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Expatriate
An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country.[1] In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers, who can be companies, universities, governments, or non-governmental organisations.[2] Effectively migrant workers, they usually earn more than they would at home, and more than local employees. However, the term 'expatriate' is also used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country
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Domestic Workers
A domestic worker, domestic helper or domestic servant, also called menial, is a person who works within the employer's household. Domestic helpers perform a variety of household services for an individual or a family, from providing care for children and elderly dependents to housekeeping, including cleaning and household maintenance. Other responsibilities may include cooking, laundry and ironing, shopping for food and other household errands. Such work has always needed to be done but before the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
and the advent of labour saving devices, it was physically much harder. Some domestic helpers live within their employer's household. In some cases, the contribution and skill of servants whose work encompassed complex management tasks in large households have been highly valued. However, for the most part, domestic work, while necessary, is demanding and undervalued
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Shanghai French Concession
The Shanghai
Shanghai
French Concession (French: Concession française de Changhaï; Chinese: 上海法租界; pinyin: Shànghǎi Fǎ Zūjiè; Shanghainese: Zaonhe Fah Tsuka) was a foreign concession in Shanghai, China from 1849 until 1943, which progressively expanded in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The concession came to an end in 1943 when the Vichy French
Vichy French
government signed it over to the pro-Japanese puppet government in Nanjing. For much of the 20th century, the area covered by the former French Concession remained the premier residential and retail district of Shanghai, and was also one of the centres of Catholicism in China
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Settler
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there, often to colonize the area. Settlers are generally from a sedentary culture, as opposed to nomads who share and rotate their settlements with little or no concept of individual land ownership. Settlements are often built on land already claimed or owned by another group. Many times settlers are backed by governments or large countries. They also sometimes leave in search of religious freedom.Contents1 Historical usage1.1 Anthropological usage 1.2 Modern usage 1.3 Implications of Settlement 1.4 Livelihood 1.5 Other usages2 Causes of emigration 3 See also 4 ReferencesHistorical usage[edit]Chilean settlers in Baker River, 1935.One can witness how settlers very often occupied land previously residents to long-established peoples, designated as indigenous (also called "natives", "Aborigines" or, in the Americas, "Indians")
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Filmmaking
Filmmaking
Filmmaking
(or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking
Filmmaking
involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, casting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction, editing and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques
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Cinema Of The United States
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century. The dominant style of American cinema is classical Hollywood
Hollywood
cinema, which developed from 1917 to 1960 and characterizes most films made there to this day. While Frenchmen Auguste and Louis Lumière
Auguste and Louis Lumière
are generally credited with the birth of modern cinema,[7] American cinema quickly came to be the most dominant force in the industry as it emerged
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Jet Set
In journalism, jet set was a term for an international social group of wealthy people who travelled the world to participate in social activities unavailable to ordinary people. The term, which replaced café society, came from the lifestyle of travelling from one stylish or exotic place to another via jet plane. The term "jet set" is attributed to Igor Cassini, a reporter for the New York Journal-American
New York Journal-American
who wrote under the pen name "Cholly Knickerbocker".[1] Although jet passenger service in the 1950s was initially marketed primarily to the rich, its introduction eventually resulted in a substantial democratization of air travel
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A Moveable Feast
A Moveable Feast
A Moveable Feast
is a memoir by American author Ernest Hemingway
Ernest Hemingway
about his years as a struggling young expatriate journalist and writer in Paris
Paris
in the 1920s. The book describes the author's apprenticeship as a young writer while he was married to his first wife, Hadley Richardson. The memoir consists of various personal accounts, observations, and stories by Hemingway. He provides specific addresses of apartments, bars, cafes, and hotels --- many of which can still be found in Paris today. Among other notable persons, people featured in the book include: Sylvia Beach, Hilaire Belloc, Aleister Crowley, John Dos Passos, F. Scott and Zelda Fitzgerald, Ford Madox Ford, James Joyce, Wyndham Lewis, Pascin, Ezra Pound, Evan Shipman, Gertrude Stein, Alice B
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Modernism
Modernism
Modernism
is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Among the factors that shaped modernism were the development of modern industrial societies and the rapid growth of cities, followed then by reactions of horror to World War I. Modernism
Modernism
also rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many modernists rejected religious belief.[2][3] Modernism, in general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, philosophy, social organization, activities of daily life, and even the sciences, were becoming ill-fitted to their tasks and outdated in the new economic, social, and political environment of an emerging fully industrialized world
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French Riviera
The French Riviera (known in French as the Côte d'Azur French pronunciation: ​[kot daˈzyʁ]; Occitan: Còsta d'Azur pronounced [ˈkɔstɔ daˈzyɾ]; literal translation "Coast of Azure") is the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coastline of the southeast corner of France. There is no official boundary, but it is usually considered to extend from Cassis
Cassis
or Toulon
Toulon
or Saint-Tropez
Saint-Tropez
on the west to the France-Italy border
France-Italy border
in the east, where the Italian Riviera joins.[1][2] The coast is entirely within the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur (PACA) region of France. The principality of Monaco
Monaco
is a semi-enclave within the region, surrounded on three sides by France and fronting the Mediterranean. This coastline was one of the first modern resort areas
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Salarymen
Salaryman
Salaryman
(サラリーマン,, Sararīman, salaried man) refers to a man whose income is salary based, particularly those working for corporations. It has gradually become accepted in Anglophone countries as a noun for a Japanese white-collar worker or businessman. The term salaryman refers exclusively to men; for women the term career woman or, for lower prestige jobs, office lady is used. Japan's society prepares its people to work primarily for the good of the whole society rather than just the individual, and the salaryman is a part of that. Salarymen are expected to work long hours,[1] additional overtime, to participate in after-work leisure activities such as drinking and visiting hostess bars with colleagues, and to value work over all else. The salaryman typically enters a company after graduating college and stays with that corporation his whole career. Other popular notions surrounding salarymen include karōshi, or death from overwork
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Japanese Diaspora
The Japanese diaspora, and its individual members known as nikkei (日系) or nikkeijin (日系人), are the Japanese immigrants from Japan
Japan
and their descendants that reside in a foreign country. Immigration from Japan
Japan
was recorded as early as the 12th century to the Philippines,[39] but did not become a mass phenomenon until the Meiji period, when Japanese began to go to the Philippines[40] and the Americas.[41][42] There was also significant emigration to the territories of the Empire of Japan
Japan
during the colonial period; however, most emigrants repatriated to Japan
Japan
after the surrender of Japan
Japan
and the end of World War II
World War II
in Asia.[43] According to the Association of Nikkei and Japanese Abroad, there are about 2.5 million nikkei living in their adopted countries
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Shanghai International Settlement
The Shanghai
Shanghai
International Settlement (Chinese: 上海公共租界; pinyin: Shànghǎi Gōnggòng Zūjiè; Shanghainese: Zånhae Konkun Tsyga) originated from the 1863 merger of the British and American enclaves in Shanghai, parts of the Qing Empire
Qing Empire
held extraterritorially under the terms of a series of Unequal Treaties. The settlements were established following the defeat of the Qing army by the British in the First Opium War
First Opium War
(1839–1842). Under the terms of the Treaty of Nanking, the five treaty ports including Shanghai were opened to foreign merchants, overturning the monopoly then held by the southern port of Canton (Guangzhou) under the Canton System. The British also established a base on Hong Kong
Hong Kong
under an extensive lease
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Lausanne
Lausanne
Lausanne
(/loʊˈzæn/, French pronunciation: ​[lozan], German: Lausanne, and also Lausannen[3] Italian: Losanna, Romansh: Losanna)[4] is a city in the French-speaking part of Switzerland, and the capital and biggest city of the canton of Vaud. The city is situated on the shores of Lake Geneva
Lake Geneva
(French: Lac Léman, or simply Le Léman).[5] It faces the French town of Évian-les-Bains, with the Jura Mountains
Jura Mountains
to its north-west
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British Concession (Shanghai)
FlagHistory •  Established 1845 •  Disestablished 1863The British Concession or Settlement was a foreign enclave (a "concession") in Shanghai within the Qing Empire which existed from around 1845 until its unification with the city's American area to form the Shanghai International Settlement in 1863. History[edit] The British occupied Shanghai during the First Opium War and it was opened to foreign trade by the terms of the Treaty of Nanking. The British settlement was established by the 1845 Land Regulations, undertaken on the initiative of the intendant Gong Mujiu.[1] On 20 November 1846, a formal concession was established; this was expanded on 27 November 1848. After a proposal to make Shanghai an independent "free city" was rejected in 1862, the British area agreed to merge with the American on 21 September 1863 as the Shanghai International Settlement
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Tax Exile
A tax exile is a person who leaves a country to avoid the payment of income tax or other taxes. It is a person who already owes money to the tax authorities or wishes to avoid being liable in the future to taxation at what he or she considers high tax rates, instead choosing to reside in a foreign country or jurisdiction which has no taxes or lower tax rates. In general, there is no extradition agreement between countries which covers extradition for outstanding tax liabilities. Going into tax exile is a form of tax mitigation or avoidance
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