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Engine
An ENGINE or MOTOR is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy . Heat engines burn a fuel to create heat , which is then used to create a force . Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion; pneumatic motors use compressed air and clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy . In biological systems, molecular motors , like myosins in muscles , use chemical energy to create forces and eventually motion
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Motor (other)
A MOTOR is a mechanical or electrical device that creates motion. MOTOR or MOTORS may also refer to: * Motor
Motor
vehicle , a self-propelled road vehicle * Mator or Motor
Motor
language , extinct since the 1840s, a Uralic language that was spoken in the northern region of the Sayan Mountains in Siberia * The Motors , a British pub rock/punk band, formed in 1977 by Nick Garvey, Andy McMaster, Ricky Slaughter and Rob Hendry, who was replaced by Bram Tchaikovsky the same year * The Motor
Motor
, defunct British magazine * Motor
Motor
control , use of the brain in humans/animals to activate/coordinate muscles and limbs, etc. * Motor
Motor
skill , development in babies of learning coordination and usage of muscles, limbs, etc. * Motor
Motor
(magazine) , Australian magazine * Motor
Motor
cortex , part of brain involved in movement * Molecular motor , biological molecular machine This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title MOTOR. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Motor_(other) additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy .® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc
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Internal Combustion Engine
An INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons , turbine blades , rotor or a nozzle . This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy . The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859 and the first modern internal combustion engine was created in 1876 by Nikolaus Otto (see _Otto engine _). The term _internal combustion engine_ usually refers to an engine in which combustion is intermittent, such as the more familiar four-stroke and two-stroke piston engines, along with variants, such as the six-stroke piston engine and the Wankel rotary engine . A second class of internal combustion engines use continuous combustion: gas turbines , jet engines and most rocket engines , each of which are internal combustion engines on the same principle as previously described. Firearms are also a form of internal combustion engine
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Mercedes-Benz
MERCEDES-BENZ (German pronunciation: ) is a global automobile manufacturer and a division of the German company Daimler AG . The brand is known for luxury vehicles , buses, coaches , and trucks. The headquarters is in Stuttgart
Stuttgart
, Baden-Württemberg . The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz . Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft 's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz
Karl Benz
's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen , which is widely regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile . The slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Subsidiaries and alliances * 2.1 Mercedes-AMG * 2.2 Mercedes- Maybach * 2.3 China
China
* 3 Production * 3.1 Factories * 3.2 Quality rankings * 4 Models * 4.1 Current model range * 4.1.1 Vans * 4.1.2 Trucks * 4.1.3 Buses * 4.2 Significant models produced * 4.3 Car
Car
nomenclature * 4.3.1 2015 and beyond * 4.4 Environmental record * 4.5 Bicycles * 5 Motorsport * 5.1 Formula One
Formula One
* 6 Logo history * 7 Noted employees * 8 Innovations * 8.1 Robot cars * 9 Tuners * 10 Sponsorships * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links HISTORY Karl Benz
Karl Benz

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Machine
A MACHINE is a tool containing one or more parts that transforms energy . Machines are usually powered by chemical, thermal , or electrical means, and are often motorized . Historically, a power tool also required moving parts to classify as a machine. However, the advent of electronics has led to the development of power tools without moving parts that are considered machines. A simple machine is a device that simply transforms the direction or magnitude of a force , but a large number of more complex machines exist. Examples include vehicles , electronic systems , molecular machines , computers , television , and radio . CONTENTS * 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Types * 3.1 Mechanical * 3.1.1 Simple machines * 3.1.2 Engine * 3.2 Electrical * 3.2.1 Electrical machine * 3.2.2 Electronic machine * 3.2.3 Computing machines * 3.3 Molecular machines * 4 Machine elements * 4.1 Mechanisms * 4.2 Controllers * 5 Impact * 5.1 Industrial Revolution * 5.2 Mechanization and automation * 5.3 Automata * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading ETYMOLOGY _machina_, which in turn derives from the Greek (Doric μαχανά _makhana_, Ionic μηχανή _mekhane_ "contrivance, machine, engine", a derivation from μῆχος _mekhos_ "means, expedient, remedy" )
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Energy
In physics , ENERGY is the property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on or to heat the object. It can be converted in form , but not created or destroyed . The SI unit of energy is the joule , which is the energy transferred to an object by the mechanical work of moving it a distance of 1 metre against a force of 1 newton . Common forms of energy include the kinetic energy of a moving object, the potential energy stored by an object's position in a force field (gravitational , electric or magnetic ), the elastic energy stored by stretching solid objects, the chemical energy released when a fuel burns, the radiant energy carried by light, and the thermal energy due to an object's temperature . Mass
Mass
