An expatriate (often shortened to expat) is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term often refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers, who can be companies, universities, governments, or non-governmental organisations. Effectively migrant workers, they usually earn more than they would at home, and more than local employees. However, the term 'expatriate' is also used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country. Historically, it has also referred to exiles.
1 Etymology 2 History
2.1 Types of expat community 2.2 Worldwide distribution of expats
3 Business expatriates
3.1 Recent trends
4 Literary and screen portrayals 5 See also 6 References 7 External links
Etymology The word expatriate comes from the Latin terms ex ("out of") and patria ("native country, fatherland"). Dictionary definitions for the current meaning of the word include:
'A person who lives outside their native country' (Oxford), or 'living in a foreign land' (Webster's).
These contrast with definitions of other words with a similar meaning, such as:
'A person who moves from one place to another in order to find work or better living conditions' (Oxford), or 'one that migrates: such as a: a person who moves regularly in order to find work especially in harvesting crops' (Webster's);
'A person who comes to live permanently in a foreign country' (Oxford), or 'one that immigrates: such as a: a person who comes to a country to take up permanent residence (Webster's).
The varying use of these terms for different groups of foreigners can
thus be seen as implying nuances about wealth, intended length of
stay, perceived motives for moving, nationality, and even race. This
has caused controversy. For example, a British national
working in Spain or Portugal is commonly referred to as an
'expatriate', whereas a Spanish or Portuguese national working in
Britain is referred to as an 'immigrant', thus indicating
An older usage of the word expatriate was to refer to an exile.
Alternatively, when used as a verb, expatriation can mean the act of
someone renouncing allegiance to their native country, as in the
preamble to the United States
Expatriation Act of 1868
flexpatriate, an employee who often travels internationally for business (see below); inpatriate, an employee sent from a foreign subsidiary to work in the country where a business is headquartered; rex-pat, a repeat expatriate, often someone who has chosen to return to a foreign country after completing a work assignment; sexpat, a sex tourist.
History Since antiquity, people have gone to live in foreign countries, whether as diplomats, merchants or missionaries. The numbers of such travellers grew markedly after the 15th century with the dawn of the European colonial period. Types of expat community In the 19th century, travel became easier by way of steamship or train. People could more readily choose to live for several years in a foreign country, or be sent there by employers. The table below aims to show significant examples of expatriate communities which have developed since that time: This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it.
Group Period Country of origin Destination Host country Notes
Australians and New Zealanders in London 1960s-now Australia/New Zealand London United Kingdom
Beat Generation 1950s United States Tangier Morocco
Beat Generation 1960s United States Paris France See Beat Hotel.
British retirees 1970s–now United Kingdom Costa del Sol Spain Arguably immigrants if permanent.
British retirees current United Kingdom Dordogne France Arguably immigrants if permanent.
British Raj 1721–1949 United Kingdom Princely states India Arguably colonists.
Celebrities and artists 1800s–now various Lake Geneva Switzerland
Film-makers 1910s–now Europe Los Angeles United States "Hollywood"
Jet set 1950s–1970s various
Lost Generation 1920s–30s United States Paris France See A Moveable Feast.
Modernist artists & writers 1870s–1930s various French Riviera France
Oligarchs 1990s–current Russia London United Kingdom
Salarymen current Japan
various See Japanese diaspora
Shanghai French Concession 1849–1943 France Shanghai China
Shanghai International Settlement 1863–1945 United Kingdom Shanghai China Preceded by British Concession
Shanghai International Settlement 1863–1945 United States Shanghai China Preceded by American Concession.
Tax exiles 1860s(?)–now various Monte Carlo Monaco
Third culture kids current various
various Includes 'military brats' and 'diplobrats'.
During the 1930s,
Reluctance by employees to accept foreign assignments, due to spouses also having a career. Reluctance by multinational corporations to sponsor overseas assignments, due to increased sensitivity both to costs and to local cultures. Short-term assignments becoming more common. These are assignments of several months to a year which rarely require the expatriate family to move. They can include specific projects, technology transfer, or problem-solving tasks. Self-initiated expatriation, where individuals themselves arrange a contract to work overseas, rather than being sent by a parent company to a subsidiary. An 'SIE' typically does not require as big a compensation package as does a traditional business expatriate. Also, spouses of SIEs are less reluctant to interrupt their own careers, at a time when dual-career issues are arguably shrinking the pool of willing expatriates. Local companies in emerging markets hiring Western managers directly. Commuter assignments which involve employees living in one country but travelling to another for work. This usually occurs on a weekly or biweekly rotation, with weekends spent at home. Flexpatriates, international business travellers who take a plethora of short trips to locations around the globe for negotiations, meetings, training and conferences. These assignments are usually of several weeks duration each. Their irregular nature can cause stress within a family. Increased scholarship and research. For instance, Emerald Group Publishing in 2013 launched The Journal of Global Mobility: The home of expatriate management research.
