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Eomyidae
†Apeomyinae †Eomyinae †Yoderimyinae EOMYIDAE is a family of extinct rodents from North America
North America
and Eurasia
Eurasia
related to modern day pocket gophers and kangaroo rats . They are known from the Middle Eocene to the Late Miocene in North America and from the Late Eocene
Late Eocene
to the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
in Eurasia. Eomyids were generally small, but occasionally large, and tended to be squirrel-like in form and habits. The family includes the earliest known gliding rodent, Eomys
Eomys
quercyi
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Pocket Gopher
Cratogeomys Geomys Orthogeomys Pappogeomys Thomomys Zygogeomys POCKET GOPHERS, commonly referred to as GOPHERS, are burrowing rodents of the family Geomyidae. About 35 species of gophers live in Central and North America. They are commonly known for their extensive tunneling activities. Gophers are endemic to North and Central America. The name "pocket gopher" on its own may be used to refer to any of a number of genera within the family . These are the "true" gophers, but several ground squirrels in the distantly related family Sciuridae
Sciuridae
are often called gophers, as well. The origin of the word "gopher" is uncertain. French gaufre, meaning waffle , has been suggested, on account of the gopher's tunnels resembling the honeycomb-like pattern of holes in a waffle. Another suggestion is that the word is of Muskogean origin
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Heteromyidae
Dipodomyinae Heteromyinae Perognathinae HETEROMYIDAE is a family of rodents consisting of kangaroo rats , kangaroo mice , pocket mice and spiny pocket mice . Most HETEROMYIDS live in complex burrows within the deserts and grasslands of western North America
North America
, though species within the genus Heteromys are also found in forests and their range extends down as far as northern South America . They feed mostly on seeds and other plant parts, which they carry in their fur-lined cheek pouches to their burrows. Although they are very different in physical appearance, the closest relatives of the heteromyids are pocket gophers in the family Geomyidae
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Precambrian
The PRECAMBRIAN (or PRE-CAMBRIAN, sometimes abbreviated PЄ, or CRYPTOZOIC) is the earliest part of Earth\'s history , set before the current Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
Eon. The Precambrian
Precambrian
is so named because it preceded the Cambrian
Cambrian
, the first period of the Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
eon, which is named after Cambria , the Latinised name for Wales
Wales
, where rocks from this age were first studied. The Precambrian
Precambrian
accounts for 88% of the Earth's geologic time. The Precambrian
Precambrian
(colored green in the timeline figure) is a supereon that is subdivided into three eons (Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic) of the geologic time scale
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Eurasia
EURASIA /jʊˈreɪʒə/ is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia
Asia
. The term is a portmanteau of its constituent continents ( Europe
Europe
thus, in some parts of the world, Eurasia
Eurasia
is recognized as the largest of five or six continents. In geology, Eurasia
Eurasia
is often considered as a single rigid megablock. However, the rigidity of Eurasia
Eurasia
is debated based on the paleomagnet data. Eurasia
Eurasia
covers around 55,000,000 square kilometres (21,000,000 sq mi), or around 36.2% of the Earth
Earth
's total land area. The landmass contains around 5.0 billion people, equating to approximately 70% of the human population . Humans first settled in Eurasia
Eurasia
between 60,000 and 125,000 years ago
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North America
NORTH AMERICA is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere
Western Hemisphere
; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas
Americas
. It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean
Arctic Ocean
, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
, and to the southeast by South America
South America
and the Caribbean Sea
Caribbean Sea
. North America
North America
covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface
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Family (biology)
In biological classification , FAMILY (Latin : familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks ; it is classified between order and genus . A family may be divided into subfamilies , which are intermediate ranks above the rank of genus . In vernacular usage , a family may be named after one of its common members; for example, walnuts and hickory trees belong to the family Juglandaceae , commonly known as the walnut family. What does or does not belong to a family—or whether a described family should be recognized at all—are proposed and determined by practicing taxonomists. There are no hard rules for describing or recognizing a family, or any taxa. Taxonomists often take different positions about descriptions of taxa, and there may be no broad consensus across the scientific community for some time
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Extinct
In biology and ecology , EXTINCTION is the end of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon ), normally a species . The moment of extinction is generally considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point. Because a species' potential range may be very large, determining this moment is difficult, and is usually done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa , where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" (typically in the fossil record ) after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that ever lived on Earth are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described
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Late Miocene
The LATE MIOCENE (also known as UPPER MIOCENE) is a sub-epoch of the Miocene
Miocene
Epoch made up of two stages . The Tortonian and Messinian stages comprise the Late Miocene
Miocene
sub-epoch. The sub-epoch lasted from 11.608 ± 0.005 Ma (million years ago) to 5.332 ± 0.005 Ma
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Late Eocene
The EOCENE ( /ˈiːəˌsiːn, ˈiːoʊ-/ ) Epoch, lasting from 56 to 33.9 million years ago, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. The Eocene
Eocene
spans the time from the end of the Paleocene
Paleocene
Epoch to the beginning of the Oligocene
Oligocene
Epoch. The start of the Eocene
Eocene
is marked by a brief period in which the concentration of the carbon isotope 13C in the atmosphere was exceptionally low in comparison with the more common isotope 12C . The end is set at a major extinction event called the Grande Coupure (the "Great Break" in continuity) or the Eocene– Oligocene
Oligocene
extinction event , which may be related to the impact of one or more large bolides in Siberia and in what is now Chesapeake Bay
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Eutheria
EUTHERIA (/juːˈθɪəriə/ ; from Greek εὐ-, eu- "true/good" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic . Except for the Virginia opossum , from North America, which is a metatherian , all post- Miocene mammals indigenous to Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America north of Mexico are eutherians. Extant eutherians, their last common ancestor, and all extinct descendants of that ancestor are members of Placentalia . Eutherians are distinguished from noneutherians by various phenotypic traits of the feet, ankles, jaws and teeth. All extant eutherians lack epipubic bones , which are present in all other living mammals (marsupials and monotremes ). This allows for expansion of the abdomen during pregnancy
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Euarchontoglires
EUARCHONTOGLIRES (synonymous with SUPRAPRIMATES) is a clade and a superorder of mammals , the living members of which belong to one of the five following groups: rodents , lagomorphs , treeshrews , colugos and primates . CONTENTS * 1 Evolutionary relationships * 2 Organization * 3 References * 4 Further reading EVOLUTIONARY RELATIONSHIPSThe Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
clade is based on DNA
DNA
sequence analyses and retrotransposon markers that combine the clades Glires (Rodentia + Lagomorpha) and Euarchonta ( Scandentia + Primates
Primates
+ Dermoptera). So far, few if any anatomical features that support Euarchontoglires
Euarchontoglires
have been recognized, nor does any strong evidence from anatomy support alternative hypotheses
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Special
SPECIAL or SPECIALS may refer to: CONTENTS * 1 Music * 2 Film and television * 3 Other uses * 4 See also MUSIC * Special (album) , a 1992 album by Vesta Williams * "Special" (Garbage song) , 1998 * "Special" (Mew song) , 2005 * "Special" (Stephen Lynch song) , 2000 * The Specials
The Specials
, a British band * "Special", a song by Violent Femmes on The Blind Leading the Naked * "Special", a song on
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International Standard Book Number
The INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book , a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit STANDARD BOOK NUMBERING (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero)
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Pleistocene
The PLEISTOCENE ( /ˈplaɪstəˌsiːn, -toʊ-/ , often colloquially referred to as the ICE AGE) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations . The end of the Pleistocene corresponds with the end of the last glacial period and also with the end of the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
age used in archaeology . The Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is the first epoch of the Quaternary Period or sixth epoch of the Cenozoic Era . In the ICS timescale, the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
is divided into four stages or ages , the Gelasian , Calabrian , Ionian and Tarantian . All of these stages were defined in southern Europe . In addition to this international subdivision, various regional subdivisions are often used
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