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England
ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom . It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain (which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly , and the Isle of Wight . The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language , the Anglican Church , and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations
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Flag Of England
The FLAG OF ENGLAND is derived from St George\'s Cross (heraldic blazon : Argent, a cross gules). The association of the red cross as an emblem of England
England
can be traced back to the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
, and it was used as a component in the design of the Union Flag
Union Flag
in 1606. Since the 1990s it has been in increasingly wide use, particularly at national sporting events. CONTENTS * 1 Origins * 2 Derived flags * 2.1 Union Flag
Union Flag
* 2.2 City of London
City of London
* 2.3 Royal Navy
Royal Navy
* 3 Contemporary use * 3.1 Church of England
Church of England
* 3.2 Sporting events * 3.3 Queen\'s 90th Birthday Celebration * 3.4 English nationalism * 4 Outside England
England
* 4.1 Canada * 4.2 Channel Islands * 4.3 Elsewhere * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links ORIGINS Further information: Saint George\'s Cross and Flag of Genoa
Flag of Genoa
Saint George
Saint George
seen in the act of slaying the dragon. He is depicted wearing a jupon displaying the St George\'s Cross . Paolo Uccello (c. 1460) Illustration of the St. George's Cross used alongside the Royal Standard by Wat Tyler
Wat Tyler
's rebels. Froissart\'s Chronicles BL Royal 18 E.I, fol. 165v, c
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Proposals For A National Anthem For England
The national anthem of England is usually taken to be the same as that of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as a whole—" God Save the Queen ", but some feel that England should have its own distinct anthem, and there are a number of songs which may fulfil a similar role. Alternatives to "God Save the Queen" have been used for England teams at sporting events. There have been discussions on the subject in the UK Parliament . Several candidate songs have been discussed, including "Jerusalem ", and " Land of Hope and Glory ". CONTENTS* 1 Anthems currently used at sporting events * 1.1 Multi-sport events * 1.2 Single sport events * 2 Proposals for an English anthem * 3 Anthems that have been put forward * 3.1 "Jerusalem" * 3.2 "Land of Hope and Glory" * 3.3 Other patriotic songs * 4 References ANTHEMS CURRENTLY USED AT SPORTING EVENTSAt present, the following anthems are used: MULTI-SPORT EVENTS * At the Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
, Team England has used "Jerusalem " as the victory anthem since 2010. The Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games
Council for England conducted a poll of members of the public which decided the anthem for the 2010 Commonwealth Games
Commonwealth Games

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God Save The Queen
"GOD SAVE THE QUEEN" (alternatively "GOD SAVE THE KING", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms , their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies . The author of the tune is unknown and it may originate in plainchant , but a 1619 attribution to John Bull is sometimes made. It is the national anthem of the United Kingdom and one of two national anthems used by New Zealand since 1977, as well as for several of the UK's territories that have their own additional local anthem. It is also the royal anthem – played specifically in the presence of the monarch – of all the aforementioned countries, as well as Australia (since 1984), Canada (since 1980), Barbados and Tuvalu . In countries not previously part of the British Empire , the tune of "God Save the Queen" has provided the basis for various patriotic songs, though still generally connected with royal ceremony. In the United States , the melody is used for the patriotic song "My Country, \'Tis of Thee ". The melody is also used for the national anthem of Liechtenstein , " Oben am jungen Rhein ". Beyond its first verse, which is consistent, "God Save the Queen/King" has many historic and extant versions
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Europe
EUROPE —a concept dating back to classical antiquity — is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia . Europe is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The eastern boundary with Asia is an arbitrary historical and social construct , as there is no clear physical and geographical separation between them. The primarily physiographic term "continent" as applied to Europe also incorporates cultural and political elements whose discontinuities and lines of demarcation are not reflected by the continent's current overland boundaries with Asia. Europe is considered by historical convention as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains , the Ural River , the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits . Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 740 million (about 11% of world population ) as of 2015
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United Kingdom
The UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND, commonly known as the UNITED KINGDOM (UK) or BRITAIN, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland , the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
includes the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland
Ireland
and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is the only part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
that shares a land border with another sovereign state‍—‌the Republic of Ireland
Ireland
. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
, with the North Sea to its east, the English Channel to its south and the Celtic Sea to its south-south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world . The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres (93,600 sq mi), the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe
Europe
. It is also the 21st-most populous country , with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants
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Country Of The United Kingdom
The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(UK) comprises four countries : England
England
, Scotland , Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
. Within the United Kingdom, a unitary sovereign state , Northern Ireland, Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
have gained a degree of autonomy through the process of devolution . The UK Parliament and British Government deal with all _reserved matters _ for Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
and Scotland and all _non-transferred matters_ for Wales, but not in general matters that have been devolved to the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Assembly , Scottish Parliament
Scottish Parliament
and National Assembly for Wales
Wales
. Additionally, devolution in Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
is conditional on co-operation between the Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Executive and the Government of Ireland (see North/South Ministerial Council ) and the British Government consults with the Government of Ireland to reach agreement on some non-devolved matters for Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
(see British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference )
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London
LONDON /ˈlʌndən/ ( listen ) is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom . Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain , London has been a major settlement for two millennia. It was founded by the Romans , who named it _ Londinium _. London's ancient core, the City of London
City of London
, largely retains its 1.12-square-mile (2.9 km2) medieval boundaries. Since at least the 19th century, "London" has also referred to the metropolis around this core, historically split between Middlesex , Essex , Surrey , Kent , and Hertfordshire , which today largely makes up Greater London
Greater London
, a region governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly . London is a leading global city in the arts, commerce, education, entertainment, fashion, finance, healthcare, media, professional services, research and development, tourism, and transportation. It is crowned as the world's largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world . London is a world cultural capital. It is the world's most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the world\'s largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic
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English Language
ENGLISH /ˈɪŋɡlɪʃ/ (_ listen ) is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca _. Named after the Angles , one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to England , it ultimately derives its name from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Baltic Sea . It is closely related to the Frisian languages , but its vocabulary has been significantly influenced by other Germanic languages particularly Norse (a North Germanic language ), as well as by Latin and Romance languages , particularly French . English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are called Old English . Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England , and was a period in which the language was influenced by French. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible , and the start of the Great Vowel Shift . Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire , modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries
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Cornish Language
CORNISH (_Kernowek_) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language . The last first language native speakers died in the late 18th century . There are currently efforts being made to revive the language which is considered by some people to be an important part of Cornish identity, culture and heritage. Cornish is currently a recognised minority language of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages , and has a growing number of second language speakers. Along with Welsh and Breton , Cornish is descended directly from the Common Brittonic language spoken throughout much of Britain before the English language came to dominate. It was the main language of Cornwall
Cornwall
for centuries until it was pushed westwards by English, maintaining close links with its sister language Breton with which it was mutually intelligible until well into the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
. Cornish continued to function as a common community language in parts of Cornwall
Cornwall
until the late 18th century, and continued to be spoken in the home by some families into the 19th and possibly 20th centuries, overlapping the beginning of revival efforts
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Ethnic Groups