Literary and screen portrayals
Memoirs of expatriate life include those by authors such as:
Films have also been made about the subject, often dealing with issues of culture shock experienced by expatriates. Examples, grouped by host country, include:
Austria: The Third Man. Cambodia: City of Ghosts. China: The Painted Veil. France: An American in Paris, Before Sunrise, Charade, Dirty Rotten Scoundrels, A Good Year, Killing Zoe, Midnight in Paris, The Moderns, Ninotchka, To Catch a Thief. Hong Kong: Love Is a Many-Splendored Thing. India: Best Exotic Marigold Hotel, Carry On Up the Khyber, Outsourced, A Passage to India. Indonesia: The Year of Living Dangerously. Italy: Under the Tuscan Sun. Japan: Lost in Translation, Mr. Baseball. Morocco: Casablanca, Naked Lunch, The Sheltering Sky. Spain: Barcelona, Sexy Beast, Vicky Cristina Barcelona. Saudi Arabia: A Hologram for the King. Thailand: The Beach, The King and I. Uganda: The Last King of Scotland. United Kingdom: The Adventures of Barry McKenzie, Straw Dogs. United States: Borat, Coming to America, Crocodile Dundee, How To Lose Friends And Alienate People, Leningrad Cowboys Go America. Unnamed/various: Before Sunrise and sequels, Eat, Pray, Love; The Ugly American; The Wages of Fear.
Television programmes made about expatriate life include comedies, dramas, documentaries and reality series, such as:
Alien (law) Asylum seeker Clientitis Cosmopolitanism Diaspora Domicile (law) Economic migrant Emigration Émigré Ethnic enclave Existential migration Foreign born Foreign worker Global mobility Human capital flight International student Migrant worker Permanent residency Refugee Settler Statelessness
^ "expatriate Definition of expatriate in English by Oxford
Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries English. Retrieved
^ Castree, Noel; Rob Kitchen; Alisdair Rogers. A Dictionary of Human
Geography (1 ed.). Oxford University Press.
^ a b c "Definition of expatriate in English". Oxford Dictionaries.
Oxford University Press. 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
^ "Definition of expatriate". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. 2017.
Retrieved 10 February 2017.
^ "Definition of migrant in English:". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford
University Press. 2017. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
^ "Definition of migrant". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. 2017.
Retrieved 10 February 2017.
^ "Definition of immigrant in English". Oxford University Press.
Retrieved 10 February 2017.
^ "Definition of immigrant". Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. 2017.
Retrieved 10 February 2017.
^ Koutonin, Mawuna Remarque (13 March 2015). "Why are white people
expats when the rest of us are immigrants?". The Guardian. Guardian
Media Group. Retrieved 17 April 2015.
^ DeWolf, Christopher (29 December 2014). "In Hong Kong, Just Who Is
an Expat, Anyway?". The Wall Street Journal. News Corp. Retrieved 10
^ Tulshyan, Ruchika (2 April 2015). "'Expat' Under Fire: The Word Is
Not Racist, Argues A Global Nomad (subscription required)". The Wall
Street Journal. News Corp. Retrieved 10 February 2017.
^ United States Revised Statutes, Sec. 1999.
^ "Definition of flexpatriate". Financial Times: lexicon. The Nikkei.
Retrieved 22 February 2017.
^ Reiche, Sebastian (22 January 2014). "Inpatriates: On the Term and
Academic Findings". IESE Business School. University of Navarra.
Retrieved 21 February 2017.
^ Drew, Kevin (5 October 2004). "Rex-patriate games: Film takes
humorous look at moving - and staying - abroad". CNN. Time
Warner. Missing or empty url= (help); access-date= requires
^ McGeown, Kate (14 December 2006). "Hard lessons in expat paradise".
BBC News. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 22 February
^ Wollaston, Sam (6 January 2015). "Rich, Russian and Living in London
review: uber-richskis in diamond-encrusted cars". The Guardian.
Guardian Media Group. Retrieved 24 February 2017.
^ Siegfried Grundmann, The Einstein Dossiers: Science and
Politics—Einstein's Berlin Period, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York:
Springer Verlag (2004), p. 294. Translated by Ann M. Hentschel.
ISBN 3-540-25661-X. Retrieved 4 December 2011.
Oskar Maria Graf
Look up expatriate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Expatriate.