and energy are closely related. Due to mass–energy equivalence , any object that has mass when stationary in a frame of reference (called rest mass ) also has an equivalent amount of energy whose form is called rest energy in that frame, and any additional energy acquired by the object above that rest energy will increase an object's mass. For example, with a sensitive enough scale , one could measure an increase in mass after heating an object. Living organisms require available energy to stay alive, such as the energy humans get from food . Humans get the energy they need from energy resources such as fossil fuels , nuclear fuel , or renewable energy
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Motion (physics)
In physics , MOTION is a change in position of an object over time. Motion is described in terms of displacement , distance , velocity , acceleration , time and speed . Motion of a body is observed by attaching a frame of reference to an observer and measuring the change in position of the body relative to that frame. If the position of a body is not changing with respect to a given frame of reference, the body is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant (time-invariant ) position. An object's motion cannot change unless it is acted upon by a force , as described. Momentum
Momentum
is a quantity which is used for measuring motion of an object. An object's momentum is directly related to the object's mass and velocity, and the total momentum of all objects in an isolated system (one not affected by external forces) does not change with time, as described by the law of conservation of momentum . As there is no absolute frame of reference, absolute motion cannot be determined. Thus, everything in the universe can be considered to be moving. :20–21 Motion applies to objects, bodies, and matter particles, to radiation, radiation fields and radiation particles, and to space, its curvature and space-time. One can also speak of motion of shapes and boundaries. So, the term motion in general signifies a continuous change in the configuration of a physical system
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Heat Engine
In thermodynamics , a HEAT ENGINE is a system that converts heat or thermal energy —and chemical energy —to mechanical energy , which can then be used to do mechanical work . It does this by bringing a working substance from a higher state temperature to a lower state temperature. A heat "source" generates thermal energy that brings the working substance to the high temperature state. The working substance generates work in the "working body " of the engine while transferring heat to the colder "sink " until it reaches a low temperature state. During this process some of the thermal energy is converted into work by exploiting the properties of the working substance. The working substance can be any system with a non-zero heat capacity , but it usually is a gas or liquid. During this process, a lot of heat is lost to the surroundings, i.e. it cannot be used. In general an engine converts energy to mechanical work . Heat engines distinguish themselves from other types of engines by the fact that their efficiency is fundamentally limited by Carnot\'s theorem . Although this efficiency limitation can be a drawback, an advantage of heat engines is that most forms of energy can be easily converted to heat by processes like exothermic reactions (such as combustion), absorption of light or energetic particles, friction , dissipation and resistance
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Fuel
A FUEL is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases chemical or nuclear energy as heat or to be used for work . The concept was originally applied solely to those materials capable of releasing chemical energy but has since also been applied to other sources of heat energy such as nuclear energy (via nuclear fission and nuclear fusion ). The heat energy released by reactions of fuels is converted into mechanical energy via a heat engine . Other times the heat itself is valued for warmth, cooking , or industrial processes, as well as the illumination that comes with combustion. Fuels are also used in the cells of organisms in a process known as cellular respiration , where organic molecules are oxidized to release usable energy. Hydrocarbons and related oxygen-containing molecules are by far the most common source of fuel used by humans, but other substances, including radioactive metals, are also utilized. Fuels are contrasted with other substances or devices storing potential energy, such as those that directly release electrical energy (such as batteries and capacitors ) or mechanical energy (such as flywheels , springs, compressed air, or water in a reservoir)
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Heat
HEAT is the amount of energy flowing from one body of matter to another spontaneously due to their temperature difference, or by any means other than through work or the transfer of matter. The transfer can be by contact between the source and the destination body, as in conduction ; or by radiation between remote bodies; or by way of an intermediate fluid body, as in convective circulation ; or by a combination of these. In thermodynamics , heat is often contrasted with work : heat applies to individual particles (such as atoms or molecules), work applies to objects (or a system as a whole). Heat involves stochastic (or random) motion equally distributed among all degrees of freedom , while work is directional, confined to one or more specific degrees of freedom. Since heat (like work ) represents a quantity of energy being transferred between two bodies by certain processes, neither body "has" a definite amount of heat (much like a body in itself doesn't "have" work); in contrast, a body indeed _has_ properties (state functions ) such as temperature and internal energy . Thus, energy exchanged _as_ heat during a given process changes the (internal) energy of each body by equal and opposite amounts. The sign of the quantity of heat can indicate the direction of the transfer, for example from system A to system B; negation indicates energy flowing in the opposite direction
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Force
