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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
(which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller named islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight
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ISO 3166-2
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1 . The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 2: Country subdivision code. It was first published in 1998. The purpose of ISO 3166-2 is to establish an international standard of short and unique alphanumeric codes to represent the relevant administrative divisions and dependent territories of all countries in a more convenient and less ambiguous form than their full names
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ISO 3166
ISO 3166 is a standard published by the International Organization for Standardization
Standardization
(ISO) that defines codes for the names of countries , dependent territories , special areas of geographical interest, and their principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states ). The official name of the standard is Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions. CONTENTS * 1 Parts * 2 Editions * 3 ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency * 3.1 Members * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links PARTSIt consists of three parts: * ISO 3166-1 , Codes for the representation of names of countries and their subdivisions – Part 1: Country
Country
codes, defines codes for the names of countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest
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Gross Value Added
GROSS VALUE ADDED (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy , in economics . In national accounts GVA is output minus intermediate consumption ; it is a balancing item of the national accounts' production account . RELATIONSHIP TO GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCTGVA is linked as a measurement to gross domestic product (gdp), as both are measures of output
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Right- And Left-hand Traffic
The terms RIGHT-HAND TRAFFIC (RHT) AND LEFT-HAND TRAFFIC (LHT) refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic , unless otherwise directed, to keep to the right or to the left side of the road, respectively. This is so fundamental to traffic flow that it is sometimes referred to as the RULE OF THE ROAD. 163 countries and territories use RHT, with the remaining 76 countries and territories using LHT . Countries that use LHT account for about a sixth of the world's area and a quarter of its roads. In the early 1900s some countries including Canada
Canada
, Spain
Spain
, and Brazil had different rules in different parts of the country. During the 1900s many countries standardised within their jurisdictions, and changed from LHT to RHT, mostly to conform with regional custom. In 1919, 104 of the world's territories were LHT and an equal number were RHT. From 1919 to 1986, 34 of the LHT territories switched to RHT
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Border
BORDERS are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions , such as governments , sovereign states , federated states , and other subnational entities . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the creation of these agreements is called boundary delimitation . Some borders—such as a state's internal administrative border, or inter-state borders within the Schengen Area —are often open and completely unguarded. Other borders are partially or fully controlled, and may be crossed legally only at designated border checkpoints and border zones may be controlled. Borders may even foster the setting up of buffer zones . A difference has also been established in academic scholarship between BORDER and FRONTIER , the latter denoting a state of mind rather than state boundaries
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Sovereign State
A SOVEREIGN STATE is, in international law , a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law
International law
defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government , and the capacity to enter into relations with other sovereign states . It is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state . The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact . While according to the declarative theory of statehood, a sovereign state can exist without being recognised by other sovereign states , unrecognised states will often find it hard to exercise full treaty-making powers and engage in diplomatic relations with other sovereign states
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Patron Saint
A PATRON SAINT, PATRONESS SAINT, PATRON HALLOW or HEAVENLY PROTECTOR is a saint who in Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholicism
, Anglicanism
Anglicanism
, Eastern Orthodoxy , or particular branches of Islam
Islam
, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person. Catholics believe that patron saints, having already transcended to the metaphysical, are able to intercede effectively for the needs of their special charges. Historically, a similar practice has also occurred in many Islamic lands. Although Islam
Islam
has no codified doctrine of patronage on the part of saints , it has nevertheless been an important part of both Sunni and Shia Islamic tradition that particularly important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires , nations , cities , towns , and villages
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP, or an ETHNICITY, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry , language , society , culture or nation . Ethnicity is usually an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion)
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Greenwich Mean Time
GREENWICH MEAN TIME (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich
Greenwich
, London
London
. GMT was formerly used as the international civil time standard, now superseded in that function by Coordinated Universal Time
Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) . Today GMT is considered equivalent to UTC for UK civil purposes (but this is not formalised) and for navigation is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); these two meanings can differ by up to 0.9 s. Consequently, the term GMT should not be used for precise purposes
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ISO 4217
ISO 4217
ISO 4217
is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables: * Table A.1 – Current currency & funds code list * Table A.2 – Current funds codes * Table A.3 – List of codes for historic denominations of currencies "> A list of exchange rates for various base currencies given by a money changer in Thailand, with the Thailand
Thailand
Baht as the counter (or quote) currency. Note the Korean currency code should be KRW The first two letters of the code are the two letters of the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes (which are also used as the basis for national top-level domains on the Internet
Internet
) and the third is usually the initial of the currency itself
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Anno Domini
The terms ANNO DOMINI (AD) and BEFORE CHRIST (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars . The term anno Domini is Medieval Latin
Medieval Latin
and means "in the year of the Lord", but is often presented using "our Lord" instead of "the Lord", taken from the full original phrase "anno Domini nostri Jesu Christi", which translates to "in the year of our Lord Jesus
Jesus
Christ". This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus of Nazareth
Jesus of Nazareth
, with AD counting years from the start of this epoch , and BC denoting years before the start of the era. There is no year zero in this scheme, so the year AD 1 immediately follows the year 1 BC. This dating system was devised in 525 by Dionysius Exiguus of Scythia Minor , but was not widely used until after 800
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British Summer Time
During BRITISH SUMMER TIME (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC +0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less. BST begins at 01:00 GMT on the last Sunday of March and ends at 01:00 GMT (02:00 BST) on the last Sunday of October. Since 22 October 1995 the starting and finishing times of daylight saving time across the European Union
European Union
have been aligned – for instance Central European Summer Time begins and ends on the same Sundays at exactly the same time (that is, 02:00 CET , which is 01:00 GMT). Between 1972 and 1995, BST began and ended at 02:00 GMT on the third Sunday in March (or second Sunday when Easter fell on the third) and fourth Sunday in October
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Telephone Numbers In The United Kingdom
TELEPHONE NUMBERS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM are administered by the UK government 's Office of Communications ( Ofcom ). For this purpose Ofcom established a telephone numbering plan , known as the National Telephone Numbering Plan, which is the system for assigning telephone numbers to subscriber stations
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Coordinated Universal Time
COORDINATED UNIVERSAL TIME abbreviated to UTC, is the primary time standard by which the world regulates clocks and time. It is within about 1 second of mean solar time at 0° longitude ; it does not observe daylight saving time . For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with Greenwich Mean Time
Greenwich Mean Time
(GMT), but GMT
GMT
is no longer precisely defined by the scientific community. The first Coordinated Universal Time was informally adopted on 1 January 1960, but the official abbreviation of UTC and the official English name of Coordinated Universal Time (along with the French equivalent), was not adopted until 1967. The system was adjusted several times, including a brief period where time coordination radio signals broadcast both UTC and "Stepped Atomic Time
Time
(SAT)" until a new UTC was adopted in 1970 and implemented in 1972
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Daylight Saving Time
DAYLIGHT SAVING TIME (abbreviated DST), commonly referred to as DAYLIGHT SAVINGS TIME in speech, and known as SUMMER TIME in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times. Typically, regions that use daylight saving time adjust clocks forward one hour close to the start of spring and adjust them backward in the autumn to standard time. George Hudson proposed the idea of daylight saving in 1895. The German Empire
German Empire
and Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
organized the first nationwide implementation, starting on April 30, 1916. Many countries have used it at various times since then, particularly since the energy crisis of the 1970s . DST is generally not observed near the equator, where sunrise times do not vary enough to justify it
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