUS (Ὠριγένης Ἀδαμάντιος, Ōrigénēs Adamántios; 184/185 – 253/254), was a Greek scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria
Alexandria
. He was a prolific writer in multiple branches of theology, including textual criticism , biblical exegesis and hermeneutics , philosophical theology , preaching , and spirituality written in Greek. He was anathematised at the Second Council of Constantinople . He was one of the most influential figures in early Christian asceticism. Unlike many church fathers, he was never canonised as a saint because some groups believed that some of his teachings contradicted those attributed to the apostles, notably the Apostles Paul and John
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Logical Truth
LOGICAL TRUTH is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic , and there are different theories on its nature. A logical truth is a statement which is true , and remains true under all reinterpretations of its components other than its logical constants . It is a type of analytic statement . All of philosophical logic can be thought of as providing accounts of the nature of logical truth, as well as logical consequence . Logical truths (including tautologies ) are truths which are considered to be NECESSARILY TRUE. This is to say that they are considered to be such that they could not be untrue and no situation could arise which would cause us to reject a logical truth. It must be true in every sense of intuition, practices, and bodies of beliefs. However, it is not universally agreed that there are any statements which are necessarily true. A logical truth is considered by some philosophers to be a statement which is true in all possible worlds
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Chrysippus
CHRYSIPPUS OF SOLI (/kraɪˈsɪpəs, krɪ-/ ; Greek : Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Chrysippos ho Soleus; c. 279 – c. 206 BC ) was a Greek Stoic philosopher . He was a native of Soli, Cilicia
Cilicia
, but moved to Athens
Athens
as a young man, where he became a pupil of Cleanthes in the Stoic school. When Cleanthes died, around 230 BC, Chrysippus
Chrysippus
became the third head of the school. A prolific writer, Chrysippus
Chrysippus
expanded the fundamental doctrines of Zeno of Citium
Zeno of Citium
, the founder of the school, which earned him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism.