HOME
The Info List - England


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

ENGLAND is a country that is part of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
. It shares land borders with Scotland
Scotland
to the north and Wales
Wales
to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England
England
and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England
England
is separated from continental Europe
Europe
by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel
English Channel
to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain
Great Britain
(which lies in the North Atlantic ) in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller named islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight .

The area now called England
England
was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles
Angles
, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England
England
became a unified state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery , which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church , and English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation.

England's terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north (for example, the mountainous Lake District
Lake District
, and the Pennines ) and in the west (for example, Dartmoor and the Shropshire Hills ). The capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the European Union
European Union
. England's population of over 53 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom, largely concentrated around London, the South East , and conurbations in the Midlands , the North West , the North East , and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.

The Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
—which after 1535 included Wales—ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland
Scotland
to create the Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
. In 1801, Great Britain
Great Britain
was united with the Kingdom of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland
Ireland
. In 1922 the Irish Free State
Irish Free State
seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland.

CONTENTS

* 1 Toponymy

* 2 History

* 2.1 Prehistory and antiquity * 2.2 Middle Ages
Middle Ages
* 2.3 Early Modern * 2.4 Late Modern and contemporary

* 3 Governance

* 3.1 Politics * 3.2 Law * 3.3 Regions, counties, and districts

* 4 Geography

* 4.1 Landscape and rivers * 4.2 Climate * 4.3 Major conurbations

* 5 Economy

* 5.1 Science and technology * 5.2 Transport

* 6 Healthcare

* 7 Demography

* 7.1 Population * 7.2 Language * 7.3 Religion

* 8 Education

* 9 Culture

* 9.1 Architecture * 9.2 Folklore * 9.3 Cuisine * 9.4 Visual arts * 9.5 Literature, poetry and philosophy * 9.6 Performing arts * 9.7 Cinema * 9.8 Museums, libraries, and galleries

* 10 Sports * 11 National symbols * 12 See also * 13 Notes

* 14 References

* 14.1 Bibliography

* 15 External links

TOPONYMY

See also: Toponymy of England

The name "England" is derived from the Old English
Old English
name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles
Angles
". The Angles
Angles
were one of the Germanic tribes
Germanic tribes
that settled in Great Britain
Great Britain
during the Early Middle Ages . The Angles
Angles
came from the Anglia (Angeln) peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area (present-day German state of Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
) of the Baltic Sea
Baltic Sea
. The earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late ninth century translation into Old English
Old English
of Bede
Bede
's Ecclesiastical History of the English People
Ecclesiastical History of the English People
. The term was then used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", and it included English people
English people
in what is now south-east Scotland
Scotland
but was then part of the English kingdom of Northumbria
Northumbria
. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
recorded that the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years later the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense. According to the Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
, its modern spelling was first used in 1538.

The earliest attested reference to the Angles
Angles
occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus
Tacitus
, Germania , in which the Latin
Latin
word Anglii is used. The etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars; it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln
Angeln
peninsula, an angular shape. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe that was less significant than others, such as the Saxons
Saxons
, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons
Saxons
to distinguish them from continental Saxons
Saxons
(Eald-Seaxe) of Old Saxony between Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic , another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England (Sasunn); similarly, the Welsh name for the English language
English language
is "Saesneg".

An alternative name for England
England
is Albion
Albion
. The name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus , specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo : "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules
Pillars of Hercules
is the ocean that flows round the earth. In it are two very large islands called Britannia; these are Albion
Albion
and Ierne ". But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo- Aristotle
Aristotle
, i.e. it was written later in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion
Albion
(Ἀλβίων) or insula Albionum has two possible origins. It either derives from a cognate of the Latin
Latin
albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover (the only part of Britain visible from the European mainland) or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus , that is attested through Avienus ' Ora Maritima to which the former presumably served as a source. Albion
Albion
is now applied to England
England
in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England
England
is Loegria , related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend
Arthurian legend
.

HISTORY

Main article: History of England

PREHISTORY AND ANTIQUITY

Main article: Prehistoric Britain Stonehenge
Stonehenge
, a Neolithic monument

The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England
England
was that of Homo antecessor
Homo antecessor
, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago. Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years. After the last ice age only large mammals such as mammoths , bison and woolly rhinoceros remained. Roughly 11,000 years ago, when the ice sheets began to recede, humans repopulated the area; genetic research suggests they came from the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula . The sea level was lower than now and Britain was connected by land bridge to Ireland
Ireland
and Eurasia
Eurasia
. As the seas rose, it was separated from Ireland
Ireland
10,000 years ago and from Eurasia
Eurasia
two millennia later.

The Beaker culture
Beaker culture
arrived around 2,500 BC, introducing drinking and food vessels constructed from clay, as well as vessels used as reduction pots to smelt copper ores. It was during this time that major Neolithic
Neolithic
monuments such as Stonehenge
Stonehenge
and Avebury were constructed. By heating together tin and copper, which were in abundance in the area, the Beaker culture
Beaker culture
people made bronze , and later iron from iron ores. The development of iron smelting allowed the construction of better ploughs , advancing agriculture (for instance, with Celtic fields ), as well as the production of more effective weapons. Boudica
Boudica
led an uprising against the Roman Empire

During the Iron Age , Celtic culture , deriving from the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures , arrived from Central Europe. Brythonic was the spoken language during this time. Society was tribal; according to Ptolemy
Ptolemy
's Geographia
Geographia
there were around 20 tribes in the area. Earlier divisions are unknown because the Britons were not literate. Like other regions on the edge of the Empire, Britain had long enjoyed trading links with the Romans. Julius Caesar of the Roman Republic attempted to invade twice in 55 BC; although largely unsuccessful, he managed to set up a client king from the Trinovantes .

The Romans invaded Britain in 43 AD during the reign of Emperor Claudius
Claudius
, subsequently conquering much of Britain , and the area was incorporated into the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
as Britannia province
Britannia province
. The best-known of the native tribes who attempted to resist were the Catuvellauni led by Caratacus
Caratacus
. Later, an uprising led by Boudica
Boudica
, Queen of the Iceni
Iceni
, ended with Boudica's suicide following her defeat at the Battle of Watling Street . This era saw a Greco-Roman culture prevail with the introduction of Roman law , Roman architecture
Roman architecture
, aqueducts , sewers , many agricultural items and silk. In the 3rd century, Emperor Septimius Severus
Septimius Severus
died at Eboracum (now York
York
), where Constantine was subsequently proclaimed emperor.

There is debate about when Christianity was first introduced; it was no later than the 4th century, probably much earlier. According to Bede
Bede
, missionaries were sent from Rome by Eleutherius at the request of the chieftain Lucius of Britain in 180 AD, to settle differences as to Eastern and Western ceremonials, which were disturbing the church. There are traditions linked to Glastonbury claiming an introduction through Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea
, while others claim through Lucius of Britain . By 410, during the Decline of the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
, Britain was left exposed by the end of Roman rule in Britain and the withdrawal of Roman army units, to defend the frontiers in continental Europe
Europe
and partake in civil wars. Celtic Christian monastic and missionary movements flourished: Patrick (5th-century Ireland) and in the 6th century Brendan (Clonfert), Comgall (Bangor), David (Wales), Aiden (Lindisfarne) and Columba (Iona). This period of Christianity was influenced by ancient Celtic culture in its sensibilities, polity, practices and theology. Local "congregations" were centred in the monastic community and monastic leaders were more like chieftains, as peers, rather than in the more hierarchical system of the Roman-dominated church.

MIDDLE AGES

Main article: England in the Middle Ages Replica of the 7th-century ceremonial Sutton Hoo helmet
Sutton Hoo helmet
from the Kingdom of East Anglia

Roman military withdrawals left Britain open to invasion by pagan, seafaring warriors from north-western continental Europe, chiefly the Saxons, Angles
Angles
, Jutes and Frisians who had long raided the coasts of the Roman province and began to settle, initially in the eastern part of the country. Their advance was contained for some decades after the Britons' victory at the Battle of Mount Badon , but subsequently resumed, over-running the fertile lowlands of Britain and reducing the area under Brythonic control to a series of separate enclaves in the more rugged country to the west by the end of the 6th century. Contemporary texts describing this period are extremely scarce, giving rise to its description as a Dark Age
Dark Age
. The nature and progression of the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain
is consequently subject to considerable disagreement. Roman-dominated Christianity had in general disappeared from the conquered territories, but was reintroduced by missionaries from Rome led by Augustine from 597 onwards. Disputes between the Roman- and Celtic-dominated forms of Christianity ended in victory for the Roman tradition at the Council of Whitby (664), which was ostensibly about haircuts and the date of Easter, but more significantly, about the differences in Roman and Celtic forms of authority, theology, and practice (Lehane).

During the settlement period the lands ruled by the incomers seem to have been fragmented into numerous tribal territories, but by the 7th century, when substantial evidence of the situation again becomes available, these had coalesced into roughly a dozen kingdoms including Northumbria
Northumbria
, Mercia , Wessex
Wessex
, East Anglia , Essex
Essex
, Kent
Kent
and Sussex . Over the following centuries this process of political consolidation continued. The 7th century saw a struggle for hegemony between Northumbria
Northumbria
and Mercia, which in the 8th century gave way to Mercian preeminence. In the early 9th century Mercia was displaced as the foremost kingdom by Wessex. Later in that century escalating attacks by the Danes culminated in the conquest of the north and east of England, overthrowing the kingdoms of Northumbria, Mercia and East Anglia. Wessex
Wessex
under Alfred the Great
Alfred the Great
was left as the only surviving English kingdom, and under his successors it steadily expanded at the expense of the kingdoms of the Danelaw
Danelaw
. This brought about the political unification of England, first accomplished under Æthelstan in 927 and definitively established after further conflicts by Eadred in 953. A fresh wave of Scandinavian attacks from the late 10th century ended with the conquest of this united kingdom by Sweyn Forkbeard in 1013 and again by his son Cnut in 1016, turning it into the centre of a short-lived North Sea
North Sea
Empire that also included Denmark and Norway
Norway
. However the native royal dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
in 1042. King Henry V at the Battle of Agincourt , fought on Saint Crispin 's Day and concluded with an English victory against a larger French army in the Hundred Years\' War

A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England
England
in 1066, accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy
Normandy
. The Normans
Normans
themselves originated from Scandinavia
Scandinavia
and had settled in Normandy
Normandy
in the late 9th and early 10th centuries. This conquest led to the almost total dispossession of the English elite and its replacement by a new French-speaking aristocracy, whose speech had a profound and permanent effect on the English language.

Subsequently, the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II , adding England
England
to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine . They reigned for three centuries, some noted monarchs being Richard I , Edward I , Edward III and Henry V . The period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the signing of the Magna Carta
Magna Carta
, an English legal charter used to limit the sovereign's powers by law and protect the privileges of freemen. Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. The Principality of Wales
Wales
became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.

During the 14th century, the Plantagenets and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet
House of Capet
and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years\' War . The Black Death epidemic hit England
England
; starting in 1348, it eventually killed up to half of England's inhabitants . From 1453 to 1487 civil war occurred between two branches of the royal family—the Yorkists and Lancastrians —known as the Wars of the Roses . Eventually it led to the Yorkists losing the throne entirely to a Welsh noble family the Tudors , a branch of the Lancastrians headed by Henry Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the Yorkist king Richard III was killed.

EARLY MODERN

King Henry VIII became Supreme Head of the Church of England
Church of England

During the Tudor period
Tudor period
, the Renaissance
Renaissance
reached England
England
through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity. England
England
began to develop naval skills , and exploration to the West intensified.

Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England
Church of England
. In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. He also legally incorporated his ancestral land Wales
Wales
into the Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
with the 1535–1542 acts . There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I . The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism
Anglicanism
.

Competing with Spain , the first English colony in the Americas was founded in 1585 by explorer Walter Raleigh
Walter Raleigh
in Virginia
Virginia
and named Roanoke . The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony, after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. With the East India Company
East India Company
, England
England
also competed with the Dutch and French in the East. In 1588, during the Elizabethan period , an English fleet under Francis Drake
Francis Drake
was going to face Spanish Armada which failed because of the storms. The political structure of the island changed in 1603, when the King of Scots , James VI , a kingdom which was a longtime rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England
England
as James I — creating a personal union . He styled himself King of Great Britain
Great Britain
, although this had no basis in English law. Under the auspices of King James VI and I
James VI and I
the Authorised King James Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611. It has not only been ranked with Shakespeare 's works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language
English language
but also was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant
Protestant
Christians for four hundred years, until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century. The English Restoration restored the monarchy under King Charles II and peace after the English Civil War
English Civil War

Based on conflicting political, religious and social positions, the English Civil War
English Civil War
was fought between the supporters of Parliament and those of King Charles I , known colloquially as Roundheads and Cavaliers respectively. This was an interwoven part of the wider multifaceted Wars of the Three Kingdoms , involving Scotland
Scotland
and Ireland
Ireland
. The Parliamentarians were victorious, Charles I was executed and the kingdom replaced by the Commonwealth . Leader of the Parliament forces, Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
declared himself Lord Protector in 1653; a period of personal rule followed. After Cromwell's death and the resignation of his son Richard as Lord Protector, Charles II was invited to return as monarch in 1660, in a move called the Restoration . After the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
of 1688, it was constitutionally established that King and Parliament should rule together, though Parliament would have the real power. This was established with the Bill of Rights in 1689. Among the statutes set down were that the law could only be made by Parliament and could not be suspended by the King, also that the King could not impose taxes or raise an army without the prior approval of Parliament. Also since that time, no British monarch
British monarch
has entered the House of Commons when it is sitting, which is annually commemorated at the State Opening of Parliament
State Opening of Parliament
by the British monarch
British monarch
when the doors of the House of Commons are slammed in the face of the monarch's messenger, symbolising the rights of Parliament and its independence from the monarch. With the founding of the Royal Society
Royal Society
in 1660, science was greatly encouraged.

In 1666 the Great Fire of London
London
gutted the City of London
London
but it was rebuilt shortly afterwards with many significant buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren . In Parliament two factions had emerged — the Tories and Whigs . Though the Tories initially supported Catholic king James II , some of them, along with the Whigs, during the Revolution of 1688 invited Dutch prince William of Orange to defeat James and ultimately to become William III of England
William III of England
. Some English people, especially in the north, were Jacobites and continued to support James and his sons. After the parliaments of England
England
and Scotland
Scotland
agreed, the two countries joined in political union , to create the Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
in 1707. To accommodate the union, institutions such as the law and national churches of each remained separate.

LATE MODERN AND CONTEMPORARY

Saltaire
Saltaire
, West Yorkshire, is a model mill town from the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, and a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site

Under the newly formed Kingdom of Great Britain, output from the Royal Society
Royal Society
and other English initiatives combined with the Scottish Enlightenment to create innovations in science and engineering, while the enormous growth in British overseas trade protected by the Royal Navy paved the way for the establishment of the British Empire
British Empire
. Domestically it drove the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, a period of profound change in the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of England, resulting in industrialised agriculture, manufacture, engineering and mining, as well as new and pioneering road, rail and water networks to facilitate their expansion and development. The opening of Northwest England's Bridgewater Canal
Bridgewater Canal
in 1761 ushered in the canal age in Britain . In 1825 the world's first permanent steam locomotive-hauled passenger railway—the Stockton and Darlington Railway —opened to the public. Cotton mills in Manchester
Manchester
, the world's "first industrial city", circa 1820.