In physics , a FORCE is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object . A force can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest ), i.e., to accelerate . Force
Force
can also be described intuitively as a push or a pull. A force has both magnitude and direction , making it a vector quantity. It is measured in the SI unit of newtons and represented by the symbol F. The original form of Newton\'s second law states that the net force acting upon an object is equal to the rate at which its momentum changes with time. If the mass of the object is constant, this law implies that the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object Concepts related to force include: thrust , which increases the velocity of an object; drag , which decreases the velocity of an object; and torque , which produces changes in rotational speed of an object. In an extended body, each part usually applies forces on the adjacent parts; the distribution of such forces through the body is the internal mechanical stress
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Electric Motor
An ELECTRIC MOTOR is an electrical machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy . The reverse of this is the conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy and is done by an electric generator , and generators and motors have much in common. Most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force. In certain applications, such as in regenerative braking with traction motors in the transportation industry, electric motors can also be used in reverse as generators to convert mechanical energy into electric power. Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or generators. Small motors may be found in electric watches. General-purpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use. The largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings reaching 100 megawatts. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, application, type of motion output, and so on
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Machine (mechanical)
MACHINES employ power to achieve desired forces and movement (motion ). A machine has a power source and actuators that generate forces and movement, and a system of mechanisms that shape the actuator input to achieve a specific application of output forces and movement. Modern machines often include computers and sensors that monitor performance and plan movement, and are called mechanical systems . The meaning of the word "machine" is traced by the Oxford English Dictionary to an independently functioning structure and by Merriam-Webster Dictionary to something that has been constructed. This includes human design into the meaning of machine. The adjective "mechanical" refers to skill in the practical application of an art or science, as well as relating to or caused by movement, physical forces, properties or agents such as is dealt with by mechanics . Similarly Merriam-Webster Dictionary defines "mechanical" as relating to machinery or tools. Power flow through a machine provides a way to understand the performance of devices ranging from levers and gear trains to automobiles and robotic systems. The German mechanician Franz Reuleaux wrote "a machine is a combination of resistant bodies so arranged that by their means the mechanical forces of nature can be compelled to do work accompanied by certain determinate motion." Notice that forces and motion combine to define power . More recently, Uicker et al
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Pneumatic Motor
A PNEUMATIC MOTOR (AIR MOTOR) or COMPRESSED AIR ENGINE is a type of motor which does mechanical work by expanding compressed air . Pneumatic motors generally convert the compressed air energy to mechanical work through either linear or rotary motion. Linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator, while rotary motion is supplied by either a vane type air motor, piston air motor, air turbine or gear type motor. Pneumatic motors have existed in many forms over the past two centuries, ranging in size from hand-held motors to engines of up to several hundred horsepower. Some types rely on pistons and cylinders; others on slotted rotors with vanes (vane motors) and others use turbines. Many compressed air engines improve their performance by heating the incoming air or the engine itself. Pneumatic motors have found widespread success in the hand-held tool industry, but are also used stationary in a wide range of industrial applications. Continual attempts are being made to expand their use to the transportation industry. However, pneumatic motors must overcome inefficiencies before being seen as a viable option in the transportation industry
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Compressed Air
COMPRESSED AIR is air kept under a pressure that is greater than atmospheric pressure. Compressed air is an important medium for transfer of energy in industrial processes. Compressed air is used for power tools such as air hammers, drills, wrenches and others. Compressed air is used to atomize paint, to operate air cylinders for automation, and can also be used to propel vehicles.Brakes applied by compressed air made large railway trains safer and more efficient to operate. Compressed air brakes are also found on large highway vehicles. In Europe, 10 percent of all industrial electricity consumption is to produce compressed air—amounting to 80 terawatt hours consumption per year. CONTENTS * 1 History * 2 Uses of compressed air * 3 Design of systems * 4 See also * 5 Notes * 6 External links HISTORYIndustrial use of piped compressed air for power transmission was developed in the mid 19th century; unlike steam , compressed air could be piped for long distances without losing pressure due to condensation. An early major application of compressed air was in the drilling of the Mont Cenis Tunnel in Switzerland in 1861, where a 600 kPa (87 psi) compressed air plant provided power to pneumatic drills , increasing productivity greatly over previous manual drilling methods. Compressed air drills were applied at mines in the United States in the 1870s
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