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Engine
An ENGINE or MOTOR is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy . Heat engines burn a fuel to create heat , which is then used to create a force . Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy . In biological systems, molecular motors , like myosins in muscles , use chemical energy to create forces and eventually motion
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Internal Combustion Engine
An INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons , turbine blades , rotor or a nozzle . This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy . The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto (see _Otto engine _)
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Mercedes-Benz
MERCEDES-BENZ (German pronunciation: ) is a global automobile manufacturer and a division of the German company Daimler AG . The brand is known for luxury vehicles , buses, coaches , and trucks. The headquarters is in Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, Baden-Württemberg . The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz . Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft 's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz
Karl Benz
's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen , which is widely regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile . The slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing"
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Machine
A MACHINE is a tool containing one or more parts that transforms energy . Machines are usually powered by chemical, thermal , or electrical means, and are often motorized . Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines. A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force , but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include vehicles , electronic systems , molecular machines , computers , television , and radio
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Energy
In physics , ENERGY is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on or to heat the object. It can be converted in form , but not created or destroyed . The SI unit of energy is the joule , which is the energy transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton . Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational , electric or magnetic ), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature . Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related
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Motion (physics)
In physics , MOTION is a change in position of an object over time. Motion is described in terms of displacement , distance , velocity , acceleration , time and speed . Motion of a body is observed by attaching a frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame. If the position of a body is not changing with respect to a given frame of reference, the body is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (time-invariant ) position. An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force , as described. Momentum
Momentum
is a quantity which is used for measuring motion of an object. An object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects in an isolated system (one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the law of conservation of momentum
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Heat Engine
In thermodynamics , a HEAT ENGINE is a system that converts heat or thermal energy —and chemical energy —to mechanical energy , which can then be used to do mechanical work . It does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A heat "source" generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance generates work in the "working body " of the engine while transferring heat to the colder "sink " until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity , but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings, i.e. it cannot be used. In general an engine converts energy to mechanical work
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Fuel
A FUEL is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work . The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion ). The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine . Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking , or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration , where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other substances, including radioactive metals, are also utilized
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Heat
HEAT is the amount of energy flowing from one body of matter to another spontaneously due to their temperature difference, or by any means other than through work or the transfer of matter. The transfer can be by contact between the source and the destination body, as in conduction ; or by radiation between remote bodies; or by way of an intermediate fluid body, as in convective circulation ; or by a combination of these. In thermodynamics , heat is often contrasted with work : heat applies to individual particles (such as atoms or molecules), work applies to objects (or a system as a whole). Heat involves stochastic (or random) motion equally distributed among all degrees of freedom , while work is directional, confined to one or more specific degrees of freedom
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Force
In physics , a FORCE is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object . A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest ), i.e., to accelerate . Force
Force
can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction , making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newton\'s second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time
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Electric Motor
An ELECTRIC MOTOR is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy . The reverse of this is the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator , and generators and motors have much in common. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors in the transportation industry, electric motors can also be used in reverse as generators to convert mechanical energy into electric power. Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or generators
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Machine (mechanical)
MACHINES employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion ). A machine has a power source and actuators that generate forces and movement, and a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement. Modern machines often include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement, and are called mechanical systems . The meaning of the word "machine" is traced by the Oxford English Dictionary to an independently functioning structure and by Merriam-Webster Dictionary to something that has been constructed. This includes human design into the meaning of machine. The adjective "mechanical" refers to skill in the practical application of an art or science, as well as relating to or caused by movement, physical forces, properties or agents such as is dealt with by mechanics . Similarly Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines "mechanical" as relating to machinery or tools
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Pneumatic Motor
A PNEUMATIC MOTOR (AIR MOTOR) or COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE is a type of motor which does mechanical work by expanding compressed air . Pneumatic motors generally convert the compressed air energy to mechanical work through either linear or rotary motion. Linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator, while rotary motion is supplied by either a vane type air motor, piston air motor, air turbine or gear type motor. Pneumatic motors have existed in many forms over the past two centuries, ranging in size from hand-held motors to engines of up to several hundred horsepower. Some types rely on pistons and cylinders; others on slotted rotors with vanes (vane motors) and others use turbines. Many compressed air engines improve their performance by heating the incoming air or the engine itself
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Compressed Air
COMPRESSED AIR is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure. Compressed air is an important medium for transfer of energy in industrial processes. Compressed air is used for power tools such as air hammers, drills, wrenches and others. Compressed air is used to atomize paint, to operate air cylinders for automation, and can also be used to propel vehicles.Brakes applied by compressed air made large railway trains safer and more efficient to operate. Compressed air brakes are also found on large highway vehicles. In Europe, 10 percent of all industrial electricity consumption is to produce compressed air—amounting to 80 terawatt hours consumption per year
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