During the Industrial Revolution, many workers moved from England's countryside to new and expanding urban industrial areas to work in factories, for instance at Birmingham
Birmingham
and Manchester
Manchester
, dubbed "Workshop of the World" and "Warehouse City" respectively. England maintained relative stability throughout the French Revolution
French Revolution
; William Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger
was British Prime Minister for the reign of George III . During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, Napoleon
Napoleon
planned to invade from the south-east . However this failed to manifest and the Napoleonic forces were defeated by the British at sea by Lord Nelson and on land by the Duke of Wellington . The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
fostered a concept of Britishness
Britishness
and a united national British people
British people
, shared with the Scots and Welsh. The Cenotaph, Whitehall , is a memorial to members of the British Armed Forces who died during the two World Wars

London
London
became the largest and most populous metropolitan area in the world during the Victorian era , and trade within the British Empire—as well as the standing of the British military and navy—was prestigious. Political agitation at home from radicals such as the Chartists and the suffragettes enabled legislative reform and universal suffrage . Power shifts in east-central Europe
Europe
led to World War I; hundreds of thousands of English soldiers died fighting for the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as part of the Allies . Two decades later, in World War II
World War II
, the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
was again one of the Allies . At the end of the Phoney War , Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
became the wartime Prime Minister. Developments in warfare technology saw many cities damaged by air-raids during the Blitz . Following the war, the British Empire experienced rapid decolonisation , and there was a speeding up of technological innovations; automobiles became the primary means of transport and Frank Whittle 's development of the jet engine led to wider air travel . Residential patterns were altered in England
England
by private motoring, and by the creation of the National Health Service (NHS) in 1948. The UK's NHS provided publicly funded health care to all UK permanent residents free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. Combined, these changes prompted the reform of local government in England
England
in the mid-20th century.

Since the 20th century there has been significant population movement to England, mostly from other parts of the British Isles
British Isles
, but also from the Commonwealth , particularly the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
. Since the 1970s there has been a large move away from manufacturing and an increasing emphasis on the service industry . As part of the United Kingdom, the area joined a common market initiative called the European Economic Community which became the European Union
European Union
. Since the late 20th century the administration of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has moved towards devolved governance in Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland. England and Wales
England and Wales
continues to exist as a jurisdiction within the United Kingdom. Devolution has stimulated a greater emphasis on a more English-specific identity and patriotism. There is no devolved English government, but an attempt to create a similar system on a sub-regional basis was rejected by referendum.

GOVERNANCE

POLITICS

Main article: Politics of England The Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
, the seat of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

As part of the United Kingdom, the basic political system in England is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system . There has not been a government of England
England
since 1707, when the Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
, putting into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
, joined England and Scotland
Scotland
to form the Kingdom of Great Britain
Great Britain
. Before the union England
England
was ruled by its monarch and the Parliament of England . Today England
England
is governed directly by the Parliament of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, although other countries of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
have devolved governments. In the House of Commons which is the lower house of the British Parliament based at the Palace of Westminster
Palace of Westminster
, there are 532 Members of Parliament (MPs) for constituencies in England, out of the 650 total.

In the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
general election, 2017 , the Conservative Party won 317 seats (the Speaker of the House not being counted as a Conservative), more than any other party, though not enough to achieve an overall majority. The Conservative party, headed by the prime minister Theresa May
Theresa May
, won 55 more seats than the Labour Party , led by Jeremy Corbyn
Jeremy Corbyn
. The Scottish National Party ( Scotland
Scotland
only) won 35 out of 59 Scottish seats in the House of Commons . Changing of the Queen\'s Guard at the royal residence , Buckingham Palace
Buckingham Palace

As the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is a member of the European Union, there are elections held regionally in England
England
to decide who is sent as Members of the European Parliament . The 2014 European Parliament election saw the regions of England
England
elect the following MEPs: 22 UK Independence Party (UKIP), 17 Conservatives, 17 Labour, 3 Greens , and one Liberal Democrat.

Since devolution , in which other countries of the United Kingdom—Scotland, Wales
Wales
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
—each have their own devolved parliament or assemblies for local issues, there has been debate about how to counterbalance this in England. Originally it was planned that various regions of England
England
would be devolved, but following the proposal's rejection by the North East in a referendum, this has not been carried out.

One major issue is the West Lothian question , in which MPs from Scotland
Scotland
and Wales
Wales
are able to vote on legislation affecting only England, while English MPs have no equivalent right to legislate on devolved matters. This when placed in the context of England
England
being the only country of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
not to have free cancer treatment, prescriptions, residential care for the elderly and free top-up university fees , has led to a steady rise in English nationalism . Some have suggested the creation of a devolved English parliament , while others have proposed simply limiting voting on legislation which only affects England
England
to English MPs.

LAW

Main article: English law The Royal Courts of Justice
Royal Courts of Justice

The English law legal system, developed over the centuries, is the basis of common law legal systems used in most Commonwealth countries and the United States
United States
(except Louisiana
Louisiana
). Despite now being part of the United Kingdom, the legal system of the Courts of England and Wales
England and Wales
continued, under the Treaty of Union
Treaty of Union
, as a separate legal system from the one used in Scotland. The general essence of English law is that it is made by judges sitting in courts, applying their common sense and knowledge of legal precedent —stare decisis —to the facts before them.

The court system is headed by the Senior Courts of England
England
and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal , the High Court of Justice for civil cases, and the Crown Court
Crown Court
for criminal cases. The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the highest court for criminal and civil cases in England and Wales
England and Wales
. It was created in 2009 after constitutional changes, taking over the judicial functions of the House of Lords
House of Lords
. A decision of the Supreme Court is binding on every other court in the hierarchy, which must follow its directions.

Crime increased between 1981 and 1995, but fell by 42% in the period 1995–2006. The prison population doubled over the same period, giving it the highest incarceration rate in Western Europe
Europe
at 147 per 100,000. Her Majesty\'s Prison Service , reporting to the Ministry of Justice , manages most prisons , housing over 85,000 convicts.

REGIONS, COUNTIES, AND DISTRICTS

Main article: Subdivisions of England See also: Regions of England
Regions of England
, Counties of England , and Districts of England
Districts of England
Northumberland
Northumberland
Durham Lancashire
Lancashire
Cheshire
Cheshire
Derbs. Notts. Lincolnshire
Lincolnshire
Leics. Staffs. Shropshire
Shropshire
Warks. Northants. Norfolk
Norfolk
Suffolk
Suffolk
Essex
Essex
Herts. Beds. Bucks. Oxon. Glos. Somerset
Somerset
Wiltshire
Wiltshire
Berkshire
Berkshire
Kent
Kent
Surrey
Surrey
Hampshire Dorset
Dorset
Devon
Devon
Cornwall
Cornwall
Heref. Worcs. Bristol
Bristol
East Riding of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Rutland
Rutland
Cambs. Greater London
London
Not shown: City of London
London
Tyne font-size:85%; left:205.15px; top:136.2px"> Cumbria
Cumbria
North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
South Yorks. West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Greater Manc. Merseyside East Sussex West Sussex Isle of Wight West Midlands Ceremonial counties of England
Ceremonial counties of England

The subdivisions of England
England
consist of up to four levels of subnational division controlled through a variety of types of administrative entities created for the purposes of local government . The highest tier of local government were the nine regions of England : North East , North West , Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and the Humber , East Midlands
East Midlands
, West Midlands, East , South East , South West , and London. These were created in 1994 as Government Offices , used by the UK government to deliver a wide range of policies and programmes regionally, but there are no elected bodies at this level, except in London, and in 2011 the regional government offices were abolished. The same boundaries remain in use for electing Members of the European Parliament on a regional basis.

After devolution began to take place in other parts of the United Kingdom it was planned that referendums for the regions of England would take place for their own elected regional assemblies as a counterweight. London
London
accepted in 1998: the London
London
Assembly was created two years later. However, when the proposal was rejected by the northern England
England
devolution referendums, 2004 in the North East, further referendums were cancelled. The regional assemblies outside London
London
were abolished in 2010, and their functions transferred to respective Regional Development Agencies and a new system of Local authority leaders\' boards .

Below the regional level, all of England
England
is divided into 48 ceremonial counties . These are used primarily as a geographical frame of reference and have developed gradually since the Middle Ages , with some established as recently as 1974. Each has a Lord Lieutenant and High Sheriff
High Sheriff
; these posts are used to represent the British monarch
British monarch
locally. Outside Greater London
London
and the Isles of Scilly , England
England
is also divided into 83 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties ; these correspond to areas used for the purposes of local government and may consist of a single district or be divided into several.

There are six metropolitan counties based on the most heavily urbanised areas, which do not have county councils. In these areas the principal authorities are the councils of the subdivisions, the metropolitan boroughs . Elsewhere, 27 non-metropolitan "shire" counties have a county council and are divided into districts, each with a district council. They are typically, though not always, found in more rural areas. The remaining non-metropolitan counties are of a single district and usually correspond to large towns or sparsely populated counties; they are known as unitary authorities . Greater London
London
has a different system for local government, with 32 London boroughs , plus the City of London
London
covering a small area at the core governed by the City of London
London
Corporation . At the most localised level, much of England
England
is divided into civil parishes with councils ; in Greater London
London
only one, Queen\'s Park , exists as of 2014 after they were abolished in 1965 until legislation allowed their recreation in 2007.

GEOGRAPHY

Main article: Geography of England
Geography of England

LANDSCAPE AND RIVERS

Skiddaw massif, seen from Walla Crag in the Lake District
Lake District

Geographically England
England
includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain, plus such offshore islands as the Isle of Wight and the Isles of Scilly . It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom—to the north by Scotland
Scotland
and to the west by Wales. England
England
is closer to the European continent than any other part of mainland Britain. It is separated from France by a 21-mile (34 km) sea gap, though the two countries are connected by the Channel Tunnel near Folkestone
Folkestone
. England
England
also has shores on the Irish Sea , North Sea
North Sea
and Atlantic Ocean.

The ports of London, Liverpool
Liverpool
, and Newcastle lie on the tidal rivers Thames , Mersey and Tyne respectively. At 220 miles (350 km), the Severn is the longest river flowing through England. It empties into the Bristol
Bristol
Channel and is notable for its Severn Bore
Severn Bore
(a tidal bore ), which can reach 2 metres (6.6 ft) in height. However, the longest river entirely in England
England
is the Thames, which is 215 miles (346 km) in length. There are many lakes in England
England
; the largest is Windermere
Windermere
, within the aptly named Lake District
Lake District
.

Most of England's landscape consists of low hills and plains, with upland and mountainous terrain in the north and west of the country. The northern uplands include the Pennines , a chain of mountains dividing east and west, the Lake District
Lake District
mountains in Cumbria, and the Cheviot Hills , straddling the border between England
England
and Scotland. The highest point in England, at 978 metres (3,209 ft), is Scafell Pike
Scafell Pike
in the Lake District. The Shropshire Hills are near Wales
Wales
while Dartmoor and Exmoor are two upland areas in the south west of the country. The approximate dividing line between terrain types is often indicated by the Tees-Exe line . Terrain of Dartmoor , Devon
Devon

In geological terms, the Pennines, known as the "backbone of England", are the oldest range of mountains in the country, originating from the end of the Paleozoic Era around 300 million years ago. Their geological composition includes, among others, sandstone and limestone , and also coal. There are karst landscapes in calcite areas such as parts of Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Derbyshire . The Pennine landscape is high moorland in upland areas, indented by fertile valleys of the region's rivers. They contain two national parks , the Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Dales and the Peak District . In the West Country
Country
, Dartmoor and Exmoor of the Southwest Peninsula include upland moorland supported by granite, and enjoy a mild climate ; both are national parks.

The English Lowlands are in the central and southern regions of the country, consisting of green rolling hills, including the Cotswold Hills , Chiltern Hills , North and South Downs
South Downs
—where they meet the sea they form white rock exposures such as the cliffs of Dover . This also includes relatively flat plains such as the Salisbury Plain , Somerset
Somerset
Levels , South Coast Plain and The Fens .

CLIMATE

Main article: Climate of England

England
England
has a temperate maritime climate : it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F) in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer. The weather is damp relatively frequently and is changeable. The coldest months are January and February, the latter particularly on the English coast , while July is normally the warmest month. Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Rainfall is spread fairly evenly throughout the year.

Important influences on the climate of England
England
are its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, its northern latitude and the warming of the sea by the Gulf Stream . Rainfall is higher in the west, and parts of the Lake District
Lake District
receive more rain than anywhere else in the country. Since weather records began, the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C (101.3 °F) on 10 August 2003 at Brogdale in Kent, while the lowest was −26.1 °C (−15.0 °F) on 10 January 1982 in Edgmond , Shropshire.

MAJOR CONURBATIONS

See also: List of places in England
List of places in England

The Greater London
London
Urban Area is by far the largest urban area in England
England
and one of the busiest cities in the world. It is considered a global city and has a population larger than other countries in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
besides England
England
itself. Other urban areas of considerable size and influence tend to be in northern England
England
or the English Midlands
English Midlands
. There are 50 settlements which have been designated city status in England
England
, while the wider United Kingdom
United Kingdom
has 66.

While many cities in England
England
are quite large, such as Birmingham
Birmingham
, Sheffield
Sheffield
, Manchester, Liverpool
Liverpool
, Leeds
Leeds
, Newcastle , Bradford
Bradford
, Nottingham
Nottingham
, population size is not a prerequisite for city status. Traditionally the status was given to towns with diocesan cathedrals , so there are smaller cities like Wells , Ely , Ripon , Truro and Chichester
Chichester
. According to the Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
, the ten largest, continuous built-up urban areas are:

RANK URBAN AREA POPULATION MAJOR LOCALITIES

1 Greater London
London
Urban Area 9,787,426 Greater London
London
, divided into the City of London
London
and 32 London boroughs including Croydon , Barnet , Ealing , Bromley

2 Greater Manchester
Manchester
Urban Area 2,553,379 Manchester
Manchester
, Salford , Bolton
Bolton
, Stockport , Oldham
Oldham
, Sale , Rochdale , Bury
Bury

3 West Midlands Urban Area 2,440,986 Birmingham
Birmingham
, Wolverhampton
Wolverhampton
, Dudley
Dudley
, Walsall
Walsall
, Solihull , Aldridge

4 West Yorkshire
Yorkshire
Urban Area 1,777,934 Leeds
Leeds
, Bradford
Bradford
, Huddersfield , Wakefield
Wakefield
, Halifax

5 Liverpool
Liverpool
Urban Area 864,122 Liverpool
Liverpool
, St. Helens , Bootle , Huyton-with-Roby

6 South Hampshire 855,569 Southampton
Southampton
, Portsmouth
Portsmouth
, Eastleigh
Eastleigh
, Gosport
Gosport
, Fareham , Havant
Havant
, Horndean

7 Tyneside
Tyneside
774,891 Newcastle , North Shields , South Shields , Gateshead , Jarrow
Jarrow

8 Nottingham
Nottingham
Urban Area 729,977 Nottingham
Nottingham
, Beeston and Stapleford , Carlton , Long Eaton

9 Sheffield
Sheffield
Urban Area 685,368 Sheffield
Sheffield
, Rotherham , Rawmarsh , Killamarsh

10 Bristol
Bristol
Urban Area 617,280 Bristol
Bristol
, Kingswood , Mangotsfield
Mangotsfield
, Stoke Gifford

ECONOMY

Main article: Economy of England The City of London
London
is the financial capital of United Kingdom
United Kingdom

England's economy is one of the largest in the world, with an average GDP per capita of £22,907. Usually regarded as a mixed market economy , it has adopted many free market principles, yet maintains an advanced social welfare infrastructure. The official currency in England
England
is the pound sterling , whose ISO 4217
ISO 4217
code is GBP. Taxation in England
England
is quite competitive when compared to much of the rest of Europe
Europe
– as of 2014 the basic rate of personal tax is 20% on taxable income up to £31,865 above the personal tax-free allowance (normally £10,000), and 40% on any additional earnings above that amount.