An ETHNIC GROUP or ETHNICITY is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestral , language , social , cultural or national experiences . Ethnicity is often an inherited status based on the society in which one lives. In some cases, it can be adopted if a person moves into another society. Membership of an ethnic group tends to be defined by a shared cultural heritage , ancestry , origin myth , history , homeland , language or dialect , symbolic systems such as religion , mythology and ritual , cuisine , dressing style, art , and physical appearance . Ethnic groups, derived from the same historical founder population , often continue to speak related languages and share a similar gene pool . By way of language shift , acculturation , adoption and religious conversion , it is sometimes possible for individuals or groups to leave one ethnic group and become part of another (except for ethnic groups emphasizing racial purity as a key membership criterion). Ethnicity is often used synonymously with ambiguous terms such as nation or people . In English, it can also have the connotation of something exotic (cf. " White ethnic ", "ethnic restaurant", etc.), generally related to cultures of more recent immigrants, who arrived after the founding population of an area was established
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United Kingdom Census 2011
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years. The 2011 CENSUS was held in all countries of the UK on 27 March 2011. It was the first UK census which could be completed online via the Internet . The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is responsible for the census in England and Wales , the General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) is responsible for the census in Scotland , and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) is responsible for the census in Northern Ireland . The Office for National Statistics is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority , a non-ministerial department formed in 2008 and which reports directly to Parliament. ONS is the UK Government's single largest statistical producer of independent statistics on the UK's economy and society, used to assist the planning and allocation of resources, policy-making and decision-making. ONS designs, manages and runs the census in England and Wales. In its capacity as the national statistics office for the United Kingdom, ONS also compiles and releases census tables for the United Kingdom when the data from England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland are complete
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White British
WHITE BRITISH is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census . As a result of the 2011 census the White British population stood at 51,736,290 (81.9% of the UK total population). (NB. This total includes the population estimate for Northern Ireland , where only the term 'White' is used in ethnic classification. National identity is listed separately in NI, where 40% classified themselves as British, making up a significant portion of the population, along with those specifying their national identity as Irish. ) CONTENTS * 1 Census classifications * 2 Demographics * 2.1 Population and distribution * 2.2 Employment * 2.3 Religion * 2.4 Households * 3 See also * 4 References CENSUS CLASSIFICATIONSFor 2011, in England and Wales, the White British self-classification option included the subcategories of: White English , White Welsh , White Scottish and White Northern Irish. For the 2011 census in Scotland, the White British category was broken down into two different categories: White Scottish and Other White British. For the 2011 census in Northern Ireland, the White British classification did not appear, the only choice being ‘White’. There were calls for the 2011 national census in England and Wales to include an extra subcategory so people could identify their ethnic group as Cornish
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British Asian
Primary language: English Ancestral languages: Hindi , Urdu , Sylheti , Bengali , Gujarati , Punjabi , Tamil and others RELIGION Chiefly Hinduism , Islam and Sikhism Christian , Zoroastrian , Buddhist , Jain and Atheist minorities BRITISH ASIANS (also referred as SOUTH ASIANS IN THE UNITED KINGDOM, ASIAN BRITISH PEOPLE or ASIAN BRITONS) are persons of Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom. In British English usage, the term _Asians_ usually includes British originating only from South Asia . Prior to the formation of the United Kingdom , immigration of South Asian ethnic groups to England began with the arrival of the East India Company to the Indian subcontinent . This continued during the British Raj and increased in volume after the independence of India , Pakistan , Bangladesh and Sri Lanka from British rule, chiefly for education and economic pursuits. A major influx of Asian immigrants, mostly Hindus and Muslims , also took place following the expulsion of Indian communities (then holders of British passports ) from Uganda
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Black British
BLACK BRITISH are British people
British people
of Black and African origins or heritage, including those of African-Caribbean (sometimes called " Afro-Caribbean") background, and may include people with mixed ancestry. The term has been used from the 1950s, mainly to refer to Black people
Black people
from former British colonies in the West Indies (i.e., the New Commonwealth) and Africa, who are residents of the United Kingdom and who consider themselves British. The term "black " has historically had a number of applications as a racial and political label, and may be used in a wider sociopolitical context to encompass a broader range of non-European ethnic minority populations in Britain. This is a controversial definition. "Black British" is one of various self-designation entries used in official UK ethnicity classifications . Black residents constituted around 3 per cent of the United Kingdom's population in 2011. The figures have increased from just under 1.15 million residents in 2001, or 2 per cent of the population, to just over 1.9 million in 2011. Over 95% of Black British
Black British
live in England, particularly in England's larger urban areas, with over a million Black British
Black British
living in Greater London
Greater London
alone
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