The economy of England
England
is the largest part of the UK\'s economy , which has the 18th highest GDP PPP per capita in the world. England
England
is a leader in the chemical and pharmaceutical sectors and in key technical industries, particularly aerospace , the arms industry , and the manufacturing side of the software industry . London, home to the London
London
Stock Exchange , the United Kingdom's main stock exchange and the largest in Europe, is England's financial centre—100 of Europe's 500 largest corporations are based in London. London
London
is the largest financial centre in Europe, and as of 2014 is the second largest in the world. The Bentley
Bentley
Mulsanne . Bentley
Bentley
is a well-known English car company

The Bank of England
Bank of England
, founded in 1694 by Scottish banker William Paterson , is the United Kingdom's central bank . Originally established as private banker to the government of England, since 1946 it has been a state-owned institution . The bank has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales
England and Wales
, although not in other parts of the United Kingdom. The government has devolved responsibility to the bank's Monetary Policy Committee for managing the monetary policy of the country and setting interest rates.

England
England
is highly industrialised, but since the 1970s there has been a decline in traditional heavy and manufacturing industries, and an increasing emphasis on a more service industry oriented economy. Tourism has become a significant industry, attracting millions of visitors to England
England
each year. The export part of the economy is dominated by pharmaceuticals , cars (although many English marques are now foreign-owned, such as Land Rover , Lotus , Jaguar and Bentley
Bentley
), crude oil and petroleum from the English parts of North Sea
North Sea
oil along with Wytch Farm , aircraft engines and alcoholic beverages.

Most of the UK's £30 billion aerospace industry is primarily based in England. The global market opportunity for UK aerospace manufacturers over the next two decades is estimated at £3.5 trillion. GKN Aerospace
Aerospace
– an expert in metallic and composite aerostructures is involved in almost every civil and military fixed and rotary wing aircraft in production is based in Redditch .

BAE Systems
BAE Systems
makes large sections of the Typhoon Eurofighter at its sub-assembly plant in Salmesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton plant, near Preston . It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter – the world's largest single defence project – for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system. It also manufactures the Hawk , the world's most successful jet training aircraft.

Rolls-Royce PLC is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft, and it has more 30,000 engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors. With a workforce of over 12,000 people, Derby
Derby
has the largest concentration of Rolls-Royce employees in the UK. Rolls-Royce also produces low-emission power systems for ships; makes critical equipment and safety systems for the nuclear industry and powers offshore platforms and major pipelines for the oil and gas industry.

Much of the UK's space industry is centred on EADS Astrium
EADS Astrium
, based in Stevenage and Portsmouth
Portsmouth
. The company builds the buses – the underlying structure onto which the payload and propulsion systems are built – for most of the European Space Agency 's spacecraft, as well as commercial satellites. The world leader in compact satellite systems, Surrey
Surrey
Satellites , is also part of Astrium. Reaction Engines Limited , the company planning to build Skylon , a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane using their SABRE rocket engine , a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system is based Culham .

Agriculture is intensive and highly mechanised, producing 60% of food needs with only 2% of the labour force. Two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, the other to arable crops.

SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Main articles: List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
is one of the most influential figures in the history of science

Prominent English figures from the field of science and mathematics include Sir Isaac Newton
Isaac Newton
, Michael Faraday , Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
, Robert Hooke , James Prescott Joule , John Dalton
John Dalton
, Lord Rayleigh , J. J. Thomson , James Chadwick
James Chadwick
, Charles Babbage , George Boole
George Boole
, Alan Turing , Tim Berners-Lee , Paul Dirac , Stephen Hawking
Stephen Hawking
, Peter Higgs , Roger Penrose
Roger Penrose
, John Horton Conway
John Horton Conway
, Thomas Bayes , Arthur Cayley
Arthur Cayley
, G. H. Hardy , Oliver Heaviside , Andrew Wiles , Francis Crick
Francis Crick
, Joseph Lister , Joseph Priestley , Thomas Young , Christopher Wren and Richard Dawkins
Richard Dawkins
. Some experts claim that the earliest concept of a metric system was invented by John Wilkins
John Wilkins
, the first secretary of the Royal Society
Royal Society
, in 1668.

As the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, England
England
was home to many significant inventors during the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Famous English engineers include Isambard Kingdom Brunel
Isambard Kingdom Brunel
, best known for the creation of the Great Western Railway , a series of famous steamships , and numerous important bridges, hence revolutionising public transport and modern-day engineering. Thomas Newcomen 's steam engine helped spawn the Industrial Revolution. The Father of Railways, George Stephenson
George Stephenson
, built the first public inter-city railway line in the world, the Liverpool
Liverpool
and Manchester Railway , which opened in 1830. With his role in the marketing and manufacturing of the steam engine, and invention of modern coinage, Matthew Boulton
Matthew Boulton
(business partner of James Watt
James Watt
) is regarded as one of the most influential entrepreneurs in history. The physician Edward Jenner
Edward Jenner
's smallpox vaccine is said to have "saved more lives ... than were lost in all the wars of mankind since the beginning of recorded history."

Inventions and discoveries of the English include: the jet engine , the first industrial spinning machine , the first computer and the first modern computer , the World Wide Web
World Wide Web
along with HTML
HTML
, the first successful human blood transfusion , the motorised vacuum cleaner , the lawn mower , the seat belt , the hovercraft , the electric motor , steam engines , and theories such as the Darwinian theory of evolution and atomic theory . Newton developed the ideas of universal gravitation , Newtonian mechanics
Newtonian mechanics
, and calculus , and Robert Hooke his eponymously named law of elasticity . Other inventions include the iron plate railway, the thermosiphon , tarmac , the rubber band , the mousetrap , "cat\'s eye" road marker , joint development of the light bulb , steam locomotives , the modern seed drill and many modern techniques and technologies used in precision engineering .

TRANSPORT

Main article: Transport in England Heathrow Airport
Heathrow Airport
has more international passenger traffic than any other airport in the world.

The Department for Transport
Department for Transport
is the government body responsible for overseeing transport in England. There are many motorways in England
England
, and many other trunk roads, such as the A1 Great North Road , which runs through eastern England
England
from London
London
to Newcastle (much of this section is motorway) and onward to the Scottish border. The longest motorway in England
England
is the M6 , from Rugby through the North West up to the Anglo-Scottish border , a distance of 232 miles (373 km). Other major routes include: the M1 from London
London
to Leeds, the M25 which encircles London, the M60 which encircles Manchester, the M4 from London
London
to South Wales, the M62 from Liverpool
Liverpool
via Manchester
Manchester
to East Yorkshire, and the M5 from Birmingham
Birmingham
to Bristol
Bristol
and the South West.

Bus transport across the country is widespread; major companies include National Express , Arriva
Arriva
and Go-Ahead Group
Go-Ahead Group
. The red double-decker buses in London
London
have become a symbol of England. There is a rapid transit network in two English cities: the London Underground ; and the Tyne and Wear Metro in Newcastle, Gateshead and Sunderland. There are several tram networks, such as the Blackpool tramway , Manchester
Manchester
Metrolink , Sheffield
Sheffield
Supertram and Midland Metro , and the Tramlink system centred on Croydon in South London. The Metropolitan Railway
Metropolitan Railway
, now part of the London
London
Underground was the first underground railway in the world

Rail transport in England is the oldest in the world: passenger railways originated in England
England
in 1825. Much of Britain's 10,000 miles (16,000 km) of rail network lies in England, covering the country fairly extensively, although a high proportion of railway lines were closed in the second half of the 20th century. There are plans to reopen lines such as the Varsity Line between Oxford and Cambridge. These lines are mostly standard gauge (single , double or quadruple track ) though there are also a few narrow gauge lines . There is rail transport access to France and Belgium through an undersea rail link, the Channel Tunnel , which was completed in 1994.

England
England
has extensive domestic and international aviation links. The largest airport is Heathrow , which is the world\'s busiest airport measured by number of international passengers . Other large airports include Manchester
Manchester
Airport , Stansted Airport
Stansted Airport
, Luton Airport
Luton Airport
and Birmingham
Birmingham
Airport . By sea there is ferry transport, both local and international, including to Ireland, the Netherlands and Belgium. There are around 4,400 miles (7,100 km) of navigable waterways in England, half of which is owned by the Canal and River Trust , however water transport is very limited. The Thames is the major waterway in England, with imports and exports focused at the Port of Tilbury in the Thames Estuary, one of the United Kingdom's three major ports.

HEALTHCARE

Main article: Healthcare in England Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham
Birmingham
, an NHS hospital, has the largest single floor critical care unit in the world

The National Health Service (NHS) is the publicly funded healthcare system in England
England
responsible for providing the majority of healthcare in the country. The NHS began on 5 July 1948, putting into effect the provisions of the National Health Service Act 1946 . It was based on the findings of the Beveridge Report , prepared by economist and social reformer William Beveridge . The NHS is largely funded from general taxation including National Insurance
National Insurance
payments, and it provides most of its services free at the point of use, although there are charges for some people for eye tests, dental care, prescriptions and aspects of personal care.

The government department responsible for the NHS is the Department of Health , headed by the Secretary of State for Health , who sits in the British Cabinet . Most of the expenditure of the Department of Health is spent on the NHS—£98.6 billion was spent in 2008–2009. In recent years the private sector has been increasingly used to provide more NHS services despite opposition by doctors and trade unions. The average life expectancy of people in England
England
is 77.5 years for males and 81.7 years for females, the highest of the four countries of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
.

DEMOGRAPHY

Main article: Demography of England

POPULATION

Main article: English people
English people
See also: English diaspora , Cornish people , and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties , colour-coded to show population Population of England and Wales
England and Wales
by administrative areas. Their size is approximately in proportion to their population. Colours by quints (1/5th) of number of districts classified by population density with division of extreme quints

With over 53 million inhabitants, England
England
is by far the most populous country of the United Kingdom, accounting for 84% of the combined total. England
England
taken as a unit and measured against international states has the fourth largest population in the European Union
European Union
and would be the 25th largest country by population in the world. With a density of 424 people per square kilometre, it would be the second most densely populated country in the European Union
European Union
after Malta
Malta
.

The English people
English people
are a British people
British people
. Some genetic evidence suggests that 75–95% descend in the paternal line from prehistoric settlers who originally came from the Iberian Peninsula , as well as a 5% contribution from Angles
Angles
and Saxons
Saxons
, and a significant Scandinavian ( Viking
Viking
) element. However, other geneticists place the Germanic estimate up to half. Over time, various cultures have been influential: Prehistoric , Brythonic , Roman , Anglo-Saxon , Viking
Viking
(North Germanic), Gaelic cultures, as well as a large influence from Normans
Normans
. There is an English diaspora in former parts of the British Empire; especially the United States, Canada, Australia, South Africa
South Africa
and New Zealand. Since the late 1990s, many English people
English people
have migrated to Spain. 2009 estimates of ethnic groups in England
England

In 1086, when the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
was compiled, England
England
had a population of two million. About 10% lived in urban areas. By 1801, the population was 8.3 million, and by 1901 30.5 million. Due in particular to the economic prosperity of South East England
South East England
, it has received many economic migrants from the other parts of the United Kingdom. There has been significant Irish migration . The proportion of ethnically European residents totals at 87.50%, including Germans and Poles .

Other people from much further afield in the former British colonies have arrived since the 1950s: in particular, 6% of people living in England
England
have family origins in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, mostly India, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. 2.90% of the population are black, from Africa and the Caribbean
Caribbean
, especially former British colonies. There is a significant number of Chinese and British Chinese . In 2007, 22% of primary school children in England
England
were from ethnic minority families, and in 2011 that figure was 26.5%. About half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001 was due to immigration. Debate over immigration is politically prominent; 80% of respondents in a 2009 Home Office
Home Office
poll wanted to cap it. The ONS has projected that the population will grow by nine million between 2014 and 2039.

England
England
contains one indigenous national minority, the Cornish people , recognised by the UK government under the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2014.

LANGUAGE

Further information: English language
English language
in England
England
See also: English language , History of the English language
English language
, and Cornish language
Cornish language

LANGUAGE NATIVE SPEAKERS

English 46,936,780

Polish 529,173

Punjabi 271,580

Urdu
Urdu
266,330

Bengali 216,196

Gujarati 212,217

Arabic
Arabic
152,490

French 145,026

Portuguese 131,002

Welsh 8,248

Cornish 554

Other 2,267,016

POPULATION 51,005,610

English-speaking world
English-speaking world
Majority native language Official, but not majority language Note: English is also an official language of the EU

As its name suggests, the English language, today spoken by hundreds of millions of people around the world, originated as the language of England, where it remains the principal tongue spoken by 98% of the population. It is an Indo-European language in the Anglo-Frisian branch of the Germanic family. After the Norman conquest , the Old English language
English language
was displaced and confined to the lower social classes as Norman French and Latin
Latin
were used by the aristocracy.

By the 15th century, English was back in fashion among all classes, though much changed; the Middle English
Middle English
form showed many signs of French influence, both in vocabulary and spelling. During the English Renaissance
Renaissance
, many words were coined from Latin
Latin
and Greek origins. Modern English has extended this custom of flexibility, when it comes to incorporating words from different languages. Thanks in large part to the British Empire
British Empire
, the English language
English language
is the world's unofficial lingua franca .

English language
English language
learning and teaching is an important economic activity , and includes language schooling , tourism spending, and publishing. There is no legislation mandating an official language for England, but English is the only language used for official business. Despite the country's relatively small size, there are many distinct regional accents , and individuals with particularly strong accents may not be easily understood everywhere in the country.

As well as English, England
England
has two other indigenous languages , Cornish and Welsh . Cornish died out as a community language in the 18th century but is being revived, and is now protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages . It is spoken by 0.1% of people in Cornwall
Cornwall
, and is taught to some degree in several primary and secondary schools.

When the modern border between Wales
Wales
and England
England
was established by the Laws in Wales
Wales
Acts 1535 and 1542 , many Welsh-speaking communities found themselves on the English side of the border. Welsh was spoken in Archenfield in Herefordshire into the nineteenth century. Welsh was spoken by natives of parts of western Shropshire
Shropshire
until the middle of the twentieth century if not later.

State schools teach students a second language , usually French, German or Spanish. Due to immigration, it was reported in 2007 that around 800,000 school students spoke a foreign language at home, the most common being Punjabi and Urdu
Urdu
. However, following the 2011 census data released by the Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
, figures now show that Polish is the main language spoken in England
England
after English.

RELIGION

Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
, seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
Main article: Religion in England Further information: History of Christianity in England
England

In the 2011 census, 59.4% of the population of England
England
specified their religion as Christian, 24.7% answered that they had no religion, 5% specified that they were Muslim
Muslim
, while 3.7% of the population belongs to other religions and 7.2% did not give an answer. Christianity is the most widely practised religion in England, as it has been since the Early Middle Ages, although it was first introduced much earlier in Gaelic and Roman times. This Celtic Church was gradually joined to the Catholic hierarchy following the 6th-century Gregorian mission to Kent
Kent
led by St Augustine . The established church of England
England
is the Church of England
Church of England
, which left communion with Rome in the 1530s when Henry VIII was unable to annul his divorce to the aunt of the king of Spain . The church regards itself as both Catholic and Protestant
Protestant
. Saint George
Saint George
is the patron saint of England
England

There are High Church and Low Church traditions, and some Anglicans regard themselves as Anglo-Catholics , following the Tractarian movement . The monarch of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is the Supreme Governor of the church, which has around 26 million baptised members (of whom the vast majority are not regular churchgoers). It forms part of the Anglican Communion
Anglican Communion
with the Archbishop of Canterbury
Archbishop of Canterbury
acting as its symbolic worldwide head. Many cathedrals and parish churches are historic buildings of significant architectural importance, such as Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
, York
York
Minster , Durham Cathedral
Durham Cathedral
, and Salisbury Cathedral .

The 2nd-largest Christian practice is the Latin
Latin
Rite of the Catholic Church. Since its reintroduction after the Catholic Emancipation
Catholic Emancipation
, the Church has organised ecclesiastically on an England and Wales
England and Wales
basis where there are 4.5 million members (most of whom are English). There has been one Pope from England
England
to date, Adrian IV ; while saints Bede and Anselm are regarded as Doctors of the Church . Westminster Abbey is a notable example of English Gothic architecture . The coronation of the British monarch
British monarch
traditionally takes place at the Abbey

A form of Protestantism
Protestantism
known as Methodism is the third largest Christian practice and grew out of Anglicanism
Anglicanism
through John Wesley
John Wesley
. It gained popularity in the mill towns of Lancashire
Lancashire
and Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, and amongst tin miners in Cornwall
Cornwall
. There are other non-conformist minorities, such as Baptists
Baptists
, Quakers
Quakers
, Congregationalists , Unitarians and The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army
.

The patron saint of England
England
is Saint George
Saint George
; his symbolic cross is included in the flag of England, as well as in the Union Flag
Union Flag
as part of a combination. There are many other English and associated saints; some of the best-known are: Cuthbert , Edmund , Alban , Wilfrid , Aidan , Edward the Confessor
Edward the Confessor
, John Fisher , Thomas More , Petroc , Piran , Margaret Clitherow
Margaret Clitherow
and Thomas Becket
Thomas Becket
. There are non-Christian religions practised. Jews have a history of a small minority on the island since 1070. They were expelled from England
England
in 1290 following the Edict of Expulsion , only to be allowed back in 1656.

Especially since the 1950s, religions from the former British colonies have grown in numbers, due to immigration. Islam is the most common of these, now accounting for around 5% of the population in England. Hinduism
Hinduism
, Sikhism
Sikhism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
are next in number, adding up to 2.8% combined, introduced from India
India
and South East Asia .

A small minority of the population practise ancient Pagan religions . Neopaganism in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
is primarily represented by Wicca and Witchcraft religions , Druidry , and Heathenry . According to the 2011 UK Census , there are roughly 53,172 people who identify as Pagan in England, and 3,448 in Wales
Wales
, including 11,026 Wiccans in England and 740 in Wales.

EDUCATION

Main article: Education in England
Education in England
See also: List of universities in England
England
The frontage of Warwick School , one of the oldest independent schools in England
England

The Department for Education
Department for Education
is the government department responsible for issues affecting people in England
England
up to the age of 19, including education. State-run and state-funded schools are attended by approximately 93% of English schoolchildren. Of these, a minority are faith schools (primarily Church of England
Church of England
or Roman Catholic
Roman Catholic
schools). Children who are between the ages of 3 and 5 attend nursery or an Early Years Foundation Stage reception unit within a primary school. Children between the ages of 5 and 11 attend primary school, and secondary school is attended by those aged between 11 and 16. After finishing compulsory education, students take GCSE examinations. Students may then opt to continue into further education for two years. Further education colleges (particularly sixth form colleges ) often form part of a secondary school site. A-level
A-level
examinations are sat by a large number of further education students, and often form the basis of an application to university.

Although most English secondary schools are comprehensive , in some areas there are selective intake grammar schools , to which entrance is subject to passing the eleven-plus exam. Around 7.2% of English schoolchildren attend private schools , which are funded by private sources. Standards in state schools are monitored by the Office for Standards in Education , and in private schools by the Independent Schools Inspectorate . King\'s College , University of Cambridge

Higher education students normally attend university from age 18 onwards, where they study for an academic degree . There are over 90 universities in England, all but one of which are public institutions . The Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
Department for Business, Innovation and Skills
is the government department responsible for higher education in England. Students are generally entitled to student loans to cover the cost of tuition fees and living costs. The first degree offered to undergraduates is the Bachelor\'s degree , which usually takes three years to complete. Students are then able to work towards a postgraduate degree, which usually takes one year, or towards a doctorate, which takes three or more years. King\'s College London
London
's Maughan Library , the biggest university library in the UK

England\'s universities include some of the highest-ranked universities in the world; University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
, Imperial College London
London
, University of Oxford
University of Oxford
, University College London
London
and King\'s College London
London
are all ranked in the global top 30 in the 2018 QS World University Rankings . The London
London
School of Economics
Economics
has been described as the world's leading social science institution for both teaching and research. The London
London
Business School is considered one of the world's leading business schools and in 2010 its MBA programme was ranked best in the world by the Financial Times . Academic degrees in England
England
are usually split into classes: first class (1st), upper second class (2:1), lower second class (2:2), third (3rd), and unclassified.

The King\'s School, Canterbury and King\'s School, Rochester are the oldest schools in the English-speaking world. Many of England's most well-known schools, such as Winchester College
Winchester College
, Eton , St Paul\'s School , Harrow School and Rugby School
Rugby School
are fee-paying institutions.

CULTURE

Main article: Culture of England
Culture of England
Further information: English Renaissance
Renaissance

ARCHITECTURE

A red telephone box in front of St Paul\'s Cathedral , one of the most important buildings of the English Baroque period

Many ancient standing stone monuments were erected during the prehistoric period, amongst the best-known are Stonehenge
Stonehenge
, Devil\'s Arrows , Rudston Monolith
Rudston Monolith
and Castlerigg . With the introduction of Ancient Roman architecture
Roman architecture
there was a development of basilicas , baths , amphitheaters , triumphal arches , villas , Roman temples , Roman roads , Roman forts , stockades and aqueducts . It was the Romans who founded the first cities and towns such as London, Bath, York, Chester and St Albans. Perhaps the best-known example is Hadrian\'s Wall stretching right across northern England. Another well-preserved example is the Roman Baths at Bath, Somerset
Somerset
.

Early Medieval architecture\'s secular buildings were simple constructions mainly using timber with thatch for roofing. Ecclesiastical architecture ranged from a synthesis of Hiberno —Saxon monasticism , to Early Christian basilica and architecture characterised by pilaster-strips, blank arcading, baluster shafts and triangular headed openings. After the Norman conquest in 1066 various Castles in England were created so law lords could uphold their authority and in the north to protect from invasion. Some of the best-known medieval castles are the Tower of London
London
, Warwick Castle , Durham Castle
Durham Castle
and Windsor Castle
Windsor Castle
. Bodiam Castle is a 14th-century moated castle near Robertsbridge in East Sussex
East Sussex

Throughout the Plantagenet era an English Gothic architecture flourished—the medieval cathedrals such as Canterbury Cathedral
Canterbury Cathedral
, Westminster Abbey
Westminster Abbey
and York
York
Minster are prime examples. Expanding on the Norman base there was also castles , palaces , great houses , universities and parish churches . Medieval architecture was completed with the 16th-century Tudor style ; the four-centred arch, now known as the Tudor arch , was a defining feature as were wattle and daub houses domestically. In the aftermath of the Renaissance
Renaissance
a form of architecture echoing classical antiquity, synthesised with Christianity appeared—the English Baroque style, architect Christopher Wren was particularly championed.

Georgian architecture followed in a more refined style, evoking a simple Palladian form; the Royal Crescent at Bath is one of the best examples of this. With the emergence of romanticism during Victorian period, a Gothic Revival was launched—in addition to this around the same time the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
paved the way for buildings such as The Crystal Palace
Palace
. Since the 1930s various modernist forms have appeared whose reception is often controversial, though traditionalist resistance movements continue with support in influential places.

FOLKLORE

Main article: English folklore
English folklore
Robin Hood
Robin Hood
illustrated in 1912 wearing Lincoln green

English folklore
English folklore
developed over many centuries. Some of the characters and stories are present across England, but most belong to specific regions. Common folkloric beings include pixies , giants , elves , bogeymen , trolls , goblins and dwarves . While many legends and folk-customs are thought to be ancient, for instance the tales featuring Offa of Angel and Wayland the Smith , others date from after the Norman invasion; Robin Hood
Robin Hood
and his Merry Men of Sherwood and their battles with the Sheriff of Nottingham
Nottingham
being, perhaps, the best known.

During the High Middle Ages
Middle Ages
tales originating from Brythonic traditions entered English folklore—the Arthurian myth . These were derived from Anglo-Norman , Welsh and French sources, featuring King Arthur , Camelot , Excalibur
Excalibur
, Merlin
Merlin
and the Knights of the Round Table such as Lancelot
Lancelot
. These stories are most centrally brought together within Geoffrey of Monmouth 's Historia Regum Britanniae (History of the Kings of Britain). Another early figure from British tradition , King Cole , may have been based on a real figure from Sub-Roman Britain. Many of the tales and pseudo-histories make up part of the wider Matter of Britain , a collection of shared British folklore.

Some folk figures are based on semi or actual historical people whose story has been passed down centuries; Lady Godiva for instance was said to have ridden naked on horseback through Coventry
Coventry
, Hereward the Wake was a heroic English figure resisting the Norman invasion, Herne the Hunter is an equestrian ghost associated with Windsor Forest and Great Park and Mother Shipton is the archetypal witch. On 5 November people make bonfires, set off fireworks and eat toffee apples in commemoration of the foiling of the Gunpowder Plot centred on Guy Fawkes . The chivalrous bandit, such as Dick Turpin , is a recurring character, while Blackbeard
Blackbeard
is the archetypal pirate. There are various national and regional folk activities, participated in to this day, such as Morris dancing , Maypole dancing , Rapper sword in the North East, Long Sword dance in Yorkshire, Mummers Plays , bottle-kicking in Leicestershire, and cheese-rolling at Cooper\'s Hill . There is no official national costume, but a few are well established such as the Pearly Kings and Queens associated with cockneys, the Royal Guard , the Morris costume and Beefeaters .

CUISINE

Main article: English cuisine Fish and chips
Fish and chips
is a very popular dish in England
England

Since the early modern period the food of England
England
has historically been characterised by its simplicity of approach and a reliance on the high quality of natural produce. During the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
and through the Renaissance
Renaissance
period, English cuisine enjoyed an excellent reputation, though a decline began during the Industrial Revolution with the move away from the land and increasing urbanisation of the populace. The cuisine of England
England
has, however, recently undergone a revival, which has been recognised by the food critics with some good ratings in Restaurant 's best restaurant in the world charts. An early book of English recipes is the Forme of Cury
Forme of Cury
from the royal court of Richard II . Apple pie
Apple pie
has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages

Traditional examples of English food include the Sunday roast
Sunday roast
, featuring a roasted joint (usually beef, lamb , chicken or pork) served with assorted vegetables, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
pudding , and gravy . Other prominent meals include fish and chips and the full English breakfast (generally consisting of bacon , sausages , grilled tomatoes, fried bread, black pudding , baked beans , mushrooms , and eggs). Various meat pies are consumed such as steak and kidney pie , steak and ale pie , cottage pie , pork pie (the latter usually eaten cold) and the Cornish Pasty
Cornish Pasty
.

Sausages
Sausages
are commonly eaten, either as bangers and mash or toad in the hole . Lancashire
Lancashire
hotpot is a well known stew in the northwest. Some of the more popular cheeses are Cheddar , Red Leicester
Red Leicester
and Wensleydale together with Blue Stilton . Many Anglo-Indian hybrid dishes, curries , have been created such as chicken tikka masala and balti . Traditional English dessert dishes include apple pie or other fruit pies; spotted dick – all generally served with custard ; and, more recently, sticky toffee pudding . Sweet pastries include scones (either plain or containing dried fruit) served with jam and/or cream, dried fruit loaves, Eccles cakes and mince pies as well as a wide range of sweet or spiced biscuits. Common drinks include tea, whose popularity was increased by Catherine of Braganza
Catherine of Braganza
, whilst frequently consumed alcoholic drinks include wines, ciders and English beers , such as bitter , mild , stout , and brown ale .

VISUAL ARTS

Main article: English art See also: Arts Council England The Lady of Shalott by John William Waterhouse
John William Waterhouse
in the Pre-Raphaelite style

The earliest known examples are the prehistoric rock and cave art pieces, most prominent in North Yorkshire
Yorkshire
, Northumberland
Northumberland
and Cumbria , but also feature further south, for example at Creswell Crags
Creswell Crags
. With the arrival of Roman culture
Roman culture
in the 1st century, various forms of art such as statues, busts, glasswork and mosaics were the norm. There are numerous surviving artefacts, such as those at Lullingstone and Aldborough . During the Early Middle Ages the style favoured sculpted crosses and ivories, manuscript painting, gold and enamel jewellery, demonstrating a love of intricate, interwoven designs such as in the Staffordshire
Staffordshire
Hoard discovered in 2009. Some of these blended Gaelic and Anglian styles, such as the Lindisfarne Gospels and Vespasian Psalter . Later Gothic art was popular at Winchester and Canterbury, examples survive such as Benedictional of St. Æthelwold
Benedictional of St. Æthelwold
and Luttrell Psalter .

The Tudor era saw prominent artists as part of their court, portrait painting which would remain an enduring part of English art, was boosted by German Hans Holbein , natives such as Nicholas Hilliard built on this. Under the Stuarts, Continental artists were influential especially the Flemish, examples from the period include— Anthony van Dyck
Anthony van Dyck
, Peter Lely
Peter Lely
, Godfrey Kneller
Godfrey Kneller
and William Dobson . The 18th century was a time of significance with the founding of the Royal Academy
Royal Academy
, a classicism based on the High Renaissance
Renaissance
prevailed— Thomas Gainsborough
Thomas Gainsborough
and Joshua Reynolds
Joshua Reynolds
became two of England's most treasured artists.

The Norwich School continued the landscape tradition, while the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood with their vivid and detailed style revived the Early Renaissance
Renaissance
style— Holman Hunt , Dante Gabriel Rossetti
Dante Gabriel Rossetti
and John Everett Millais
John Everett Millais
were leaders. Prominent amongst 20th-century artists was Henry Moore
Henry Moore
, regarded as the voice of British sculpture, and of British modernism in general. Contemporary painters include Lucian Freud , whose work Benefits Supervisor Sleeping in 2008 set a world record for sale value of a painting by a living artist.

LITERATURE, POETRY AND PHILOSOPHY

Main article: English literature Geoffrey Chaucer was an English author, poet and philosopher, best remembered for his unfinished frame narrative The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales

Early authors such as Bede
Bede
and Alcuin wrote in Latin. The period of Old English
Old English
literature provided the epic poem Beowulf
Beowulf
and the secular prose of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle
, along with Christian writings such as Judith , Cædmon 's Hymn and hagiographies . Following the Norman conquest Latin
Latin
continued amongst the educated classes, as well as an Anglo-Norman literature .

Middle English
Middle English
literature emerged with Geoffrey Chaucer , author of The Canterbury Tales
The Canterbury Tales
, along with Gower , the Pearl Poet
Pearl Poet
and Langland . William of Ockham and Roger Bacon
Bacon
, who were Franciscans , were major philosophers of the Middle Ages. Julian of Norwich , who wrote Revelations of Divine Love , was a prominent Christian mystic. With the English Renaissance
Renaissance
literature in the Early Modern English style appeared. William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
, whose works include Hamlet
Hamlet
, Romeo and Juliet , Macbeth
Macbeth
, and A Midsummer Night\'s Dream , remains one of the most championed authors in English literature.

Christopher Marlowe
Christopher Marlowe
, Edmund Spenser , Philip Sydney , Thomas Kyd , John Donne , and Ben Jonson
Ben Jonson
are other established authors of the Elizabethan age . Francis Bacon
Bacon
and Thomas Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
wrote on empiricism and materialism , including scientific method and social contract . Filmer wrote on the Divine Right of Kings . Marvell was the best-known poet of the Commonwealth , while John Milton
John Milton
authored Paradise Lost during the Restoration . This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself. This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. William Shakespeare .

Some of the most prominent philosophers of the Enlightenment were John Locke
John Locke
, Thomas Paine
Thomas Paine
, Samuel Johnson and Jeremy Bentham . More radical elements were later countered by Edmund Burke who is regarded as the founder of conservatism. The poet Alexander Pope with his satirical verse became well regarded. The English played a significant role in romanticism : Samuel Taylor Coleridge , Lord Byron
Lord Byron
, John Keats , Mary Shelley , Percy Bysshe Shelley , William Blake
William Blake
and William Wordsworth
William Wordsworth
were major figures.

In response to the Industrial Revolution
Industrial Revolution
, agrarian writers sought a way between liberty and tradition; William Cobbett
William Cobbett
, G. K. Chesterton and Hilaire Belloc were main exponents, while the founder of guild socialism , Arthur Penty , and cooperative movement advocate G. D. H. Cole are somewhat related. Empiricism
Empiricism
continued through John Stuart Mill and Bertrand Russell , while Bernard Williams
Bernard Williams
was involved in analytics . Authors from around the Victorian era include Charles Dickens , the Brontë sisters , Jane Austen
Jane Austen
, George Eliot , Rudyard Kipling , Thomas Hardy , H. G. Wells and Lewis Carroll
Lewis Carroll
. Since then England
England
has continued to produce novelists such as George Orwell
George Orwell
, D. H. Lawrence , Virginia
Virginia
Woolf , C. S. Lewis , Enid Blyton , Aldous Huxley , Agatha Christie , Terry Pratchett
Terry Pratchett
, J. R. R. Tolkien , and J. K. Rowling .

PERFORMING ARTS

Further information: Folk music of England See also: Music of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

Thomas Tallis\' "Lamentations I" ------------------------- "Greensleeves" ------------------------- Henry Purcell\'s "The Queen\'s Dolour (A Farewell)" ------------------------- Elgar\'s "Pomp codecs="vorbis"" data-title="Original Ogg file (144 kbps)" data-shorttitle="Ogg source" data-width="0" data-height="0" data-bandwidth="144049" />

------------------------- Problems playing these files? See media help .

The traditional folk music of England
England
is centuries old and has contributed to several genres prominently; mostly sea shanties , jigs , hornpipes and dance music . It has its own distinct variations and regional peculiarities. Wynkyn de Worde printed ballads of Robin Hood from the 16th century are an important artefact, as are John Playford 's The Dancing Master and Robert Harley\'s Roxburghe Ballads collections. Some of the best-known songs are Greensleeves , Pastime with Good Company , Maggie May and Spanish Ladies
Spanish Ladies
amongst others. Many nursery rhymes are of English origin such as Twinkle Twinkle Little Star , Roses are red , Jack and Jill , London
London
Bridge Is Falling Down , The Grand Old Duke of York
York
, Hey Diddle Diddle and Humpty Dumpty . Traditional English Christmas carols include "We Wish You a Merry Christmas ", " The First Noel " and " God Rest You Merry, Gentlemen ". The Beatles
The Beatles
are the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed band in popular music.

Early English composers in classical music include Renaissance artists Thomas Tallis and William Byrd
William Byrd
, followed up by Henry Purcell from the Baroque period . German-born George Frideric Handel became a British subject and spent most of his composing life in London, creating some of the most well-known works of classical music, The Messiah , Water Music , and Music for the Royal Fireworks
Fireworks
. One of his four Coronation Anthems , Zadok the Priest
Zadok the Priest
, composed for the coronation of George II , has been performed at every subsequent British coronation , traditionally during the sovereign's anointing. There was a revival in the profile of composers from England
England
in the 20th century led by Edward Elgar
Edward Elgar
, Benjamin Britten
Benjamin Britten
, Frederick Delius , Gustav Holst
Gustav Holst
, Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams
and others. Present-day composers from England
England
include Michael Nyman , best known for The Piano , and Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
, whose musicals have achieved enormous success in the West End and worldwide.

In the field of popular music , many English bands and solo artists have been cited as the most influential and best-selling musicians of all time. Acts such as The Beatles
The Beatles
, Led Zeppelin
Led Zeppelin
, Pink Floyd , Elton John , Queen , Rod Stewart and The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones
are among the highest selling recording artists in the world. Many musical genres have origins in (or strong associations with) England, such as British invasion , progressive rock , hard rock , Mod , glam rock , heavy metal , Britpop , indie rock , gothic rock , shoegazing , acid house , garage , trip hop , drum and bass and dubstep .

Large outdoor music festivals in the summer and autumn are popular, such as Glastonbury , V Festival , and the Reading and Leeds
Leeds
Festivals . The most prominent opera house in England
England
is the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden
Covent Garden
. The Proms – a season of orchestral classical concerts held at the Royal Albert Hall
Royal Albert Hall
in London
London
– is a major cultural event in the English calendar, and takes place yearly. The Royal Ballet is one of the world's foremost classical ballet companies, its reputation built on two prominent figures of 20th-century dance, prima ballerina Margot Fonteyn
Margot Fonteyn
and choreographer Frederick Ashton .

CINEMA

See also: Cinema of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Ridley Scott was among a group of English filmmakers, including Tony Scott , Alan Parker , Hugh Hudson and Adrian Lyne , who emerged from making 1970s UK television commercials.

England
England
(and the UK as a whole) has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema, producing some of the greatest actors, directors and motion pictures of all time, including Alfred Hitchcock , Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
, David Lean , Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
, Vivien Leigh , John Gielgud
John Gielgud
, Peter Sellers , Julie Andrews
Julie Andrews
, Michael Caine
Michael Caine
, Gary Oldman , Helen Mirren , Kate Winslet and Daniel Day-Lewis . Hitchcock and Lean are among the most critically acclaimed filmmakers. Hitchcock's first thriller, The Lodger: A Story of the London
London
Fog (1926), helped shape the thriller genre in film, while his 1929 film, Blackmail , is often regarded as the first British sound feature film.

Major film studios in England
England
include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton . Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises (Harry Potter and James Bond ). Ealing Studios in London
London
has a claim to being the oldest continuously working film studio in the world. Famous for recording many motion picture film scores , the London
London
Symphony Orchestra first performed film music in 1935.

The BFI Top 100 British films includes Monty Python\'s Life of Brian (1979), a film regularly voted the funniest of all time by the UK public. English producers are also active in international co-productions and English actors, directors and crew feature regularly in American films. The UK film council ranked David Yates , Christopher Nolan , Mike Newell , Ridley Scott and Paul Greengrass the five most commercially successful English directors since 2001. Other contemporary English directors include Sam Mendes , Guy Ritchie
Guy Ritchie
and Steve McQueen . Current actors include Tom Hardy , Daniel Craig
Daniel Craig
, Benedict Cumberbatch and Emma Watson . Acclaimed for his motion capture work, Andy Serkis opened The Imaginarium Studios in London
London
in 2011. The visual effects company Framestore in London
London
has produced some of the most critically acclaimed special effects in modern film. Many successful Hollywood films have been based on English people, stories or events. The \'English Cycle\' of Disney animated films include Alice in Wonderland
Alice in Wonderland
, The Jungle Book and Winnie the Pooh .

MUSEUMS, LIBRARIES, AND GALLERIES

Further information: List of museums in England The Natural History Museum in London
London

English Heritage
English Heritage
is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport . The charity National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty holds a contrasting role. 17 of the 25 United Kingdom UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Sites fall within England. Some of the best-known of these are: Hadrian\'s Wall , Stonehenge, Avebury and Associated Sites , Tower of London
London
, Jurassic Coast , Saltaire
Saltaire
, Ironbridge Gorge , Studley Royal Park
Studley Royal Park
and various others.

There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum
British Museum
. Its collection of more than seven million objects is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present. The British Library in London
London
is the national library and is one of the world's largest research libraries , holding over 150 million items in all known languages and formats; including around 25 million books. The most senior art gallery is the National Gallery in Trafalgar Square
Trafalgar Square
, which houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900. The Tate
Tate
galleries house the national collections of British and international modern art; they also host the famously controversial Turner Prize .

SPORTS

Main article: Sport in England
Sport in England
Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth II
presenting the World Cup trophy to 1966 World Cup winning England
England
captain Bobby Moore

England
England
has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world. Sports originating in England
England
include association football, cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash , rounders , hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting . It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One
Formula One
.

Football is the most popular of these sports. The England
England
national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in 1872. Referred to as the "home of football" by FIFA
FIFA
, England
England
hosted the 1966 FIFA
FIFA
World Cup , and won the tournament by defeating West Germany 4–2 in the final , with Geoff Hurst scoring a hat-trick . With a British television audience peak of 32.30 million viewers, the final is the most watched television event ever in the UK. Wembley Stadium , home of the England football team , has a 90,000 capacity. It is the biggest stadium in the UK

At club level England
England
is recognised by FIFA
FIFA
as the birthplace of club football, due to Sheffield
Sheffield
F.C. founded in 1857 being the world's oldest club. The Football Association is the oldest governing body in the sport, with the rules of football first drafted in 1863 by Ebenezer Cobb Morley . The FA Cup
FA Cup
and The Football League
The Football League
were the first cup and league competitions respectively. In the modern day the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league, most lucrative, and amongst the elite.

As is the case throughout the UK, football in England
England
is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants. The European Cup (now UEFA Champions League ) has been won by several English clubs. England
England
playing Australia
Australia
at Lord\'s Cricket
Cricket
Ground in the 2009 Ashes series

Cricket
Cricket
is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald . The England cricket team
England cricket team
is a composite England
England
and Wales team. One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes
The Ashes
series between England
England
and Australia
Australia
, contested since 1882. The climax of the 2005 Ashes was viewed by 7.4 million as it was available on terrestrial television. England
England
has hosted four Cricket
Cricket
World Cups (1975, 1979, 1983, 1999) and will host the 2019 edition , but never won the tournament, reaching the final 3 times. However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in 2009 , winning this format in 2010 beating rivals Australia
Australia
in the final. In the domestic competition, the County Championship , Yorkshire
Yorkshire
are by far the most successful club having won the competition 31 times. Lord\'s Cricket
Cricket
Ground situated in London
London
is sometimes referred to as the "Mecca of Cricket".

William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
. In 1994, then President of the IOC , Juan Antonio Samaranch , laid a wreath on Brooke's grave, and said, "I came to pay homage and tribute to Dr Brookes, who really was the founder of the modern Olympic Games". London
London
has hosted the Summer Olympic Games three times, in 1908 , 1948 , and 2012 . England
England
competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years. Sport England
Sport England
is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. The England rugby union team during their victory parade after winning the 2003 Rugby World Cup

Rugby union originated in Rugby School
Rugby School
, Warwickshire in the early 19th century. The England
England
rugby union team won the 2003 Rugby World Cup , with Jonny Wilkinson scoring the winning drop goal in the last minute of extra time against Australia. England
England
was one of the host nations of the competition in the 1991 Rugby World Cup and also hosted the 2015 Rugby World Cup
2015 Rugby World Cup
. The top level of club participation is the English Premiership . Leicester Tigers , London
London
Wasps , Bath Rugby and Northampton Saints
Northampton Saints
have had success in the Europe-wide Heineken Cup .

Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in 1895. Since 2008, the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain
Great Britain
national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired. Club sides play in Super League , the present-day embodiment of the Rugby Football League Championship . Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire
Lancashire
, Yorkshire
Yorkshire
and Cumbria
Cumbria
. All eleven English clubs in Super League are based in the north of England. Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F.C. St. Helens , Leeds
Leeds
Rhinos and Huddersfield Giants ; the former three have all won the World Club Challenge previously.

Golf
Golf
has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf
Golf
. There are both professional tours for men and women, in two main tours: the PGA and the European Tour . England
England
has produced grand slam winners: Cyril Walker , Tony Jacklin , Nick Faldo
Nick Faldo
, and Justin Rose in the men's and Laura Davies , Alison Nicholas , and Karen Stupples in the women's. The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major, is The Open Championship , played both in England
England
and Scotland. The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup
Ryder Cup
, is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy. Nick Faldo is the most successful Ryder Cup
Ryder Cup
player ever, having won the most points (25) of any player on either the European or US teams. Centre Court
Centre Court
at Wimbledon . First played in 1877, the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world.

Tennis
Tennis
was created in Birmingham, England
England
in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious. Wimbledon is a tournament that has a major place in the British cultural calendar. Fred Perry
Fred Perry
was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in 1936. He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles and helped lead the Great Britain
Great Britain
team to four Davis Cup wins. English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in 1969 and Virginia
Virginia
Wade in 1977.

In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England
England
has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies. World champions include Bob Fitzsimmons , Ted "Kid" Lewis , Randolph Turpin , Nigel Benn , Chris Eubank , Frank Bruno
Frank Bruno
, Lennox Lewis
Lennox Lewis
, Ricky Hatton , Naseem Hamed
Naseem Hamed
, Amir Khan , Carl Froch , and David Haye
David Haye
. In women's boxing, Nicola Adams became the world's first woman to win an Olympic boxing Gold medal at the 2012 Summer Olympics .

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing . The National Hunt horse race the Grand National , is held annually at Aintree Racecourse in early April. It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history. Red Rum is also the best-known racehorse in the country. Former Formula One
Formula One
world champion Nigel Mansell driving at Silverstone in 1990. The circuit hosted the first ever Formula One
Formula One
race in 1950

The 1950 British Grand Prix at Silverstone was the first race in the newly created Formula One
Formula One
World Championship . Since then, England has produced some of the greatest drivers in the sport, including; John Surtees
John Surtees
, Stirling Moss , Graham Hill (only driver to have won the Triple Crown ), Nigel Mansell (only man to hold F1 and IndyCar titles at the same time), Damon Hill
Damon Hill
, Lewis Hamilton
Lewis Hamilton
and Jenson Button . It has manufactured some of the most technically advanced racing cars, and many of today's racing companies choose England
England
as their base of operations for its engineering knowledge and organisation. McLaren Automotive , Williams F1 , Team Lotus , Honda
Honda
, Brawn GP
Brawn GP
, Benetton , Renault
Renault
, and Red Bull Racing are all, or have been, located in the south of England. England
England
also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Mike Hailwood , John Surtees
John Surtees
, Phil Read
Phil Read
, Geoff Duke
Geoff Duke
, and Barry Sheene . Mo Farah is the most successful British track athlete in modern Olympic Games
Olympic Games
history, winning the 5000 m and 10,000 m events at two Olympic Games
Olympic Games

Darts
Darts
is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game . The sport is governed by the World Darts
Darts
Federation , one of its member organisations is the BDO , which annually stages the Lakeside World Professional Championship, the other being the Professional Darts Corporation (PDC), which runs its own world championship at Alexandra Palace
Palace
in London. Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won 187 professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships . Trina Gulliver is the ten-time Women's World Professional Darts
Darts
Champion of the British Darts Organisation . Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker , and England
England
has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O\'Sullivan .

The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing ; founding and winning some of the worlds most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race , a regatta, and the America\'s Cup . England
England
has produced some of the world's greatest sailors, including, Francis Chichester
Chichester
, Herbert Hasler , John Ridgway , Robin Knox-Johnston , Ellen MacArthur , Mike Golding , Paul Goodison , and the most successful Olympic sailor ever Ben Ainslie .

NATIONAL SYMBOLS

Main article: National symbols of England The Royal Arms of England
England

The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England
England
since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa . The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from 1190 onwards, so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean. A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George
Saint George
, along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner. Since 1606 the St George's Cross has formed part of the design of the Union Flag
Union Flag
, a Pan-British flag designed by King James I . The Tudor rose
Tudor rose
, England's national floral emblem

There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose
Tudor rose
, the nation's floral emblem , and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England
England
. The Tudor rose
Tudor rose
was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace. It is a syncretic symbol in that it merged the white rose of the Yorkists and the red rose of the Lancastrians —cadet branches of the Plantagenets who went to war over control of the nation. It is also known as the Rose of England. The oak tree is a symbol of England, representing strength and endurance. The Royal Oak
Oak
symbol and Oak Apple Day commemorate the escape of King Charles II from the grasp of the parliamentarians after his father's execution: he hid in an oak tree to avoid detection before safely reaching exile.

The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart
Richard the Lionheart
in 1198. It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy
Normandy
. England
England
does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
as a whole has God Save the Queen
God Save the Queen
. However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: Jerusalem , Land of Hope and Glory (used for England
England
during the 2002 Commonwealth Games ), and I Vow to Thee, My Country
Country
. England's National Day is 23 April which is St George\'s Day : St George is the patron saint of England.

SEE ALSO

* England
England
portal * United Kingdom
United Kingdom
portal

* Outline of England
Outline of England

* Outline of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom

NOTES

* ^ According to the European Statistical Agency , London
London
is the largest Larger Urban Zone in the EU, a measure of metropolitan area which comprises a city's urban core as well as its surrounding commuting zone. London's municipal population is also the largest in the EU . * ^ As Roger Scruton explains, "The Reformation must not be confused with the changes introduced into the Church of England
Church of England
during the 'Reformation Parliament' of 1529–36, which were of a political rather than a religious nature, designed to unite the secular and religious sources of authority within a single sovereign power: the Anglican Church did not make substantial change in doctrine until later." * ^ Figure of 550,000 military deaths is for England and Wales
England and Wales
* ^ For instance, in 1980 around 50 million Americans claimed English ancestry . In Canada
Canada
there are around 6.5 million Canadians who claim English ancestry . Around 70% of Australians in 1999 denoted their origins as Anglo-Celtic , a category which includes all peoples from Great Britain
Great Britain
and Ireland. Chileans of English descent are somewhat of an anomaly in that Chile
Chile
itself was never part of the British Empire, but today there are around 420,000 people of English origins living there. * ^ A B People who strictly identified as "Pagan". Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number. * ^ People who strictly identified as "Wiccan". Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number. * ^ Students attending English universities now have to pay tuition fees towards the cost of their education, as do English students who choose to attend university in Scotland. Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament. * ^ While people such as Norman Foster and Richard Rogers represent the modernist movement, Prince Charles since the 1980s has voiced strong views against it in favour of traditional architecture and put his ideas into practice at his Poundbury development in Dorset. Architects like Raymond Erith
Raymond Erith
, Francis Johnson and Quinlan Terry continued to practise in the classical style. * ^ These tales may have come to prominence, at least in part, as an attempt by the Norman ruling elite to legitimise their rule of the British Isles, finding Anglo-Saxon history ill-suited to the task during an era when members of the deposed House of Wessex
Wessex
, especially Edgar the Ætheling and his nephews of the Scottish House of Dunkeld , were still active in the isles. Also Michael Wood explains; "Over the centuries the figure of Arthur became a symbol of British history—a way of explaining the matter of Britain, the relationship between the Saxons
Saxons
and the Celts, and a way of exorcising ghosts and healing the wounds of the past."

REFERENCES

* ^ "2011 Census: KS201EW Ethnic group: local authorities in England
England
and Wales". Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 18 April 2014. * ^ Region and Country
Country
Profiles, Key Statistics and Profiles, October 2013, ONS. Retrieved 9 August 2015. * ^ "Population Estimates for UK, England
England
and Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland: mid-2016". * ^ A B "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org. * ^ A B Office for National Statistics. "Regional gross value added (income approach), UK: 1997 to 2015, December 2015". Retrieved 24 April 2017. * ^ Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. "The Countries of the UK". statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 20 December 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ "Countries within a country". number-10.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ "Changes in the list of subdivision names and code elements (Page 11)" (PDF). International Organization for Standardization
International Organization for Standardization
. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ " England
England
– Culture". britainusa.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ " Country
Country
profile: United Kingdom". BBC News. news.bbc.co.uk. 26 October 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ "Industrial Revolution". Ace.mmu.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 27 April 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ A B 2011 Census – Population and household estimates for England
England
and Wales, March 2011. Accessed 31 May 2013. * ^ William E. Burns, A Brief History of Great Britain, p. xxi * ^ Acts of Union 1707
Acts of Union 1707
parliament.uk. Retrieved 27 January 2011 * ^ "England". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 21 July 2010.

* ^ Ripley 1869 , p. 570. * ^ Molyneaux 2015 , pp. 6–7. * ^ "England". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
. Retrieved 12 July 2013. * ^ "Germania". Tacitus
Tacitus
. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Angle". Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Crystal 2004 , pp. 26–27 * ^ Forbes, John (1848). The Principles of Gaelic Grammar. Edinburgh: Oliver, Boyd and Tweeddale. * ^ A B Massey 2007 , p. 440. * ^ Greek "... ἐν τούτῳ γε μὴν νῆσοι μέγιστοι τυγχάνουσιν οὖσαι δύο, Βρεττανικαὶ λεγόμεναι, Ἀλβίων καὶ Ἰέρνη, ...", transliteration "... en toutoi ge men nesoi megistoi tynchanousin ousai dyo, Brettanikai legomenai, Albion
Albion
kai Ierne, ...", translation "... There are two very large islands in it, called the British Isles, Albion
Albion
and Ierne; ..."; Aristotle
Aristotle
or Pseudo- Aristotle
Aristotle
. "On the Cosmos, 393b12". On Sophistical Refutations. On Coming-to-be and Passing Away. On the Cosmos. Translated by Forster, E. S.; Furley, D. J. William Heinemann LTD, Harvard University Press. pp. 360–361. at the Open Library Project. DjVu * ^ Room 2006 , p. 23. * ^ Major 2004 , p. 84. * ^ Avienus ' Ora Maritima, verses 111–112, i.e. eamque late gens Hiernorum colit; propinqua rursus insula Albionum patet. * ^ Foster 1988 , p. 9. * ^ "500,000 BC – Boxgrove". Current Archaeology. Current Publishing. Retrieved 20 December 2010. * ^ "Palaeolithic Archaeology Teaching Resource Box" (PDF). Palaeolithic Rivers of South-West Britain Project(2006). Retrieved 20 December 2010. * ^ "Chalk east". A Geo East Project. Archived from the original on 5 March 2011. Retrieved 20 December 2010. * ^ Oppenheimer 2006 , p. 173. * ^ "Tertiary Rivers: Tectonic and structural background". University of Cambridge. Retrieved 9 September 2009. * ^ "Function and significance of Bell Beaker pottery according to data from residue analyses". Retrieved 21 December 2010. * ^ Reid, Struan (1994). Inventions and Trade. P.8. ISBN 978-0-921921-30-1 . Retrieved 23 December 2010. * ^ Burke, Jason (2 December 2000). "Dig uncovers Boudicca\'s brutal streak". The Observer. London. Archived from the original on 22 October 2003. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Cornelius Tacitus, The Annals". Alfred John Church, William Jackson Brudribh, Ed. Retrieved 22 December 2010. * ^ Bedoyere, Guy. "Architecture in Roman Britain". Heritage Key. Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 23 December 2010.

* ^ Philip, Robert (1860). The History of Progress in Great Britain, Volume 2. Retrieved 23 December 2010. * ^ Bob Rees; Paul Shute; Nigel Kelly (9 January 2003). Medicine through time. Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-435-30841-4 . Retrieved 24 December 2010. * ^ Rankov 1994 , p. 16. * ^ Wright 2008 , p. 143. * ^ A B James, Edward. "Overview: Anglo-Saxons, 410 to 800". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2010. * ^ See Early Christian Christianity, Brendan Lehane, Constable, London: John Murray Ltd., 1968 * ^ "The Christian Tradition". PicturesofEngland.com. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Kirby 2000 , p. 4 * ^ Lyon 1960 , p. 23. * ^ "Overview: The Normans, 1066–1154". BBC. Retrieved 3 December 2010. * ^ Crouch 2006 , pp. 2–4 * ^ "Norman invasion word impact study". BBC News. 20 February 2008. Retrieved 3 December 2010. * ^ A B Bartlett 1999 , p. 124. * ^ "Edward I (r. 1272–1307)". Royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2009. * ^ Fowler 1967 , p. 208. * ^ Ziegler 2003 , p. 230. * ^ Goldberg 1996 , p. 4. * ^ Crofton 2007 , p. 111. * ^ "Richard III (r. 1483–1485)". Royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 10 July 2008. Retrieved 21 September 2009. * ^ Hay, Denys (1988). Renaissance
Renaissance
essays. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-907628-96-5 . Retrieved 26 December 2010. * ^ " Royal Navy
Royal Navy
History, Tudor Period and the Birth of a Regular Navy". Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2010. * ^ Smith, Goldwin. England
England
Under the Tudors. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-60620-939-4 . Retrieved 26 December 2010. * ^ Scruton 1982 , p. 470. * ^ Ordahl, Karen (25 February 2007). Roanak:the abandoned colony. Rowman & Littlefield publishers Inc. ISBN 978-0-7425-5263-0 . Retrieved 24 December 2010. * ^ A B Colley 1992 , p. 12. * ^ "Making the Act of Union". Parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 9 June 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Hay, Denys. "The term "Great Britain" in the Middle Ages" (PDF). ads.ahds.ac.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 19 February 2009. * ^ " Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
(English statesman)". Encyclopædia Britannica . britannica.com. 2009. Retrieved 8 August 2009. * ^ Philip J. Adler; Randall L. Pouwels (27 November 2007). World Civilization. p. 340. ISBN 978-0-495-50262-3 . Retrieved 24 December 2010. * ^ "Democracy Live: Black Rod". BBC. Retrieved 6 August 2008 * ^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Black Rod". Encyclopædia Britannica . 4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. * ^ "London\'s Burning: The Great Fire". BBC News. Retrieved 25 September 2009. * ^ A B "The first Parliament of Great Britain". Parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 21 June 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Gallagher 2006 , p. 14. * ^ Hudson, Pat. "The Workshop of the World". BBC. Retrieved 10 December 2010. * ^ A B Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
2000 , p. 5 * ^ McNeil & Nevell 2000 , p. 4. * ^ " Manchester
Manchester
– the first industrial city". Entry on Sciencemuseum website. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 17 March 2012. * ^ McNeil & Nevell 2000 , p. 9. * ^ Birmingham
Birmingham
City Council . "Heritage". visitbirmingham.com. Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2009.

* ^ Colley 1992 , p. 1. * ^ Haggard, Robert F. (2001). The persistence of Victorian liberalism:The Politics of Social Reform in Britain, 1870–1900. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-313-31305-9 . Retrieved 26 December 2010. * ^ Crawford, Elizabeth. "Women: From Abolition to the Vote". BBC. Retrieved 10 December 2010. * ^ Cox 1970 , p. 180 * ^ Golley, John (10 August 1996). "Obituaries: Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2 December 2010. * ^ Clark 1973 , p. 1. * ^ Wilson & Game 2002 , p. 55. * ^ Gallagher 2006 , pp. 10–11. * ^ A B Reitan 2003 , p. 50. * ^ Keating, Michael (1 January 1998). "Reforging the Union: Devolution and Constitutional Change in the United Kingdom". Publius: the Journal of Federalism. 28 (1): 217. doi :10.1093/oxfordjournals.pubjof.a029948 . Retrieved 4 February 2009. * ^ "The coming of the Tudors and the Act of Union". BBC Wales
Wales
. BBC News. 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2009. * ^ Kenny, English Andrew Norfolk
Norfolk
(5 November 2004). "Prescott\'s dream in tatters as North East rejects assembly". The Times. London. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "The British Parliamentary System". BBC News. Retrieved 20 April 2010. * ^ Cabinet Office
Cabinet Office
(26 March 2009). " Devolution in the United Kingdom". cabinetoffice.gov.uk. Retrieved 16 August 2009. * ^ "Lists of MPs". Parliament.uk. Retrieved 21 May 2009. * ^ "West Lothian question". BBC News. 31 October 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B "Are Scottish people
Scottish people
better off?". MSN Money. Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ " English nationalism
English nationalism
\'threat to UK\'". BBC News. 9 January 2000. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Davidson, Lorraine (3 June 2008). "Gordon Brown pressed on English parliament". The Times. London. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Grice, Andrew (1 July 2008). "English votes for English laws\' plan by Tories". The Independent. London. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Common Law". The People's Law Dictionary. ALM Media Properties. Retrieved 5 October 2013. * ^ "The Common Law in the British Empire". H-net.msu.edu. 19 October 2000. Retrieved 20 August 2011. * ^ Fafinski 2007 , p. 60. * ^ Fafinski 2007 , p. 127. * ^ "Constitutional reform: A Supreme Court for the United Kingdom" (PDF). DCA.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Fafinski 2007 , p. 67. * ^ "Crime over the last 25 years" (PDF). HomeOffice.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "New record high prison population". BBC News. 8 February 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Prison population figures". Ministry Of Justice. 2012. Archived from the original on 16 November 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. * ^ Cooper, Hilary (29 March 2011). "Tiers shed as regional government offices disappear". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 June 2011. * ^ Department for Communities and Local Government . "Prosperous Places" (PDF). communities.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
2002 , p. 100 * ^ Redcliffe-Maud & Wood 1974 . * ^ A B Singh 2009 , p. 53. * ^ Axford 2002 , p. 315. * ^ "English Channel". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. britannica.com. 2009. Retrieved 15 August 2009. * ^ "History". EuroTunnel.com. Archived from the original on 16 November 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "The River Severn". BBC. Retrieved 5 December 2010. * ^ " Severn Bore
Severn Bore
and Trent Aegir". Environment Agency. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 5 December 2010. * ^ " River Thames
River Thames
and London
London
(England)". London
London
Evening Standard. London. Retrieved 17 August 2009. * ^ A B " North West England & Isle of Man: climate". Met Office. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 5 December 2010. * ^ "World Regional Geography". Google Books. Joseph J. Hobbs. Retrieved 6 December 2017. * ^ "Pennines". Smmit Post. Retrieved 8 September 2009. * ^ "National Parks – About us". nationalparks.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 December 2010. * ^ A B C D "What is the Climate like in Britain?". Woodlands Kent. Archived from the original on 14 January 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Temperature record changes hands". BBC News. 30 September 2003. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "English Climate". MetOffice.com. Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. * ^ A B C D "2011 Census – Built-up areas". ONS . Retrieved 5 February 2014. * ^ A B O'Brian, Harriet (24 November 2007). "The Complete Guide To: Cathedral cities in the UK". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 12 August 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2009. * ^ " London
London
vs. New York, 2005–06". Cinco Dias. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Global Financial Centres Index, 2009–03" (PDF). City of London
London
Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. "Regional Accounts". statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2009. * ^ "The Welfare State – Never Ending Reform". BBC News. Retrieved 17 September 2009. * ^ Brignall, Miles (19 March 2014). "Personal allowance: Osborne\'s budget has been far from generous". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 June 2014. * ^ "CIA – The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved 27 April 2013.

* ^ "Financial Centre". London.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ City of London
London
Policy ; Resources Committee. "The Global Financial Centres Index" (PDF). cityoflondon.gov.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "The Bank\'s relationship with Parliament". BankofEngland.co.uk. Archived from the original on 8 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Monetary Policy Committee". BankofEngland.co.uk. Archived from the original on 8 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ " England
England
Exports". EconomyWatch.com. Archived from the original on 5 January 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Tovey, Alan. "New aerospace technologies to get £365 million funding". Retrieved 11 June 2017. * ^ "Born to fly: the real value of UK aerospace manufacture". * ^ A B C D "Reasons to be cheerful about the UK aerospace sector". theengineer.co.uk. * ^ "About – Rolls-Royce". Archived from the original on 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014. * ^ "World Guide – England
England
– Economy Overview". World Guide. Intute. Retrieved 9 September 2009. * ^ "Economy of the United Kingdom" (PDF). PTeducation. Retrieved 8 October 2009. * ^ " Metric system was British". BBC News. 13 July 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Isambard Kingdom Brunel". DesignMuseum.org. Archived from the original on 12 September 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Oakes 2002 , p. 214 * ^ Ronald Shillingford (2010). "The History of the World's Greatest- Entrepreneurs: Biographies of Success". p. 64–69 * ^ Saunders 1982 , p. 13 * ^ White 2009 , p. 335 * ^ Levine 1960 , p. 183 * ^ Wohleber, Curt (Spring 2006). "The Vacuum Cleaner". Invention & Technology Magazine. American Heritage Publishing. Archived from the original on 13 March 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010. * ^ "English Inventors and Inventions". English-Crafts.co.uk. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B O\'Hanlon 2008 , p. 205 * ^ A B C UK Parliament 2007 , p. 175 * ^ A B White 2002 , p. 63. * ^ "27 September 1825 – Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway". The Stockton and Darlington Railway. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013. * ^ "Delta Expects New Slots To Foster Growth At Heathrow Airport". The Wall Street Journal. 23 February 2011. Archived from the original on 19 May 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011. * ^ A B C Else 2007 , p. 781. * ^ "BBC History on William Beveridge". BBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "NHS Expenditure in England" (PDF). House of Commons Library. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "NHS costs and exemptions". Department of Health. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Budget 2008, Chapter C" (PDF). HM Treasury. 3 March 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Private sector role in NHS". BBC News. 30 June 2006. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. "Life expectancy". statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. Retrieved 20 July 2009. * ^ Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
. "Population estimates for UK, England
England
and Wales, Scotland
Scotland
and Northern Ireland
Ireland
– current datasets". statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 October 2013. * ^ United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs . "World Population Prospects: Analytical Report for the 2004". United Nations. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Mason, Chris (16 September 2008). "Density of England
England
rises". BBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Khan, Urmee (16 September 2008). " England
England
is most crowded country in Europe". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B C D E F Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
(2011). "Ethnicity and National Identity in England and Wales
England and Wales
2011". Statistics.gov.uk. Retrieved 5 October 2013. * ^ Oppenheimer 2006 , p. 378. * ^ "British and Irish, descendant of the Basques?". Eitb24.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2009.

* ^ Oppenheimer, Stephen (10 October 2006). "What does being British mean? Ask the Spanish". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 15 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Wade, Nicholas (6 March 2007). "A United Kingdom? Maybe". The New York
York
Times. Retrieved 8 August 2009. * ^ Thomas, M.G.; Stumpf, M.P.; Härke, H. (2006). "Evidence for an apartheid-like social structure in early Anglo-Saxon England" . Proceedings: Biological Sciences. 273 (1601): 2651–7. doi :10.1098/rspb.2006.3627 . PMC 1635457  . PMID 17002951 . * ^ "Roman Britons after 410". Britarch.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 22 May 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Cameron, Keith (March 1994). Anglo-Saxon Origins: The Reality of the Myth. Malcolm Todd. ISBN 978-1-871516-85-2 . Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Legacy of the Vikings". BBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Shifting Identities – statistical data on ethnic identities in the US". Bnet. 2001. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 29 July 2009. * ^ "Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 29 July 2009. * ^ Centre for Population and Urban Research, Monash University. "Australian Population: Ethnic Origins" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2009. * ^ "Inmigración británica en Chile". Galeon.com. Retrieved 29 July 2009. * ^ Burke, Jason (9 October 2005). "An Englishman\'s home is his casa as thousands go south". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Travis, Alan; Sarah Knapton (16 November 2007). "Record numbers leave the country for life abroad". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 August 2009. * ^ "ONS: Population Estimates by Ethnic Group 2002–2009" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 June 2011. Retrieved 20 August 2011. * ^ University of Wisconsin. "Medieval English society". Archived from the original on 25 October 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2014. * ^ "Chapter 1 - The UK population: past, present and future" (PDF). Focus on People and Migration (PDF) (Report). Office for National Statistics . 7 December 2005. Retrieved 16 February 2017. * ^ "One in four Britons claim Irish roots". BBC News. 16 March 2001. Retrieved 26 November 2010. * ^ A B C D "British Immigration Map Revealed". BBC News. 7 September 2005. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B Paton, Graeme (1 October 2007). "One fifth of children from ethnic minorities". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 14 August 2014. * ^ Shepherd, Jessica (22 June 2011). "Almost a quarter of state school pupils are from an ethnic minority". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 January 2014. * ^ Leppard, David (10 April 2005). "Immigration rise increases segregation in British cities". The Times. London. Retrieved 8 August 2009. * ^ "Immigration debate hots up in England". The Independent News Service. 26 November 2008. Retrieved 14 August 2014. * ^ Milland, Gabriel (23 July 2009). "80% say cap immigration". Daily Express. London. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ National Population Projections: 2014-based Statistical Bulletin (Report). Office for National Statistics. 29 October 2015. * ^ " Cornish people formally declared a national minority along with Scots, Welsh and Irish". The Independent. 23 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014. * ^ QS204EW – Main language, ONS 2011 Census. Retrieved 21 July 2015. * ^ "Official EU languages". European Commission
European Commission
. 8 May 2009. Archived from the original on 2 February 2009. Retrieved 16 October 2009. * ^ QS205EW – Proficiency in English, ONS 2011 census. Out of the 51,005,610 residents of England
England
over the age of three, 50,161,765 (98%) can speak English "well" or "very well". Retrieved 20 July 2015. * ^ Arlotto 1971 , p. 108. * ^ Green 2003 , p. 13. * ^ Mujica, Mauro E. (19 June 2003). "English: Not America\'s Language?". The Globalist. Washington DC. Archived from the original on 17 January 2008. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ " English language
English language
history". Yaelf. Archived from the original on 13 February 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Government Offices for the English Regions . "Cornish language". gos.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 12 January 2016. Retrieved 22 September 2009. * ^ "The Cornish Language Development Project – Evaluation – Final Report, page 20". Hywel Evans, Aric Lacoste / ERS. Retrieved 5 October 2013. * ^ "South West – Cornish Language". Government Office South West. Archived from the original on 13 October 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2009. * ^ "On being a Cornish "Celt": changing Celtic heritage and traditions" (PDF). University of Exeter . Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 December 2009. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ Dugan, Emily (6 September 2009). "The Cornish: They revolted in 1497, now they\'re at it again". The Independent. London. Retrieved 17 September 2009. * ^ "Cornish in Schools". Cornish Language Partnership. 2009. Archived from the original on 7 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013. * ^ 'Woolhope Naturalists' Field Club', Transactions of the Woolhope Naturalists\' Field Club, 1886–89, p. 137. * ^ Mark Ellis Jones, 'Little Wales
Wales
beoynd England: the struggle of Selattyn, a Welsh parish in Shropshire', Journal of the National Library of Wales,, 31.1 (1999), pp. 132–3. * ^ Lipsett, Anthea (26 June 2008). "Number of primaries teaching foreign languages doubles". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 23 September 2009. * ^ Booth, Robert (30 January 2013). "Polish becomes England\'s second language". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 30 January 2013. * ^ "Table KS209EW 2011 Census: Religion, local authorities in England
England
and Wales". Office for National Statistics. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2017. * ^ "Church of England". BBC. Retrieved 4 December 2010. * ^ "In depth history of the Church of England". Church of England. Retrieved 25 January 2017. The religious settlement that eventually emerged in the reign of Elizabeth gave the Church of England
Church of England
the distinctive identity that it has retained to this day. It resulted in a Church that consciously retained a large amount of continuity with the Church of the Patristic and Medieval periods in terms of its use of the catholic creeds, its pattern of ministry, its buildings and aspects of its liturgy, but which also embodied Protestant
Protestant
insights in its theology and in the overall shape of its liturgical practice. The way that this is often expressed is by saying that the Church of England
England
is both 'catholic and reformed.' * ^ "Global Anglicanism
Anglicanism
at a Crossroads". PewResearch.org. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "People here \'must obey the laws of the land\'". The Daily Telegraph. London. 9 February 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "The Methodist Church". BBC News. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "AN INDEPENDENT ACADEMIC STUDY ON CORNISH" (PDF). p. 8. Retrieved 26 December 2010. * ^ "Cambridge History of Christianity". Hugh McLeod. Archived from the original on 21 July 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B " United Kingdom
United Kingdom
– History of the Flag". FlagSpot.net. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B "From Expulsion (1290) to Readmission (1656): Jews and England" (PDF). Goldsmiths.ac.uk. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ A B C Office for National tatistics . "Religion". Statistics.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 7 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B "2011 ONS results". Retrieved 28 October 2017. * ^ Gearon 2002 , p. 246. * ^ West 2003 , p. 28. * ^ "Independent Schools in the United Kingdom". Encarta . encarta.msn.com. Archived from the original on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2009. * ^ Gearon 2002 , p. 102. * ^ United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliamen . "Innovation, Universities, Science and Skills Committee Contents". publications.parliament.uk. Retrieved 16 September 2009. * ^ " QS World University Rankings 2018 Top Universities". QS Quacquarelli Symonds Limited. Retrieved 11 June 2017. * ^ Hoyle, Ben (23 September 2007). "The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2007 – Profile for London
London
School of Economics". The Times. London. Retrieved 6 June 2008. * ^ "FT Global MBA Rankings". Financial Times. Retrieved 25 January 2010. * ^ Webster 1937 , p. 383. * ^ Lowe 1971 , p. 317. * ^ "The Prehistoric Sites of Great Britain". Stone-Circles.org.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B C "Ancient Roman architecture
Roman architecture
in England
England
and Wales". Castles.me.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Colgrave 1985 , p. 326. * ^ Pevsner 1942 , p. 14. * ^ A B Atkinson 2008 , p. 189. * ^ Downes 2007 , p. 17. * ^ "Architects to hear Prince appeal". BBC News. 12 May 2009. Retrieved 20 June 2009. * ^ Keary 1882 , p. 50. * ^ Pollard 2004 , p. 272. * ^ A B Wood, Michael. "King Arthur, \'Once and Future King\'". BBC News. Retrieved 16 September 2009. * ^ A B C Higham 2002 , p. 25. * ^ Koch 2006 , p. 732. * ^ Lacy 1986 , p. 649. * ^ Briggs 2004 , p. 26. * ^ Withington 2008 , p. 224. * ^ "What is England\'s national costume?". Woodlands-Junior.kent.sch.uk. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2009. * ^ Else 2007 , p. 76. * ^ "The S.Pellegrino World\'s 50 Best Restaurants". TheWorlds50Best.com. Archived from the original on 13 January 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Mart, Nicole (22 September 2008). "King Richard II\'s recipe book to go online". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B "Traditional English Food Specialities". TravelSignPosts.com. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "How to make the perfect full English breakfast". 25 June 2015.

* ^ "Catherine of Braganza". Tea.co.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009.

* ^ "Types of Beer". Icons of England. Archived from the original on 30 October 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "The Prehistoric Cave Art of England" (PDF). ArchaeologyDataService.ac.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ English Heritage
English Heritage
. "Aldborough Roman Site". english-heritage.org.uk. Archived from the original on 22 October 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ " Early Middle Ages Art". Tiscali.co.uk. Archived from the original on 27 February 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ A B C D E "English art". Tiscali.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 February 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Turner, Chris. "The Bronze
Bronze
Age: Henry Moore
Henry Moore
and his successors". Tate
Tate
Magazine (6). * ^ "Freud work sets new world record". BBC News. 14 May 2008. Retrieved 14 May 2008. * ^ A B Warner 1902 , p. 35. * ^ Rogers 2001 , p. 17. * ^ Rogers 2001 , p. 135. * ^ A B Rowse 1971 , p. 48. * ^ Norbrook 2000 , p. 6. * ^ "Richard II". William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
. Retrieved 5 September 2009.

* ^ Heywood 2007 , p. 74. * ^ Watson 1985 , p. 360. * ^ Cole 1947 , p. 268. * ^ Hawkins-Dady 1996 , p. 970. * ^ Eccleshare 2002 , p. 5. * ^ Chappell 1966 , p. 690. * ^ Lax 1989 , p. 7. * ^ Richard Michael Kelly. A Christmas carol p.10. Broadview Press, 2003 ISBN 1-55111-476-3 * ^ Paul At Fifty: Paul McCartney Time Magazine
Time Magazine
'.' Retrieved 25 October 2014 * ^ Most Successful Group The Guinness Book of Records 1999, p.230. Retrieved 25 October 2014. * ^ 100 Greatest Artists Of All Time: The Beatles
The Beatles
(No.1) Rolling Stone '.' Retrieved 25 October 2014. * ^ United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Parliament (July 2009). "British Citizen by Act of Parliament: George Frideric Handel". Parliamentary Archives. parliament.uk. Archived from the original on 11 April 2009. Retrieved 10 August 2009. * ^ Stradling 1993 , p. 166. * ^ "Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber: the new musical" The New York Times.. referred to Andrew Lloyd Webber
Andrew Lloyd Webber
as "the most commercially successful composer in history" * ^ Recording Industry Association of America . "Top Selling Artists". riaa.com. Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Else 2007 , p. 65. * ^ A B Foreman 2005 , p. 371. * ^ "Jets, jeans and Hovis". The Guardian. 12 June 2015. * ^ "The Directors\' Top Ten Directors". British Film Institute. Archived from the original on 27 May 2012. * ^ St. Pierre, Paul Matthew (1 April 2009). Music Hall Mimesis in British Film, 1895–1960: On the Halls on the Screen. New Jersey: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press . p. 79. ISBN 978-1-61147-399-5 .

* ^ "Harry Potter becomes highest-grossing film franchise". The Guardian. London. 11 September 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2010. * ^ "History of Ealing Studios". Ealing Studios. Archived from the original on 26 July 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2015. * ^ London
London
Symphony Orchestra and Film Music Archived 30 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. LSO. Retrieved 30 June 2011 * ^ "Life of Brian tops comedy poll". BBC News ( Total Film magazine poll: 29 September 2000) Retrieved 27 June 2015 * ^ Statistical Yearbook 2011: 7.3 UK directors Archived 15 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
.. UK Film Council. * ^ "Does Andy Serkis\'s motion capture acting deserve an Oscar?". The Telegraph. Retrieves 11 January 2015 * ^ "Tim Webber: the man who put Sandra Bullock in space". Evening Standard. Retrieved 17 January 2014 * ^ Barry Ronge\'s Classic DVD : Alice in Wonderland, The Times , It was made under the personal supervision of Walt Disney, and he took special care when animating British fantasy. He called them his "English Cycle". * ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
. " United Kingdom
United Kingdom
of Great Britain
Great Britain
and Northern Ireland". World Heritage. whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 8 September 2009. * ^ "English World Heritage Sites to get strongest ever protections" (PDF). Institute of Historic Building Conservation. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "Museum in London". BritishMuseum.org. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "250 Years of the British Museum". Time. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 17 September 2009. * ^ "British Library". Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
. britannica.com. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "The National Gallery". ArtInfo.com. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Youngs, Ian (31 October 2002). "The art of Turner protests". BBC News. Retrieved 10 August 2009. * ^ A B " Sheffield
Sheffield
FC: 150 years of history". FIFA
FIFA
. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "History of squash". WorldSquash2008.com. Archived from the original on 31 August 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ "History of the Game". NRA-Rounders.co.uk. Archived from the original on 23 February 2006. * ^ Paul Mitchell . "The first international football match". BBC. Retrieved 15 January 2015. * ^ "Hurst the hero for England
England
in the home of football". FIFA.com. Retrieved 15 January 2015 * ^ "Tracking 30 years of TV\'s most watched programmes". BBC. Retrieved 25 June 2015 * ^ Rudd, Alyson (7 April 2008). "The father of football deserves much more". London: Times Online. Retrieved 15 January 2015. * ^ "History and time are key to power of football, says Premier League chief". The Times. Retrieved 30 November 2013 * ^ " Premier League towers over world football, says Deloitte". sportbusiness.com. Archived from the original on 7 April 2010. Retrieved 8 January 2010. * ^ "UEFA ranking of European leagues". UEFA. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Caudwell, J.C. (2011). "'Does your boyfriend know you're here?' The spatiality of homophobia in men's football culture in the UK". Leisure Studies. 30 (2): 123–138. doi :10.1080/02614367.2010.541481 . * ^ Richard Holt, Tony Mason. Sport in Britain, 1945–2000. p.129. Wiley-Blackwell, 2000 * ^ " UEFA Champions League
UEFA Champions League
Finals 1956–2008". RSSSF . Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Underdown 2000 , p. 6. * ^ Cricinfo
Cricinfo
staff (26 August 2009). Ashes climax watched by a fraction of 2005 audience. Cricinfo
Cricinfo
. Retrieved 9 September 2009. * ^ A brief history of Yorkshire. Cricinfo
Cricinfo
. Retrieved 9 September 2009. * ^ Fay, Stephen (21 June 1998). "Cricket: Flaw Lord\'s out of order". The Independent. London. Retrieved 9 September 2009. * ^ "Father of the modern Olympics". BBC. 22 September 2017. * ^ "Origins of Rugby – Codification "The innovation of running with the ball was introduced some time between 1820 and 1830."". Rugbyfootballhistory.com. Retrieved 15 August 2011. * ^ " England
England
will host 2015 Rugby World Cup". BBC News. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ " Rugby League World Cup
Rugby League World Cup
2013 will provide the sport with a true test of its popularity". The Telegraph. Retrieved 23 September 2015 * ^ " Scotland
Scotland
is the home of golf". PGA Tour official website. Archived from the original on 28 August 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. Scotland
Scotland
is the home of golf ... * ^ Fry, Peter (July 2000). Samuel Ryder: The Man Behind the Ryder Cup. Wright Press. * ^ "Sir Nick Faldo
Nick Faldo
drives on in business world". BBC. Retrieved 29 December 2013 * ^ 125 years of Wimbledon: From birth of lawn tennis to modern marvels CNN. Retrieved 28 September 2011 * ^ Clarey, Christopher (5 July 2008). "Traditional Final: It\'s Nadal and Federer". The New York
York
Times. nytimes.co.uk. Retrieved 5 September 2009. * ^ Kaufman & Macpherson 2005 , p. 958. * ^ Jackson, Peter (3 July 2009). "Who was Fred Perry?". BBC News. Retrieved 6 July 2012. * ^ "Top 20 British Boxers". Retrieved 12 April 2011. * ^ Red Rum: Aintree favourite BBC. Retrieved 11 October 2011 * ^ " Red Rum is UK\'s best-known horse". BBC. Retrieved 18 March 2016 * ^ "The History of British Motorsport and Motor Racing at Silverstone". Silverstone. Silverstone.co.uk. Retrieved 31 October 2009. * ^ "F1 Champions: Dan Wheldon killed in Las Vegas". ESPN. Retrieved 15 December 2011. * ^ BBC (6 January 2003). "Part relishes Taylor triumph". BBC. Retrieved 18 January 2010. * ^ "Phil Taylor player profile". Dartsdatabase. Retrieved 23 July 2010. * ^ Benammar, Emily (22 May 2009). "The World Oldest Trans Atlantic Race". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 22 May 2009. * ^ "St. George – England\'s Patron Saint". Britannia.com. Retrieved 1 February 2009. * ^ "National flowers". Number10.gov.uk. 13 January 2003. Archived from the original on 9 September 2008. Retrieved 8 August 2009. * ^ Smith, Jed (3 June 2005). "England\'s Rose – The Official History". Museum of Rugby, Twickenham. RugbyNetwork.net. Retrieved 8 August 2009. * ^ "Jason Cowley loves the Commonwealth Games". New Statesman. Archived from the original on 11 October 2013. Retrieved 5 October 2013. * ^ "The Great Saint George
Saint George
Revival". BBC News. 23 April 1998. Retrieved 5 September 2009.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Ackroyd, Peter (2000). London: the biography. Chatto & Windus. ISBN 1-85619-716-6 . * Arlotto, Anthony (1971). Introduction to historical linguistics. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-12615-0 . * Atkinson, T.D. (2008). English Architecture. Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4097-2581-7 . * Axford, Barrie (2002). Politics: an introduction. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-25181-8 . * Ball, Martin (1993). The Celtic Languages. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-01035-7 . * Bartlett, Robert (1999). England
England
Under the Norman and Angevin Kings, 1075–1225. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-925101-0 . * Bennett, James (2004). The Anglosphere Challenge. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-3333-6 . * Brewer, Ebenezer (2006). Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. Wordsworth Editions. ISBN 1-84022-310-3 . * Briggs, Katharine (2004). A Dictionary of British Folk-tales in the English Language. Routledge. ISBN 0-203-39737-1 . * Chappell, William (1966). The Roxburghe Ballads. New York: AMS Press. OCLC
OCLC
488599560 . * Clark, David M.; Steed, Michael ; Marshall, Sally (1973). Greater Manchester
Manchester
Votes: A Guide to the New Metropolitan Authorities. Stockport: Redrose. ISBN 978-0-9502932-0-2 . * Clemoes, Peter (2007). Anglo-Saxon England, Volume 12. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-03834-0 . * Cole, George (1947). The Life of William Cobbett. Home & Van Thal. ISBN 0-8492-2139-0 . * Colgrave, Bertram (1985). Two lives of Saint Cuthbert. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-31385-6 . * Colley, Linda (1992). Britons: Forging the Nation, 1701–1837. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-05737-9 . * Cox, Peter (1970). Demography. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-09612-6 . * Crouch, David (2006). Normans: The History of a Dynasty. Hambledon Continuum. ISBN 978-1-85285-595-6 . * Crofton, Ian (2007). The Kings and Queens of England. Quercus. ISBN 1-84724-065-8 . * Crystal, David (2004). The Stories of English. The Overlook Press. ISBN 1-58567-601-2 . * Downes, Kerry (2007). Christopher Wren. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-921524-3 . * Eccleshare, Julia (2002). Beatrix Potter to Harry Potter. National Portrait Gallery. ISBN 1-85514-342-9 . * Else, David (2007). Inghilterra. EDT srl. ISBN 978-88-6040-136-6 .

* Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(2009). Encyclopædia Britannica. BiblioBazaar. ISBN 0-559-09589-9 . * Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
(2002). The New Encyclopædia Britannica. University of Michigan. ISBN 0-85229-787-4 . * Fafinski, Stefan (2007). English legal system. Pearson Education. ISBN 1-4058-2358-5 . * Foreman, Susan (2005). London: a musical gazetteer. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10402-2 . * Foster, Damon (1988). A Blake dictionary. UPNE. ISBN 0-87451-436-3 . * Fowler, Kenneth (1967). The Age of Plantagenet and Valois: The Struggle for Supremacy, 1328–1498. Putnam. ISBN 0-236-30832-7 . * Gallagher, Michael (2006). The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
Today. London: Franklin Watts. ISBN 978-0-7496-6488-6 . * Gearon, Liam (2002). Education in the United Kingdom. David Fulton. ISBN 1-85346-715-4 . * Goldberg, Jeremy (1996). "Introduction". In Mark Ormrod & P.G. Lindley. The Black Death in England. Stamford: Paul Watkins. ISBN 1-871615-56-9 . * Green, Tamara (2003). The Greek & Latin
Latin
roots of English. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-1466-8 . * Hawkins-Dady, Mark (1996). Reader's guide to literature in English. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 1-884964-20-6 . * Heywood, Andrew (2007). Political Ideologies: An Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 0-230-52179-7 . * Higham, NJ (2002). King Arthur: myth-making and history. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21305-3 . * Kaufman, Will; Macpherson, Heidi (2005). Britain and the Americas: Culture, Politics, and History. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-431-8 . * Kirby, D.P. (2000). The earliest English kings. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24210-X . * Keary, Charles Francis (1882). Outlines of primitive belief among the Indo-European races. C Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-7905-4982-4 . * Kenny, Michael; English, Richard; Hayton, Richard (2008). Beyond the Constitution? Englishness in a post-devolved Britain. Institute for Public Policy Research . * Koch, John (2006). Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1-85109-440-7 . * Lacy, Norris (1986). The Arthurian Encyclopedia. Garland Pub. ISBN 0-8240-8745-3 . * Lax, Roger (1989). The Great Song Thesaurus. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505408-3 . * Levine, Israel E. (1960). Conqueror of smallpox: Dr. Edward Jenner. Messner. ISBN 978-0-671-63888-7 . * Lowe, Roy (1971). The English school. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-7100-6882-4 . * Lyon, Bryce Dale (1960). A constitutional and legal history of medieval England. University of Michigan. ISBN 0-393-95132-4 . * Major, John (2004). History in Quotations. Cassell. ISBN 0-304-35387-6 . * Marden, Orison (2003). Home Lover's Library. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-5324-X . * Massey, Gerald (2007). A Book
Book
of the Beginnings, Vol.1. Cosimo. ISBN 1-60206-829-1 . * McNeil, Robina; Nevell, Michael (2000). A Guide to the Industrial Archaeology of Greater Manchester. Association for Industrial Archaeology. ISBN 0-9528930-3-7 . * Molyneaux, George (2015). The Formation of the English Kingdom in the Tenth Century. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-871791-1 . * Norbrook, David (2000). Writing the English Republic: Poetry, Rhetoric and Politics, 1627–1660. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-78569-3 . * O'Hanlon, Ardal (2008). Global Airlines. Elsevier. ISBN 0-7506-6439-8 . * Oakes, Elizabeth H. (2002). A to Z of STS scientists. Facts on File
File
Inc. ISBN 978-0-8160-4606-5 . * Office for National Statistics
Office for National Statistics
(2000). Britain 2001: The Official Handbook of the United Kingdom. London: Stationery Office Books . ISBN 978-0-11-621278-8 . * Oppenheimer, Stephen (2006). Origins of the British. Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1890-0 . * Pevsner, Nikolaus (1942). An outline of European architecture. University of Michigan. ISBN 0-14-061613-6 . * Pollard, A.J. (2004). Imagining Robin Hood. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-22308-3 . * Rankov, Boris (1994). The Praetorian Guard. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 1-85532-361-3 . * Redcliffe-Maud, John ; Wood, Bruce (1974). English Local Government Reformed. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-885091-3 . * Reitan, Earl Aaron (2003). The Thatcher Revolution. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-7425-2203-2 . * Ripley, George (1869). The New American Cyclopædia. D. Appleton. * Rogers, Pat (2001). The Oxford illustrated history of English literature. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-285437-2 . * Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World. McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-2248-3 . * Rowse, Alfred (1971). Elizabethan Renaissance. Scribner. ISBN 0-684-12682-6 . * Saunders, Paul (1982). Edward Jenner, the Cheltenham years, 1795–1823. University Press of New England. ISBN 978-0-87451-215-1 .

* Scruton, Roger (1982). A dictionary of political thought. Macmillan. ISBN 0-333-33439-6 . * Singh, Udai (2009). Decentralized democratic governance in new millennium. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 81-8069-540-9 . * Stradling, R.A. (1993). The English musical Renaissance, 1860–1940. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-03493-0 . * UK Parliament (2007). Department for Transport
Department for Transport
annual report 2007. Stationery Office. ISBN 978-0-10-170952-1 . * Underdown, David (2000). Start of Play: Cricket
Cricket
and Culture in Eighteenth-Century England. Allen Lane. ISBN 0-7139-9330-8 . * Ward, Paul (2004). Britishness
Britishness
Since 1870. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-49472-1 . * Warner, Charles (1902). Library of the world's best literature, ancient and modern. International society. ISBN 1-60520-202-9 . * Watson, John (1985). English poetry of the Romantic period, 1789–1830. Longman. ISBN 0-582-49259-9 . * Webster, Frederick A.M. (1937). Our great public schools: their traditions, customs and games. London: Ward, Lock. OCLC
OCLC
638146843 . * West, Anne (2003). Underachievement in schools. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-24132-8 . * White, Peter (2002). Public transport. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-25772-7 . * Wilson, David; Game, Chris (2002). Local Government in the United Kingdom (3rd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-333-94859-0 . * Withington, Robert (2008). English Pageantry; An Historical Outline. Read Books. ISBN 978-1-4086-8062-9 . * World Book
Book
(2007). The World Book
Book
Encyclopedia, Volume 6. University of Michigan. ISBN 0-7166-0102-8 . * Wright, Kevin J (2008). The Christian Travel Planner. Thomas Nelson Inc. ISBN 1-4016-0374-2 . * Young, Robert JC (2008). The Idea of English Ethnicity. Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-0129-5 . * Ziegler, Philip (2003). The Black Death (New ed.). Sutton: Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 978-0-7509-3202-8 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: ENGLAND PORTAL

Find more aboutENGLANDat's sister projects

* Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Wikimedia Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks *

.